Method of protecting ledges of edges of pits of cryolithic zone from thawing
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.
EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.
The invention relates to mining and can be used in open and combined development of deposits of solid mineral raw materials of the Northern regions to prevent the thawing of the surface layers outside pit wall benches of different sources of natural heat in the summer.
Known methods of protection against thawing ledges quarry of the North, various artificial embankments erected on the hillside areas of the permafrost zone, composed of permafrost soils, the negative effects of various sources of heat in the summer by creating: impervious screens; protective berms; heat - reflective coatings that prevent permafrost degradation .
Closest to the proposed method to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method involving performing the above set of protective measures .
As preventive measures, to prevent thawing hillside plots mounds natural sources of heat in the summer, the inventors recommended: the creation of impervious screens from bulk soils, frozen condition which is provided with devices for cold accumulation (Termoli); the device is impervious protective berms; es�Lituanie thermal barrier coatings made of local materials (moss, the turf, peat), erected on the berms.
The main disadvantages of this method are: high costs and the need to purchase expensive special equipment (Termoli), the complexity and high cost of doing work for their installation; insufficient capacity of the berm material (bulk soils to accumulate atmospheric cold because of its low heat capacity; this is the recommended thermal insulation coating made of local materials not to be detachable and does not imply its removal in the winter and is designed to operate year-round), which limits the access of atmospheric cold to the surface of the berm during the winter period and, as a consequence, reduces its freezing.
An object of the invention is to reduce the intensity of thawing and erosion of marginal fracture of rock masses ledges of the pit of the permafrost zone; the reduction of the cost of mounting and maintenance; the reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on the protective pillars (or pillow), constructed at the bottom of the quarries in the transition to a combined method of Deposit development; provide year-round maintenance of marginal rock ledges in a frozen state, reducing the groundwater seepage into the quarry.
Func�is a new way to protect the pitwall permafrost from thawing, including the construction of three artificial elements: waterproof screen protective berm, protective coatings, characterized in that the impervious screen generated by drilling inclined boreholes of large diameter in the winter with the top platform most susceptible to thawing side nonworking side of the ledge, parallel to the surface of the slope to its full height with subsequent filling them with ice crushed, chilled fresh water and promorskoe natural cold, and a protective berm erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge trapezoidal cross section calculated height, using a layer-by-layer freezing overburden, which in the summer period, including the surface of the slope of the ledge, covered with a protective coating made in the form of a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat, remove with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined from the relation:
where 10-4- constant coefficient;
λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of the insulating Mat, W/(m·K);
tMs. sum.- crenelate air temperature of the area of finding a career, °C;
N is the duration of the warm period of the year, the days.
The implementation process will contribute to the solution of a number of technically� tasks:
- decreased filtration of ground and surface waters in the quarry by creating a frozen ice impervious protective screen and leopardsnow protective berm along the top contour;
- accumulation of a significant amount of natural (atmospheric) cold in winter contour rock massif of the ledge, equipped with ice impervious screen, which is simultaneously the battery is cold, the reserves of which are spent on compensation of the summer heat gain;
- improving structural and strength characteristics of rock ledges due to the presence of artificially constructed column-like ice structures, as well as cementation frozen water (ice) existing defects (cracks);
- increase the mechanical stability and thermal protection of the edge of the ledge due to the construction leopardsnow protective berm, heat insulated and reflective Mat in summer;
- reduction of the costs of clean-up berms ledges from collapsing rocks;
- reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on the protective pillar (or a safety cushion) during the transition from open to combined method of mining the Deposit;
- simplicity and low cost annual Pomorski marginal layer of rocks of the ledge and cladoselache ice cold�batteries atmospheric cooling in winter when harvested heatproof Mat;
- ensuring progressive from year to year accumulation of cold contour rock massif and ring leopardsnow the berm due to the high thermal storage capacity Laporte material and to limit the flow of heat from various sources in the summer through a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat;
a significant reduction in the intensity of the physical-chemical weathering contour of the surface layers of rock masses, zamonolichennyj ice, which is (year-round) in frozen condition.
Included in the formula of the invention is such a significant distinguishing feature, as the construction of anti-filtration screen in the form of a column-like ice structures in the marginal rocks of the ledge multi-purpose, will not only reduce the inflow of water into the quarry, but will significantly increase the heat capacity and structural stability of the ledge, thereby reducing the intensity of thawing, subsidence and collapse of rocks in the summer.
The next essential feature is that the perimeter of the top platform of the ledge quarry is being built leoparda protective berm covering the estuarine part of the wells, starting from the edge, providing in the presence of thermal insulation calculation of the thickness of the frozen condition and high thermal and mechanical�Yu stability of the edge of the ledge, as well as additional reliable protection career against the penetration of groundwater.
The essential difference in comparison with analogues is the use of flexible moisture - and heat-proof Mat with high light reflecting ability, erected on the ledge in the spring (and harvested in autumn), thereby reducing the influx of all types of natural heat in marginal rock mass of the quarry face, as well as providing easy access atmospheric cold in winter, all objects with progressive from year to year accumulation.
The required technical result of the invention is expected to receive when posting and use: climatic and geocryological characteristics of the region and natural resources; the technical equipment of mining enterprises; existing experience in construction Leopardi structures.
- long winter with extremely low temperatures;
- the presence of continuous permafrost;
- small capacity of the active layer of rocks, thawed in the summer;
- high heat capacity ndonesian frozen rocks and ice;
- the presence of a large fleet of vehicles at mining facilities necessary for carrying out planned activities;
- the presence of a large amount of Skrylnikov in the dumps;
- experience in the construction of rock-fill structures (dams, dikes) permafrost type.
The claimed method is illustrated by a drawing, which shows a vertical section of the upper quarry face, equipped with ice impervious screen, leopardsnow protective berm and flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat.
Conventions in the drawing:
1 - Upper site of the quarry face
2 - the Slope of the ledge of the pit
3 - Oblique descending wells
4 - Ice anti-filtration screen
5 - the Upper edge of the ledge quarry
6 - Leoparda protective berm
7 - Flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat
The inventive method is implemented in practice in the winter after freezing of the active layer of rocks. Beginning with the upper platform 1 the quarry face 2 to its total height drill deviated wells 3 large diameter (Ǿ400-500 mm), which completely fill the ice crushed and chilled fresh water in the ratio T:W=3:1. After freezing vogelezang mixture of naturally formed ice impervious screen 4 also serving as the packs in the form of inclined cylindrical pillars. Upon completion of these works on the perimeter of the top platform of the quarry face (including 5 brow and wellheads) erect leopardsnow protection�th berm 6 trapezoidal cross-section, estimated height, layer-by-layer method of dumping overburden tamp this down Strait water and freezing each layer by atmospheric cold, using construction techniques in permafrost rock-fill dams (dams) in the North .
By the end of the winter the surface of the protective berm and the slope of the quarry face cover removable waterproof and heat reflective Mat 7 operated by all the warm period of the year. The Mat is assembled from separate roll, tightly connected panels of insulating material, one side of which has a reflective film coating.
With the onset of winter flexible protective Mat is removed, thereby providing unimpeded access of atmospheric cold objects. Periodically to intensify Pomorski protective berm necessary to carry out (during the winter) snowplowing.
The main advantages of the proposed method:
- high degree of protection upper edge and slope of the quarry face from thawing in summer;
- high structural rigidity, strength, resistance and holidaymasti marginal layer of rocks from the quarry face;
- reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on safety pillar (or rock cushion);
- reduction of erosion destroyed�I marginal layer of rocks from the quarry face;
- low costs for maintenance and cleaning of protective berms from collapsing rocks;
- low groundwater inflow to the quarry;
- reduce the cost of pumping;
- low degree of wear is flexible protective Mat, easily remove for the winter period;
- the possibility of reducing the thickness of the protective pillar (or pillow), constructed at the bottom of the excavated pit in the transition to the combined and underground methods of mining the Deposit, and accordingly reduce the cost of its construction (by reducing dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks).
Sources of information
1. Isakson V. Yu., etc., the problems of stability of permafrost outcrops of rocks. Novosibirsk: Vo "Nauka". Siberian publishing company, 1994. - 165 p.
2. RF patent №2059752, BI No. 13, 1996
3. Biyanov G. F., etc. Perspective directions of improvement of the design and technology of earth dam construction in permafrost type in the far North // Hydraulic engineering, - 1982. - No. 5 - S. 1-4.
The ledges of the pit permafrost from thawing, including the construction of three artificial elements: waterproof screen protective berm, protective coatings, characterized in that the impervious screen generated by drilling inclined boreholes of large diameter � winter with the top platform most susceptible to thawing side nonworking side of the ledge,
parallel to the surface of the slope to its full height with subsequent filling them with ice crushed, chilled fresh water and promorskoe natural cold, and a protective berm erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge trapezoidal cross section calculated height, using a layer-by-layer freezing overburden, which in the summer period, including the surface of the slope of the ledge, to prevent thawing of soils covered with a protective coating that is made in the form of a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat, remove with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined from the relation:
where 10-4- constant coefficient;
λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of the insulating Mat, W/(m·K);
tMs. n- crenelate air temperature of the area of finding a career, °C;
N is the duration of the warm period of the year, days.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary loosening of a block of rocks and half-rocks by simultaneous massive drilling holes in it with the maximum density across the whole area of the block prepared for extraction, using a multibar drilling unit, followed by the extraction of rock by machine ways destroying the rock solid blocks between the holes.
EFFECT: complete elimination of harmful effects on the environment and the operational staff at drilling and blasting loosening rocks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of open mining of mineral deposits with creation of a dump. The method includes separation of career space by zones, height and pit perimeter, cutting of ledges and horizons on which overburden and mining works with removal of rocks by truck or by rail into dumps and via ore chutes to reloading points are conducted, and dumps are built up using the cyclic action facilities. Meanwhile a convex form of a working edge is formed, gradually being fitted into the edge differentiated by steepness on a final contour which is built up in view of minimum disturbance of walls of slopes and a edge according to the technology with minimum consumption of explosives (E) with removal and dumping of rock into a main dump located near a zone of overburden works outside a contour of a steep edge of a pit of the 1st phase; initially temporary dumps are used with self-transportation of rocks outside a pit, and with their partial re excavation, provide the minimum shoulder of tramming of rocks and ore using the crushing reloading points and conveyors from inclined planes on the top horizons to the steep and vertical at completion of a pit. And with deepening of mining operations the overburden zone is divided into two sites and rock is moved by combined transport from two sides into a dump under construction parallel to a edge slope in view of deformation of its separate sites, and rock dumping on a dump after crushing is carried out by line transport facilities using the mobile console, the minimum shoulder of tramming of rock and ore and costs of development of mountain weight on the first and the subsequent stages (turns) are ensured, and the first two layers of a dump are dumped according to cyclic and line TsPT technologies using motor transport or loaders (at re-excavation of rocks) that provides stability and robustness of the dump front according the developed technology of dumping, at the final stage the third layer is dumped, and the fourth layer of dump if necessary, according to its calculated volume and height and limit depth of a pit.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of field development during construction of a dump with large volume and height at decrease of costs of stripping and improvement of safety of dumping.
SUBSTANCE: after performance of drilling and blasting operations in an overburden bench during layer-by-layer excavation of the blasted rock to an extended bench and a final blade circuit on the formation roof of the mineral deposit within excavation heading throughout the length of the slab there left is a layer of the rock with negative temperature. This allows developing a zone of stable freezing, warming it up and strengthening it by action of solar insolation during development of the upper part of the breakdown. The rest rock layer is excavated to a final blade circuit after disposal of the upper part of breakdown throughout the length of the excavation slab.
EFFECT: reduction of influence of repeated freezing on productivity of a drag line and provision of its stable operation during excavation of blasted rocks of an overburden slab.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves positioning of an automated complex for deep development relative to the working face considering the direction of ore bodies settings. Control of mine rock parameters is performed by means of control sensors of physical and mechanical characteristics of mine rocks for adjustment of a mine rock cutting force considering rotation speed of a working element and movement speed of the working element in a vertical plane throughout the cutting depth and cutting direction by means of hydromechanisms of telescopic retraction and a turning mechanism of the head section. Width of capture of the ore body plane in a horizontal direction is provided by means of the positioning mechanism of the complex relative to guides; with that, information on circuits of destructed mine rock is sent from control sensors of mine rock circuits to a system control unit.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of permanent and working trenches, installation of downhole and main transport pipelines, extraction of a mineral deposit with wedge-shaped producing blocks. Driving of a working trench is performed by means of a parallel cut throughout the length of an open-pit field, and direction of a mine work front line is offset in a circumferential direction, the centre of which is a stationary rotary station of transport pipelines with radius R equal to maximum width of excavation cut to observe parallelism of the axis of transport pipelines to the mine work front line. The formed angle αi between radius R and the line of the main transport pipelines is determined from a mathematical expression.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of a fan development system.
SUBSTANCE: method involves general-purpose robot-aided mobile complexes for production, extraction, preparation and processing of mineral raw material and concentrates, a unit of automated control of operation of a mining mill, a technical system for advancing, current and prompt reception of mining and geological information. Fully automated reception of mining and geological information is performed based on build-up of a digital model using a software, cyclic-flow destruction of hard rocks and half-rocks by means of a safe shallow blast-hole drill-and-fire system and flow-through soft rocks - by means of a mechanical method, adaptive and deep differentiated separate mechanised extraction and loading of mineral and rock mass of different categories, types and grades, through-type separate ore preparation in all technological operations, selective primary benefication of mineral raw material using an adaptive gravitational technology and a physical and chemical combined technology, separate processing of concentrates at the final stage using metallurgical methods.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of small ore and non-metallic deposits of gold, lead, stannum and other mineral deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves construction of annular transport ramps of opposite direction with single-lane traffic of dump trucks docking in turning platforms, reloading points, construction of open pit sides with triple projections at an inclination angle of 60÷75°, which are separated with safety berms of required width, formation in some part of the open pit field of one of ore bodies of transport ramp (TR) with width providing for two-lane traffic of dump trucks and adjacent to turning platforms, production of ore for both ore bodies by means of a drill-and-fire method so that pillars are left in the open pit sides; delivery of ore to a factory; stripping - to external dumps, construction of underground mine workings and a water drain system; the modification stage involves reconstruction of the eastern side of the open pit (VRT) with partial processing of its pillars and transshipment of dead rocks into an internal dump, change of some part of single-lane transport ramp along the eastern side for a steeply inclined one, transportation of ore from lower horizons of the open pit with articulated dump trucks (ADT) to the transhipment area, transhipment into large dump trucks for delivery to the factory, and creation of a rock cushion at the open pit bottom. Besides, first, from the lower turning platform in the worked-out area of the western side of the open pit (ZRT) there dumped is the main ramp, thus providing transport communication throughout the depth of the open pit; at the open pit side reconstruction stage, a two-lane ramp is in-series formed with projections with a vertical slope and berms of minimum width and rebuilt into a ramp with an increased inclination in opposite direction; a new dump ramp is formed from the turning platform in the south-western part of the open pit; water drainage is relocated to an inter-pipe zone; TR of opposite direction with single-lane traffic along the western side is put out; TR with an increased slope is constructed from the upper turning platform in the north-western part of the open pit; ZRT pillars are mined out; the new dump ramp is enlarged, and loading and transportation of some part of ore is performed from it at mining-out of ZRT pillars by equipment with remote control (RC) to a transhipment point; another part of the ore is transported to VRT bottom, thus creating an ore cushion, and after ZRT pillars are additionally mined out to technologically practical depth, VRT pillars are broken out onto the ore cushion, thus putting out the transport ramp.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and completeness of development of a mineral deposit by an open-pit mining method.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the mining industry and may be used during extraction and processing of molybdenum-containing ores. A method for extraction and processing of molybdenum-containing ores involves open-pit field zoning, outlining of solid ore sections different by processing characteristics, selective extraction on the outlined sections with ores allocation to separate the flow from the zones with increased molybdenite oxidation and its direction to luminescent separation. A powellite enriched product of separation after its size degradation is directed to bulk floatation obtaining a rough molybdenic concentrate. Then after molybdenite oxidation in the rough concentrate, powellite is leached in an environment of a molten mixture of chloride and sodium silicate. The tail product of separation after its size degradation is directed to bulk floatation obtaining the molybdenic concentrate.
EFFECT: increasing a level and quality of molybdenum extraction to the end product from balance molybdenum ores with higher degree of molybdenite oxidation.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge the range of simultaneous processing and versions of control of a cutting force in the processing zone, formation of destruction zones is performed considering strength characteristics of rock as to width of the processed surface at variation of functional and technological parameters and their rational combination under conditions of selective development of deposits with complex structures. Strength characteristics of rock are fixed by mine rock strength recording sensors connected through a system block to a control system of operation of hydraulic cylinders, and drum balance is provided by distributed offset of hydraulic cylinders. Pressure of working liquid in piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinders is designed for a force required for rotation of turning levers.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock at selective development of deposits with complex structures by means of open-pit surface miners.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method describes the selection of sections in the zone of wind currents, drilling of ledges by wells, charging them with explosive charges, blasting and excavation of the blasted mined rock. Meanwhile only upper ledges are drilled without subdrilling to the design outline of the edge profile, and charging and blasting of wells is performed stage by stage by blocks to the profile height. The correlation of the angle of incidence and profile of the open pit edge and the dominating wind speed under the mathematical formula is determined.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of ventilation of open pits and coal strip mines by ensuring of continuous streamlining of edges of open pits and coal strip mines by a natural air flow.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: onto an earth strip directly adjacent to embankment foot, with width of 2.5-3.0 meters, fertile soil is moved in one-two trips of a grader from a strip located at the distance of 4.0-7.0 meters from the slope foot, to produce a layer of 15-20 cm. Then earth is ploughed up with full layer turnover for depth of 50 cm. At the same time it is tilled, and fertile layer is moved to the depth of 20-50 cm, and layer of low-fertility soil reaches the surface, further preventing intense development of weed plants. Then, using a tree planter, low-growing or trailing creeping-rooted shrubs are planted into the prepared soil, and its roots, getting during planting into fertile soil, which is periodically wetted with precipitation flowing off the road bed, develop intensively and produce root shoots, which populate the entire embankment slop to its border.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of motor road embankment slopes fixation due to soil strengthening with durable and strong branched roots of shrubs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nature conservation arrangement of mountain and foothills landscapes and may be used as anchors for anti-erosion and anti-landslide structures, and also in case of emergencies. The method to install wire anchors is characterised by the fact that a device is screwed into soil for the required depth, and the device comprises doubled hollow pipes, the outer of which comprises evenly arranged ledges of permanent rectangular cross section, rigidly fixed along the side cylindrical surface along the helical line with permanent pitch. After the device reaches the required depth, the inner pipe together with cohesive soil is withdrawn from the outer pipe to form hollow space, and soil is removed from it. Then a wire anchor is inserted into the produced hollow space of the outer pipe, with a cylindrical head, and backfilling is done with soil for height h with subsequent putting of cylindrical attachments onto the anchor wire, and the outer pipe is screwed out with the help of a handle as the anchor is grown.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of installation of wire anchors on slopes and ravines.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of soil reinforcement includes filling, levelling, compaction of a soil layer, arrangement of reinforcing elements on the surface of the soil layer and their filling with soil of the next layer. At the same time reinforcing elements arranged on the surface of the soil layer are made in the form of concrete slabs having vertical holes in their body in the form of cones truncated downwards, designed for provision of filtration processes and increased adhesion of concrete slabs with soil after embankment filling. Concrete slabs arranged on the surface of the soil layer of embankment are made by filling of the form with concrete mix with metal elements installed inside in the form of truncated cones, which provide for production of holes in the concrete slab. Besides, internal dimensions of the form correspond to external dimensions of the concrete slab, and the position of the concrete slab in the body of embankment, number and location of holes in the slab depend on the specified calculation. At the same time the concrete mix in the form of coarse filler and reinforcing material contains wastes of casting production in the form of slag.
EFFECT: increased stability and operational reliability of soil embankment due to increased forces of embankment soil adhesion to a reinforcing element.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to meshy reinforcing roll materials designed for creation of reinforced layers in various coatings, for instance, road, asphalt, concrete ones, etc. The reinforcing mesh with cells formed by crossing bundles of threads, fixed by impregnation and/or a coating, where bundles comprise several threads, separate threads are longer compared to other threads of this bundle, and longer threads stretch in a wave-like manner and form loops. Bundles in one of crossing directions are made as doubled with a gap between each other, making from 0.01 to 0.55 of the bundle width, bundles in the other crossing direction are made as doubled without a gap between each other. Bundles doubled without a gap comprise longer threads stretching in a wave-like manner, forming loops that fix bundles doubled without a gap with bundles doubled with a gap in crossing zones. Width of bundles doubled with a gap makes from 1.3 to 2.5 of width of bundles doubled without a gap. Impregnation and/or coating is arranged by bitumen produced from water emulsion of bitumen.
EFFECT: reduction of possibility of irreversible deformation and damage of a mesh under conditions of considerable deformations of the coating and preservation of reinforcing ability of the mesh even after significant deformations of the coating.
SUBSTANCE: engineering-geological and hydrogeological survey is carried out to detect available landslide bodies. Then biolocation survey is performed, using the results of which they detect underground watercourses and discover their characteristics for detection of quantity and location of through filters. Afterwards on the surface of a ledge or a slope or a hillside outside the landslide body a header is arranged for collection of surface waters and some shallow watercourses. Afterwards from the foot of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they arrange a drainage mine deep into the ledge or the slope or the hillside outside the landslide body, from the surface of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they drill vertical wells until coupling with the drainage mine for through filers, couplings are arranged with connection chambers, through filters are lowered into vertical wells from the surface, and through filters are made in the form of pipes with perforated sections of holes and filtering elements made at the coupling level with underground watercourses. The header and the drainage mine are arranged with an inclination of i=0.005 towards the drain for self-flow of captured water.
EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in drilling of wells, damage of highly icy fragments via drilled wells with subsequent formation of reinforcing elements in the base under the structure in the form of piles by means of filling of the produced cavities with a soil and cement pulp. Piles are formed by formation of a soil and cement body simultaneously with drilling of wells by injection of cement mortar under high pressure with soil mixing at reverse movement of a drilling tool. Simultaneously with formation of the soil and cement body they thaw permafrost soil by addition of a concrete strength gain accelerator into the injected cement mortar for activation of concrete hydration and increased heat evolution in the process. The concrete strength gain accelerator in the injected cement mortar is burned anhydrous lime in the amount of 10-15% and hydrochloric acid in the amount of 1-2%.
EFFECT: reduced time for erection of reinforcing piles and accelerated strength gain by erected piles.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the road and railway construction, construction of aerodromes, objects and structures for various purposes, landscape construction and can be used to organize the storage and use of bulk geogrid when developing the base of the road pavement. Method of preparation for storage and usage of bulk geogrid manufactured from the flexible strips stacked on each other and connected inter se in transverse direction in staggered order, consists in forming of package for its placing on the prepared surface. Formation of package is carried out by continuous zigzag laying on the prepared surface of indicated interconnected flexible strips at least in one horizontal row, at that the loops of zigzags have the same geometric dimensions.
EFFECT: technical result consists in providing the compact arrangement of bulk geogrid on the support surface while simplifying the process of geogrid usage.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.
EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to strengthen a slope with a geocellular geosynthetic material includes a layer of a geotextile material laid top down onto the prepared surface. At the same time above the geotextile material they install a geocellular geosynthetic material made of perforated geostrips, which is fixed by metal anchors on the slope surface. At the same time the inner space of the geocellular geosynthetic material along the entire height of the slope is filled with porous concrete with high filtration properties, and in the base the geocellular geosynthetic material is fixed with a concrete support.
EFFECT: higher static stability of a slope, protection against various effects and drainage of filtration waters.
SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.
EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.
17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg