Method to manufacture concrete and reinforced concrete products, solid structures and facilities
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture concrete and reinforced concrete products, solid structures and facilities from concrete mix consists in the fact in a mixer for 1.5-3 minutes they mix sand, cement and crushed stone with water and electrolyte. The produced mix is poured into a curb, a cassette or a form, working surfaces of which are electrodes, and the mixture is exposed to electric stabilisation by sending alternating current pulses, the current density of which is in the range of 10-49 A/m2, with duration of 3-7 min with a stop before each change of polarity of the pulse for more than 2 min. At the same time in process of mixture pouring into a curb, cassette or a form the mixture is exposed to vibration, then into the poured mix they install an emitter and a receiver of ultrasound at the fixed distance, for instance, 1 m. Ultrasound pulses, which are recorded in the ultrasound receiver, are generated in the emitter via identical equal time intervals, in the period of each pause before each change of polarity of the current pulse. Duration of the specified fixed distance travelling by each ultrasound pulse is determined, and by results of the measurements they calculate the value α according to the given mathematical expression. At that moment of time, when the value α takes the value below 1, they disconnect the pulse current and perform secondary vibration of the mix poured into the curb, cassette or form for 1-2 minutes. Afterwards the product is maintained for 5-6 hours until structural strength is achieved.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and improved characteristics of manufactured products.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the construction industry, namely to methods of manufacturing of concrete products and structures from the so-called heavy concrete, which contains cement, gravel and sand.
Such concrete mixtures used for construction and widely known. However, they can contain various fillers and additives to improve the properties, which significantly increases the cost and complicates the manufacturing process.
Known method of preparing a concrete mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water for the manufacture of building structures .
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of speed of maturation of the product.
Currently in the production and operation of concrete products and structures key issues are the improvement of their quality (strength, frost resistance, thermal conductivity) and performance in the manufacture, low manufacturing cost.
Known methods of manufacture of building products from cement mixtures using electromagnetic exposure during their setting and hardening, such as a patent . These methods use relatively high voltage electric current, difficult to implement, and therefore not economical and does not provide electrical safety of personnel.
One �of for the most promising trends in the construction industry, meeting the above requirements is the use of electrotribal concrete mixture alternating direct current, such as a patent . Method that is described in this patent relates to methods for the manufacture of lightweight concrete products with organic filler and contains the operation of the transmission through a mixture alternating constant current density of 50-100 A/m2modulated short pulses of current in 60-110 A.
This method requires much energy and time cost, because it contains pre-soaking of the filler and the neutralization of its acid constituents by ozone. This means that we need to load the filling into the containers, sieves, feeding crane in a container of water, then raise again and submit to the loading area in a mortar mixer. Equipment is required to generate ozone and a large amount of energy to retrieve it.
Known method of manufacture of concrete and reinforced concrete, monolithic structures and structures according to the patent  from a concrete mixture containing cement, sand, gravel, electrolyte and water.
The disadvantages of this method are:
- the complexity of the manufacturing process,
- insufficient maturation rate of the product: up to 28 days,
- concrete mixture contains various chemical additives, and �the means, is expensive and is not environmentally friendly material.
The closest analogue to the claimed technical solution is the invention according to the patent .
Prototype method of manufacturing of concrete products, precast structures and constructions from concrete mixtures containing cement, sand, gravel, electrolyte and water, is that the resulting mixture is molded into products which are then subjected to electrotribal within 51-60 min formwork, magazines or forms, the operating surfaces of which are electrodes, a DC current density of 10-49 A/m2alternating pulses lasting 3-7 minutes with stops before each change of polarity of the pulse more than 2 minutes, then carry extract products to structural strength.
The disadvantages of the prototype method is the high processing time and low strength concrete stone products.
An object of the invention is the creation of high-performance manufacturing technology of concrete and reinforced concrete, monolithic structures, which would reduce the time of construction of buildings and structures with simultaneous increase in stability of their operational characteristics, particularly durability in various weather conditions, as well as reduci�of labor costs and energy costs consequently, the cost of products that will allow to build cheap affordable housing in almost all regions of the country and at any time of the year.
This object is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing of concrete products, precast structures and buildings made of concrete mixes consists in the fact that in the mixer for 1.5-3 minutes to mix the sand, cement and crushed stone with water and electrolyte, pour the mixture into the form, cassette form, the operating surfaces of which are electrodes and subjected to a mixture of electrotribal, by passing alternating current pulses, the current density is in the range of 10-49 A/m2duration 3-7 min with stops before each change of polarity of the pulse more than 2 minutes, optionally in the process of pouring the mixture into the mould, a cassette or a uniform mixture is subjected to vibration, then drenched in the mixture is set at a fixed distance lying in the range 0.5-1 m, the emitter and receiver of the ultrasound generated in the emitter through the same equal intervals in each period of pause before each change of polarity of the current pulse, the ultrasound pulses that are recorded in the ultrasound receiver, and determine the duration of the passage of each pulse of ultrasound of the specified fixed distance from Ipoh to the measurement results calculate the value of
Fig.1. depicts a graph of the time T of passage of a pulse of ultrasound distance of 1 meter in the hardening concrete.
The invention consists in the following.
The concrete structure is formed by the solidification (hardening) of the concrete mix and the subsequent curing of concrete. Decisive influence on the formation of that provide the setting and hardening of cement.
Based on the study of the processes of hydraulic�orientation of cement on the basis of the initial control period of structure formation in the speed of ultrasound dependence of increase structural strength (Fig.1) has two characteristic plot. The first section is characterized by the fact that the products of the interaction of cement with water geleobraznye is a particularly fine particles of a fibrous, felt-like and plate-like, which appear in the pore space between the grains of cement are filled by first mixing water. Arisen porous matrix progressively hardened and filled with the products of further hydration. The speed of ultrasound on this site gradually increases and, therefore, the time T of passage of the ultrasound any fixed distance, such as distance of 1 m, is also gradually reduced. Time from beginning of mixing until a sharp increase in strength (line 1, Fig.1) is called the period of structure formation. The density and porosity of the resulting by the end of the solid matrix depends mainly on the concentration of cement in cement paste, i.e. water-cement ratio W/C test. Thus, the matrix formed from the primary products of hydration of cement, represents the "initial frame" that have a decisive impact on the future structure of cement stone.
Further strengthening the structure after the "nodal" point of inflection (Fig.1 point to) is due to the growth of tumors within the existing matrix and corresponds to the second stage of hydration. By the end of the period of formation of PT�structure cement paste turns to stone, done quite a sharp transition from ductile strength of the cement paste to the brittle strength of the hardened cement stone.
Studies have shown that if you make a new reformation of the concrete mix at the time of the "nodal" point of inflection in the formation of the structure of the finished product, the strength of this product will be significantly higher than if such a rearrangement is not required. Re solidifies patterns are repeated by vibration compaction of the mixture. Redefined the structure of concrete in a given time, it is possible to obtain concrete with the brand strength is higher than the project for more than 10 MPa. Another positive effect of re-vibration is a fast curing, allowing you to bring the cycle of heat treatment, for example in cluster installations, up to 5...6 hours (instead of 16...18), thereby accelerating the turnover of cluster installations.
The DC current through the mixture causing her smooth warm-up, accelerating chemical-physical processes occurring in the mixture during its setting and hardening. In addition, the transmission of current pulses through the mixture causes electrolysis, electroosmosis and electrophoresis in the concrete mix. Electrical energy is converted into mechanical, is the movement of the liquid phase of the solution,�elsaelsa the amount of free water, which leads to the acceleration of the processes of setting and hardening. This contributed significantly to the compounds formed as a result of accompanying the electrolysis of secondary chemical reactions.
Introduction to the claimed method of operation vibration during pouring the mixture into the form, cassette form and repeated vibration in the "nodal" point provides dispersion (disaggregation) of the cement particles, grains, increasing their reactive ability that increases the amount of colloidal tumors, simultaneously destroyed secondary coagulation patterns formed in cement paste during interaction with water. This not only leads to more complete hydration of the mass of the grains of cement, but also to uniform distribution of cement glue (gel) between the grains of cement and aggregate.
As a result of the introduction of double vibration compaction of the concrete mix maturation rate of the product increases, reduced energy costs, products such concrete more durable, reliable, and durable, and their cost, due to the significant reduction in production time, is significantly reduced.
According to the invention a method of manufacturing concrete products contains the following operations: preparation of the mixture, stirring in the mixer, packing in form, vibroplate, electrostatical,�trisvyatoe control the density hardening mixtures, the identification of "nodal" point, re-vibrating the mixture, 3-4-hour exposure in the form and then submitting the product to the warehouse. These operations are performed as follows.
In the mixer for 1.5-3 minutes to mix the sand, cement and crushed stone with water and electrolyte, for example with a solution of liquid glass. The components are selected according to the standards in building regulations. Additionally, the electrolyte is added only based 8-20 kg per 1 m3mixture.
Then produce packaging in the formwork, the cassette or form, and then produce vibroplate Packed mixture for 2-2. 5 min. a Vibrator transmits the weight of the high-frequency vibrations, resulting in internal friction between the components is reduced, and the mixture itself, due to the weakening of attractive forces, comes in a fluid state, becoming liquid. This mass surrounds the fastening fittings, getting into all the hard to reach places. During the vibration of the air in the concrete mix, comes to the surface in the form of bubbles, although it remains around 1% of the gases that appear in the course of a chemical reaction between the blend components. Formless mixture became a homogeneous compact mass. Vibration prevents accumulation in one place gravel or formation of voids in the concrete, as the cement mortar fills all the gaps between loose components�. Excessive content of water and air in the concrete affects its strength, and with the help of vibration, we obtain a homogeneous mixture with the best ratio of water, air and cement, reaching the required quality. The trend towards more concrete of dry consistency with a low ratio of water-cement makes even more necessary the use of vibrators to avoid the appearance of air-filled voids.
In the compacted mixture is placed from each other at any fixed distance from each other, for example at a distance of 1 meter, the emitter and the ultrasound receiver and begin to implement electrostatical mixture alternating current in the formwork, magazines or forms, the operating surfaces of which are electrodes. Electrostatical is carried out by passing a direct current density of 10-50 A/m2alternating pulses lasting 3-7 minutes with a stop before each shift pulse polarity for at least 2 minutes. During the period of each two-minute stop before changing the polarity of the current in the emitter of ultrasound to generate a pulse of ultrasound and determine the length of time T; from the emitter to the receiver. Ultrasonic pulses generated during the pause before each change of polarity of the current pulse are separated from one another on the same equal interval� time Δt.
According to the measurement results calculate the value of
An example of a specific implementation. Elektrostatische products is a process of electrolysis, electrophoresis and electroosmosis in the mass of molded products. It was carried in the formwork, the two opposite walls which was by the electrodes. One of the vertical electrodeless walls of a mold was removable. In the linear distance of 1 m from each other were provided with holes for the withdrawal of the cables from the source (sensor) and a receiver of ultrasound. In front of these holes in the concrete mixture were moulded into the said transmitter and receiver of ultrasound. The formwork was made of small 2 m × 1 m. the distance between the opposite walls of the electrodes of the formwork was equal to 0.1 m. the working surface of the formwork consisted of stainless steel, and the frame is made of dielectric. Thus is achieved a uniform distribution of current density throughout, the work surface.
Electrostatical products is carried out by passing a constant rectified AC alternating electric current density of 25 A/m2. The time interval of operation of the Converter was equal to 5 minutes, i.e., within 5 minutes hardening concrete was passed a current of one polarity, then stop for 2 minutes, after which the polarity of the current is changed to the opposite. As a result pulse current impact is the destruction of the waterproof film from substances that prevent the transition of the mass of cement grains in the binder. During the shutdown in the ultrasound transducer was excited at the ultrasound pulse, with a duration of 10 s and measured the time of generation of the above-mentioned pulse. In the ultrasound receiver recorded the time of arrival of a pulse of ultrasound and the difference of times of generation and reception of ultrasound determined time Tipassing ultra�Vuk in grappling concrete fixed distance in 1 M.
After exactly 6 minutes between subsequent gaps between the alternating current pulse to the ultrasound transducer of the newly generated impulse similar to that described above, determine the time Ti+1the passage of ultrasound in grappling concrete fixed distance of 1 m. This procedure was repeated continuously. Removed the time dependence of Tithe passage of ultrasound in grappling concrete fixed distance of 1 m from the processing time of the concrete mix are shown in Fig.1. At each subsequent step, the amount of
After removing the product from the mold (if manufactured piece goods) is produced storage of the product and aging for 6 days to achieve structural strength.
In tables 1, 2 and 3 results, allowing you to emphasize the advantages of the claimed FPIC�BA compared to the prototype method.
Table 1 shows the results obtained by the method prototype, and in tables 2 and 3 according to the claimed method. As the claimed method and the method prototype products were manufactured under identical conditions. The difference consisted only in the fact that in the claimed method was carried out double vibrating the mixture: after pouring it into the mould and at time to=4.5 hours. The difference between tables 2 and 3 were as in table 2 only cheated on the amount of cement in the mixture, ensuring that the strength of concrete after a 6-day aging of concrete according to the claimed method and the method prototype in compression are identical, and in table 3 the number of all components of the mixture was maintained equal to the number of the same components used for the mixture in the prototype method.
|Material consumption in kg per 1 m3||The strength of concrete after 6 day aging|
|Material consumption in kg per 1 m3||The strength of concrete after 6 day aging|
|Material consumption in kg per 1 m3||The strength of concrete after 6 day aging|
As can be seen from the tables, the consumption of cement in the present method can be reduced compared with the prior art while maintaining the same compressive strength greater than 20 kg/m3or when we� same volumetric cement content in the mixture in both compared cases the strength of concrete, manufactured according to the inventive method can be increased by 12.5%.
1. RF patent №2230048, SW 40/00, 10.04.2000 from.
2. RF patent №2311395, IPC SW 40/00, 27.11.2007 g
3. Of the Russian Federation No. 2148053, SW 40/00, 27.04.2000, bull. No. 12.
4. RF patent №2026270 C1, CL. SW 28/04, publ. 09.01.1995.
5. RF patent №2378229, IPC SW 40/00. A method of manufacturing concrete and reinforced concrete, monolithic structures and facilities. - Publ. 10.01.2010 - prototype.
The method of manufacturing of concrete products, precast structures and constructions made of concrete, which consists in the fact that in the mixer for 1.5-3 minutes to mix the sand, cement and crushed stone with water and electrolyte, pour the mixture into the form, cassette form, the operating surfaces of which are electrodes, and subjected to a mixture of electrotribal transmission of alternating current pulses, the current density is in the range of 10-49 A/m2,duration 3-7 min with stops before each change of polarity of the pulse for more than 2 min, characterized in that in the process of pouring the mixture into the mould, a cassette or a uniform mixture is subjected to vibration, then drenched in the mixture is set at a fixed distance, for example 1 m, the emitter and receiver of the ultrasound generated in the emitter through the same equal intervals lying�no,
in each period of pause before each change of polarity of the current pulse, the ultrasound pulses that are recorded in the ultrasound receiver, and determine the duration of the passage of each pulse of ultrasound of the specified fixed distance and the measurement results calculate the value of
SUBSTANCE: method of concrete mix preparation consists in preliminary mixing of 50% of rated amount of cement with tempering water containing superplasticiser - Relamix PK, and mechanical and chemical activation in a rotor-pulsation device with the number of rotations of the working organ of 5000 rpm for 2 min, with subsequent mixing of the remaining part of the cement and fillers.
EFFECT: increased strength, frost resistance and water impermeability.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and processing (deactivation) of drilling wastes together with secondary wastes of thermal utilisation of oil slurries with ash and slag mixtures so that road-building composite materials are obtained. The task at which this invention is aimed is to create a processing method of drilling wastes on the territory of a cluster site. The processing method of drilling sludge on the territory of the cluster site involves arrangement at the site of components of the mixture and a processing capacity, placement of drilling sludge into the capacity, addition to the sludge of components and mixing of the mixture with an excavator so that road-building composite material is obtained; with that, the processing capacity is installed into soil so that its upper edge is elevated above relief to the height of not more than 0.5 m.
EFFECT: reduction of costs for transportation of wastes to the nearest sludge pit, a possibility of processing of drilling wastes immediately after their formation, a possibility of using secondary materials obtained as a result of processing at the site.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare concrete mix consists in the fact that previously 50% of the rated amount of cement is mixed with tempering water, containing superplasticiser of the condensation product on the basis of sodium salt of naphthalenesulphonic acid and formaldehyde - RELAMIX T2 and hardening accelerator - sodium sulphate, exposed to mechanical and chemical activation in a rotor-pulsation device for 2 minutes with subsequent mixing of the remaining part of cement and fillers.
EFFECT: increased strength, mobility of concrete mix, frost resistance and water impermeability.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining of gypsum cement-puzzolan mix includes hydroactivation of portland cement with surfactants for 1 min. with the subsequent adding of gypsum and puzzolan component and repeated hydroactivation within 2 min., in the rotor and pulsation device with a shaft speed of rotation no less than 5000 rpm, the surfactant is a mix of polymeric polycarboxylated ether "Glenium® 115", the setting and cuing time regulator "BEST-TB" and the organic silicon compound "N-octyl sulfosuccinate" in the ratio 1:0.3:0.07, the puzzolan component is a metakaolin with the hydraulic activity no less than 1000 mg/g, at the following ratio of components, by weight %: semi-water gypsum 55.8-56.5, portland cement 14.3-15.4, the named surface-active substance 1.1-1.9, metakaolin 2.5-3.3, water - the rest.
EFFECT: increase of frost resistance, increase of time of mix curing, getting self-sealing ability, increase of flexural and compression strength, increase of water resistance and decrease of water absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce a gypsum cement pozzolan binder includes hydraulic activation of portland cement with surfactants for 1 minute with subsequent addition of gypsum and pozzolan component and repeated hydraulic activation for 2 minutes in a rotor-pulsation device with speed of shaft rotation of at least 5000 rpm, surfactants are a mixture of carboxylate polyester "Odolit-K", a controller of setting and hardening times "BEST-TB" and water emulsion of octyltriethoxysilane "Penta®-818" at the ratio of 1:0.23:0.07, the pozzolan component is metakaolin with hydraulic activity of at least 1000 mg/g at the following ratio of components, wt %: calcined gypsum 57-57.7, portland cement 14.9-15.3, specified surfactant 1.3-1.8, metakaolin 2.7-3.3, water - balance.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance, longer times of mixture setting, giving it self-compacting property, increased strength, higher water resistance and reduced water absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare concrete mix includes double-stage mixing of a binder, fillers, a superplasticiser and tempering water, at the first stage they first mix the binder, fine filler, 70-80% of coarse filler and 75-85% of tempering water to produce a homogeneous mix, then at the second stage to the previously mixed mixtyre they add the remaining part of the coarse filler, superplasticiser with remaining part of the tempering water, and finally all components are mixed to produce a homogeneous concrete mix of required workability. The superplasticiser is additive of Cemaktiv SU-1.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of superplasticiser and provision of the possibility to reduce duration of heat and moisture treatment of concrete.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the method to prepare a haydite concrete mix, including preparation and mixing of mixture components, mixing of the haydite concrete mix is carried out in a turbulent concrete mixer with rotor rotation frequency of at least 8 sec-1 and not more than 30 sec-1, at first 30% of required tempering water is supplied into the turbulent concrete mixer, and gradually haydite gravel is loaded with the running turbulent mixer, and mixed for 120 sec., then the required balance of water is supplied to the continuously running turbulent concrete mixer with addition of technical modified lignosulphonates and a gas forming additive PAK-3, then fly ash and cement are loaded, and the mix is mixed for 2-3 min. to produce homogeneous mix with required cone slump, at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 20.00, haydite 41.50, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, fly ash of TPP 17.50, PAK-3 0.025, water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced process operations in production of haydite mix, increased frost resistance, heat insulation properties and reduced average density of haydite without strength reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture construction products from foam concrete includes preparation of a foam concrete mix from portland cement, fractionated quartz sand, a foaming agent and water in a turbulent mixer, loading of the produced mix into moulds from dielectric material, on the side surfaces of which there are metal electrodes, exposure of the foam concrete mix to the AC electric field of specified frequency and intensity. Processing of the freshly moulded products with electric field is carried out at the field intensity of 1.5-4.5 V/cm for 0.5-5 min. Efficiency of foam concrete mix exposure to the AC electric field depends on grain-size composition of quartz sand and is maximum when sand fractions of 0.16-0.315 mm are used.
EFFECT: improvement of strength characteristics of foam concrete.
3 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining a heat-insulating material involves mixing of filler and a binding agent with further shaping and hardening. Industrial wood chips 5±2 mm thick are used as filler, and rigid polyurethane foam consisting of polyol and isocyanate is used as the binding agent. First, components of the binding agent are mixed; then, the binding agent is mixed with the filler by layer-by-layer laying of a binding agent layer, a filler layer and a binding agent layer into a mould at the following component ratio, wt %: polyol 24-22, isocyanate 36-33, industrial chips 40-45. After supply of the components is completed, the mould is fixed with latches and exposed during 15-20 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of density and thermal conductivity of material.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of foam materials on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyether or polyamide or any other inorganic and organic fibres to be used in aircraft and ship building, machine building, etc. This method comprises the steps that follow. Production of foam bilk from initial mix of fibres and feed of said foam bulk to conveyor belt. Foam bulk is dried in drying chambers at stepwise increase in temperature in successive zones. Foam bulk is annealed in the kiln to foam material and cut reset-size boards. Note here that drying and annealing comprises simultaneous effects of IR radiation and convective heat. Note here that drying stepwise temperature increase occurs at 60°C-170°C. Annealing is performed at 190-280°C. Foam bulk is fed through drying chambers and annealing kiln at the rate of 6-12 m/h. Invention proposes also the conveyor line to this end.
EFFECT: accelerated drying, higher quality of foam material, continuous production.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture haydite concrete blocks with a face texture layer includes preparation of a moulding mass, its laying into a mould in the form of split or detachable casing with a replaceable process tray installed in it and made in the form of a texture matrix. The moulding mass is applied for the face texture layer. At the same time the moulding mass is glass fibre concrete, which is first applied by spraying onto the texture matrix with a layer of 2-4 mm. The moulding mass for the main layer is prepared from the mix of haydite with fractions of 10-20 mm with concrete at the ratio of 65-75% haydite, balance is concrete. The specified mass is poured into the mould in 25-35 minutes after application of the face texture layer to the upper edge of the mould. The contents of the mould are exposed to vibration pressing for 1-2 minutes. The available free space in the mould of 1-2-5 cm to the edges of the mould is poured with concrete without haydite fractions. Afterwards the moulded mass is exposed to additional short-term (several seconds) vibration pressing. The moulded mass is exposed to drying in a drying chamber with subsequent withdrawal of the block from the mould.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities due to production of blocks with stable size, their increased strength and reduced weight.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular, to production of elements of laminar guard structures with heat-insulation layer from light concretes. Proposed method comprises pre-filling of moulds by concrete mixes of heat insulating and structural layers. With first structural layer with mean density of 800-1400 kg/m3 laid, reinforced contact layer is inserted therein formed by applying steel fiber on lower structural layer in amount of 0.4-0.7 kg 1 m2, said fiber being 20-60 mm-long and having diameter of 0.3-1.0 mm. Then, concrete mix of heat-insulation layer with mean density of 200-400 kg/m3 is fed into mould to be vibrated for 30-60 s. Then, said mould is filled with the next bonding layer. In some 40-60 minutes the mould is filled with structural layer and vibrated for 50-100 s.
EFFECT: higher strength and durability.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular, to production of elements of laminar guard structures with heat-insulation layer from light concretes. Proposed method comprises adding disperse reinforcement made up of crushed alkali-resistant glass fiber in the zone of contact between structural and heat-insulation layers. After concrete of outer structural layer with mean density of 800-1400 kg/m3 and preset thickness is laid into form and compacted therein, crushed alkali-resistant 20-30 mm-long glass fiber is deposited thereon in amount of 0.04-0.06 kg per 1 m2. Then, heat-insulation layer from concrete with density of 200-400 kg/m3 is laid in said form and subjected to vibration for 30-60 seconds. Thereafter, said form is filled with another jointing layer and structural layers are laid and subjected to vibration for 50-100 seconds.
EFFECT: higher strength and durability.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction materials production. Method for production of concrete items includes laying of concrete mass into vibromould, also with arranged armature, vibration compaction of concrete mass, process of produced item hardening. At the same time in process of concrete mass vibration compaction, vibration parametre signals of sensors installed on vibromould in areas of vibration exciters fixation are recorded onto information mediums, produced item is tested. Test results are used to correct vibration parametres of compaction, and the next items are produced, also with recording of all vibration parametres, to the moment of reference item production. Further vibration parametres of reference item compaction are used to make series of concrete items. Device for production of concrete items comprises vibromould with fixed sensor of vibration parametres and vibration exciter joined to control device, comparison device and negative feedback, which connects sensor of vibration parametres with comparison device.
EFFECT: improved quality of produced items.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions may be used for manufacturing concrete items intended for floor elements assembling in buildings and structures, for assembling sidewalks, pedestrian and lawn & garden paths, pedestrian squares and access platforms of public transport and particularly, for producing paving slabs and edge stones, fencing and outer lining, decorative items. The concrete mix includes, wt %: Portland cement 24.0-29.0, mineral filler - mine rock milling wastes - gabbro-diorite or gabbro-diabase, or quartzite from 0.01 to 10.0 mm fractions 40.3-49.8, sand 20.5-30.0, superplasticising agent 0.35-0.45, water 0.17-0.25. Method of concrete item manufacture from the above described concrete mix includes mixing the above Portland cement, mineral filler and sand. After that water is added with previously dissolved superplasticising agent until concrete balls are generated. The above mentioned concrete balls are subject to further horizontal vibration in plastic box until they are completely spread. The spread concrete balls are covered with polyethylene film to preserve moisture until they are completely set. Finally, the prepared solidified mixture is unloaded. The inventions are developed in the dependent points.
EFFECT: improved quality of concrete mix due to reduced water consumption, increased freezing resistance, increased strength characteristics, extended lifetime of concrete items and simplified technology.
4 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: building materials industry; devices for molding of the articles made out of the building mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building materials industry, in particular, to production of the articles made out of the precast concrete from the semidry building mixtures. The invention presents the installation for molding of the articles made out of the building mixtures, which consists of the mounted stand with the guiding columns connected by the horizontal cross bar with the power cylinder, which coupling rod is pivotally connected to the plunger. The plunger is mounted on the upper horizontal crossbar enveloping the guiding columns. Under the plunger and coaxially to it there is the bottomless mould installed on the lower cross bar. The mold has the replaceable bushing forming the shaping cavity and contacts through the replaceable underpan with the movable frame of the vibration bed. The lower vertically movable horizontal cross bar is kinematically connected to the stabilizer of the parallel relocations of the bottomless mold. The rear butt of the stand is adjoined with the support frame of the distributing tool. The distributing tool consists of the guiding desk with the distributing bin and the placed under it the box-type feeding mechanism. The box-type feeding mechanism is supplied with the turner made in the form of the driven grate. On the support frame under the guiding desk there is the gear of delivery of the replaceable plug-in reusable underpans. The forward butt of the stand is adjoined with the reception table established symmetrically to the gear of delivery of the replaceable plug-in reusable underpans. At that the length L of each telescopic lever of the stabilizer of the parallelism of relocations in the vertical plane of the bottomless mold and the height Н of the working cavity of the replaceable bushing exceed the length L1 of each support lever of the stabilizer of the parallelism of the relocations in the vertical plane of the bottomless mold and the height h of the bottomless mold accordingly in 1.5-2.5 and 1.15-2.25 times. At that the clearance α in the horizontal plane between the inner surface of the transversal walls of the box-type feeding mechanism and the extreme transversal rods of the grate of the turner and the distance h1 from the lower surface of the grate of the turner up to the lower butt of the box-type feeding mechanism is less than the length L2 of the meshes between the adjacent transversal rods of the grate of the turner and the height Т of the box-type feeding mechanism of the latter accordingly in 2.5-75 and45-70 times. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power and working areas demand, the increased efficiency, reliability, simplicity of the equipment operation and the personnel functioning, reduction of the operational noise level.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced power and working areas demand, the increased efficiency, reliability, simplicity of the equipment operation and the personnel functioning, the reduced operational noise level.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes, which may be used at erection of the external walls of the buildings and structures. The technical result of the invention consists in the capability of production of the wall products from the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, and also the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding the possibility of destruction caused by delamination or spalling. The method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer providing for preparation of the molding mass, its piling into the mold and the bilayered molding differs by the fact, that the molding mass for the facial surface finish layer is prepared from the cement-sand admixture with addition of the ferric oxide pigments of different colors, and the molding mass for the primary layer is prepared from the light-concrete mixture including the natural or artificial porous fillers, which is placed in the mold in the form of collapsible or detachable formwork with the mounted in it plug-in technological molding bed. Then exercise compaction by light pressure of the light-concrete admixtures and, in the mold volume formed after the compaction of the light-concrete admixture place the layer of the cement-sand admixture with the added the ferric oxide pigments, on which the upper punch with lower die, the dimension and the form of which are identical to the formwork and the mounted in it the plug-in technological pan, then, exercise the molding with the simultaneous compression and the vibration compaction of the layers being in the mold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the wall products made out of the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding destruction caused by delamination or spalling.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building industry; devices for production of products made out of the homogeneous semidry mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular to production of products made out of the homogeneous semidry mixtures. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of the molded products due to the increased degree of uniformity of filling-up of each molding matrix cell, elimination of the capability of arching and the reduced time of the lower die filling-up. The distributing device of the aggregate for molding products out of the homogenous mixtures consists of the mounted on one of the frame lateral sections guiding desktop with the mounted on it with the help of the vertical supports feeding bin with the driving shutter in the lower part. The driving shutter is arranged above the acceptance window of the body of the batching feeder. The batching feeder body rests by its vertical walls on the guiding desktop and kinematically is coupled with the coupling rod of the power cylinder of the drive gear of its horizontal movements. In the cavity of the feeder body there is the distribution grating on the free suspension. The distribution grating is formed out of the mutually perpendicular vertical plates, the longitudinal of which are made out-of-balance and consolidated on the lower ends of the flexible links of the free suspension. The upper ends of the flexible links are fixed on the rigid rods mounted in the slots of the upper parts of the inner surfaces of the walls of the feeder body. The longitudinal out-of-balance vertical plates of the distribution grating may be supplied with the unbalance masses consolidated on the rear ends of the longitudinal out-of-balance vertical plates along the movement of the body of the feeder.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality of the molded products, the increased degree of the uniformity of filling-up of each molding matrix cell, elimination of the capability of arching, the reduced time of the lower die filling-up.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction materials industry; equipment for production of the construction materials and constructions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of construction materials and constructions and is intended for blowout of the cellular concrete admixtures in the mold. Substance: the vibroplatform is equipped with the two-arbor vibration exciter. The vibration exciter operation is automatically controlled by two synchro-tracking systems under the program forming the rule of the variation of the frequency and the amplitude of the vibrations. The device allows to control automatically the frequency and the amplitude of the vibration exciter vibrations. The technical result of the invention is the increase of the indexes of the cellular concrete products strength, savings of the electrical power and the construction materials, which are the components of the cellular concrete admixture, reduction of the duration of the vibration blowout of the cellular concrete.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increase of the indexes of the cellular concrete products strength, savings of the electrical power and the construction materials - the components of the cellular concrete admixture, reduction of the duration of the vibration blowout of the cellular concrete.
FIELD: manufacture of products of precast concrete and reinforced concrete from semi-dry construction mixes.
SUBSTANCE: the assembly has a vibrating table installed on the frame of the vibrating table, right-hand and left-hand guiding tables with the main and auxiliary dispensers installed on them. Guides with a carriage installed on them are fastened on the bed in its transverse axis and rear support. A punch and a matrix with an insert, having attracting permanent magnets for fixing the production bottom plate on it, coupled to the power cylinders are suspended from the carriage by means of movable plungers. The main magazine of the production bottom plates and the auxiliary magazine of the transport bottom plates with grippers of the latters in the form of disks with attracting permanent magnets are installed respectively before the vibrating table and behind the rear support in the longitudinal axis of the horizontal guides. The disks are fastened on the rods of the power cylinders. Manipulators for shifting the bottom plates are oppositely fastened on the cross ends of the carriage. The manipulators are made in the form of L-shaped cantilevers with attracting electromagnets. The insert forming the working space of the matrix has locks of the production bottom plates on the rear end in the form of permanent magnets. An opening for passage of the manipulator with the bottom plate is made in the rear support. The carriage is retained in the front and rear working positions by locks. Thickness S of the production bottom plate and the values of the coupling forces of the main or auxiliary gripper or of the bottomless matrix of the insert to the production bottom plate forming the working space are less than thickness S1 of the transport bottom plate and the values of the coupling force of each manipulator to the bottom plate by 3.5-6.5 and 1.2-1.5 times respectively. Distance T between the vertical axes of the main and auxiliary magazines of the production and transport bottom plates exceeds distance T1 between the vertical axes of the attracting electromagnets of the front and rear manipulators of the drive carriage.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of the molded products, enhanced labor productivity, reliability and quality of products, reduced labor content of the attendants, reduced power capacity and noise level.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for reinforced concrete item production.
SUBSTANCE: device has two cross-bars formed as spring-loaded double-crank arms and opening mechanism. Form tray is provided with cam member. Opening mechanism is made as lever with oval orifice to which hook and rope of load-gripping means are connected. Above lever cooperates with cross-bars by wedging-out lever having spherical support surface during form opening.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of form connection to vibratory plate.