Method of protecting ledges of edges of pits of cryolithic zone from thawing

FIELD: mining operations.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.

EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining and can be used in open and combined development of deposits of solid mineral raw materials of the Northern regions to prevent the thawing of the surface layers outside pit wall benches of different sources of natural heat in the summer.

Known methods of protection against thawing ledges quarry of the North, various artificial embankments erected on the hillside areas of the permafrost zone, composed of permafrost soils, the negative effects of various sources of heat in the summer by creating: impervious screens; protective berms; heat - reflective coatings that prevent permafrost degradation [1].

Closest to the proposed method to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method involving performing the above set of protective measures [2].

As preventive measures, to prevent thawing hillside plots mounds natural sources of heat in the summer, the inventors recommended: the creation of impervious screens from bulk soils, frozen condition which is provided with devices for cold accumulation (Termoli); the device is impervious protective berms; es�Lituanie thermal barrier coatings made of local materials (moss, the turf, peat), erected on the berms.

The main disadvantages of this method are: high costs and the need to purchase expensive special equipment (Termoli), the complexity and high cost of doing work for their installation; insufficient capacity of the berm material (bulk soils to accumulate atmospheric cold because of its low heat capacity; this is the recommended thermal insulation coating made of local materials not to be detachable and does not imply its removal in the winter and is designed to operate year-round), which limits the access of atmospheric cold to the surface of the berm during the winter period and, as a consequence, reduces its freezing.

An object of the invention is to reduce the intensity of thawing and erosion of marginal fracture of rock masses ledges of the pit of the permafrost zone; the reduction of the cost of mounting and maintenance; the reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on the protective pillars (or pillow), constructed at the bottom of the quarries in the transition to a combined method of Deposit development; provide year-round maintenance of marginal rock ledges in a frozen state, reducing the groundwater seepage into the quarry.

Func�is a new way to protect the pitwall permafrost from thawing, including the construction of three artificial elements: waterproof screen protective berm, protective coatings, characterized in that the impervious screen generated by drilling inclined boreholes of large diameter in the winter with the top platform most susceptible to thawing side nonworking side of the ledge, parallel to the surface of the slope to its full height with subsequent filling them with ice crushed, chilled fresh water and promorskoe natural cold, and a protective berm erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge trapezoidal cross section calculated height, using a layer-by-layer freezing overburden, which in the summer period, including the surface of the slope of the ledge, covered with a protective coating made in the form of a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat, remove with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined from the relation:

, m

where 10-4- constant coefficient;

λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of the insulating Mat, W/(m·K);

tMs. sum.- crenelate air temperature of the area of finding a career, °C;

N is the duration of the warm period of the year, the days.

The implementation process will contribute to the solution of a number of technically� tasks:

- decreased filtration of ground and surface waters in the quarry by creating a frozen ice impervious protective screen and leopardsnow protective berm along the top contour;

- accumulation of a significant amount of natural (atmospheric) cold in winter contour rock massif of the ledge, equipped with ice impervious screen, which is simultaneously the battery is cold, the reserves of which are spent on compensation of the summer heat gain;

- improving structural and strength characteristics of rock ledges due to the presence of artificially constructed column-like ice structures, as well as cementation frozen water (ice) existing defects (cracks);

- increase the mechanical stability and thermal protection of the edge of the ledge due to the construction leopardsnow protective berm, heat insulated and reflective Mat in summer;

- reduction of the costs of clean-up berms ledges from collapsing rocks;

- reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on the protective pillar (or a safety cushion) during the transition from open to combined method of mining the Deposit;

- simplicity and low cost annual Pomorski marginal layer of rocks of the ledge and cladoselache ice cold�batteries atmospheric cooling in winter when harvested heatproof Mat;

- ensuring progressive from year to year accumulation of cold contour rock massif and ring leopardsnow the berm due to the high thermal storage capacity Laporte material and to limit the flow of heat from various sources in the summer through a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat;

a significant reduction in the intensity of the physical-chemical weathering contour of the surface layers of rock masses, zamonolichennyj ice, which is (year-round) in frozen condition.

Included in the formula of the invention is such a significant distinguishing feature, as the construction of anti-filtration screen in the form of a column-like ice structures in the marginal rocks of the ledge multi-purpose, will not only reduce the inflow of water into the quarry, but will significantly increase the heat capacity and structural stability of the ledge, thereby reducing the intensity of thawing, subsidence and collapse of rocks in the summer.

The next essential feature is that the perimeter of the top platform of the ledge quarry is being built leoparda protective berm covering the estuarine part of the wells, starting from the edge, providing in the presence of thermal insulation calculation of the thickness of the frozen condition and high thermal and mechanical�Yu stability of the edge of the ledge, as well as additional reliable protection career against the penetration of groundwater.

The essential difference in comparison with analogues is the use of flexible moisture - and heat-proof Mat with high light reflecting ability, erected on the ledge in the spring (and harvested in autumn), thereby reducing the influx of all types of natural heat in marginal rock mass of the quarry face, as well as providing easy access atmospheric cold in winter, all objects with progressive from year to year accumulation.

The required technical result of the invention is expected to receive when posting and use: climatic and geocryological characteristics of the region and natural resources; the technical equipment of mining enterprises; existing experience in construction Leopardi structures.

These include:

- long winter with extremely low temperatures;

- the presence of continuous permafrost;

- small capacity of the active layer of rocks, thawed in the summer;

- high heat capacity ndonesian frozen rocks and ice;

- the presence of a large fleet of vehicles at mining facilities necessary for carrying out planned activities;

- the presence of a large amount of Skrylnikov in the dumps;

- experience in the construction of rock-fill structures (dams, dikes) permafrost type.

The claimed method is illustrated by a drawing, which shows a vertical section of the upper quarry face, equipped with ice impervious screen, leopardsnow protective berm and flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat.

Conventions in the drawing:

1 - Upper site of the quarry face

2 - the Slope of the ledge of the pit

3 - Oblique descending wells

4 - Ice anti-filtration screen

5 - the Upper edge of the ledge quarry

6 - Leoparda protective berm

7 - Flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat

The inventive method is implemented in practice in the winter after freezing of the active layer of rocks. Beginning with the upper platform 1 the quarry face 2 to its total height drill deviated wells 3 large diameter (Ǿ400-500 mm), which completely fill the ice crushed and chilled fresh water in the ratio T:W=3:1. After freezing vogelezang mixture of naturally formed ice impervious screen 4 also serving as the packs in the form of inclined cylindrical pillars. Upon completion of these works on the perimeter of the top platform of the quarry face (including 5 brow and wellheads) erect leopardsnow protection�th berm 6 trapezoidal cross-section, estimated height, layer-by-layer method of dumping overburden tamp this down Strait water and freezing each layer by atmospheric cold, using construction techniques in permafrost rock-fill dams (dams) in the North [3].

By the end of the winter the surface of the protective berm and the slope of the quarry face cover removable waterproof and heat reflective Mat 7 operated by all the warm period of the year. The Mat is assembled from separate roll, tightly connected panels of insulating material, one side of which has a reflective film coating.

With the onset of winter flexible protective Mat is removed, thereby providing unimpeded access of atmospheric cold objects. Periodically to intensify Pomorski protective berm necessary to carry out (during the winter) snowplowing.

The main advantages of the proposed method:

- high degree of protection upper edge and slope of the quarry face from thawing in summer;

- high structural rigidity, strength, resistance and holidaymasti marginal layer of rocks from the quarry face;

- reduction of dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks on safety pillar (or rock cushion);

- reduction of erosion destroyed�I marginal layer of rocks from the quarry face;

- low costs for maintenance and cleaning of protective berms from collapsing rocks;

- low groundwater inflow to the quarry;

- reduce the cost of pumping;

- low degree of wear is flexible protective Mat, easily remove for the winter period;

- the possibility of reducing the thickness of the protective pillar (or pillow), constructed at the bottom of the excavated pit in the transition to the combined and underground methods of mining the Deposit, and accordingly reduce the cost of its construction (by reducing dynamic and static loads from collapsing rocks).

Sources of information

1. Isakson V. Yu., etc., the problems of stability of permafrost outcrops of rocks. Novosibirsk: Vo "Nauka". Siberian publishing company, 1994. - 165 p.

2. RF patent №2059752, BI No. 13, 1996

3. Biyanov G. F., etc. Perspective directions of improvement of the design and technology of earth dam construction in permafrost type in the far North // Hydraulic engineering, - 1982. - No. 5 - S. 1-4.

The ledges of the pit permafrost from thawing, including the construction of three artificial elements: waterproof screen protective berm, protective coatings, characterized in that the impervious screen generated by drilling inclined boreholes of large diameter � winter with the top platform most susceptible to thawing side nonworking side of the ledge, parallel to the surface of the slope to its full height with subsequent filling them with ice crushed, chilled fresh water and promorskoe natural cold, and a protective berm erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge trapezoidal cross section calculated height, using a layer-by-layer freezing overburden, which in the summer period, including the surface of the slope of the ledge, to prevent thawing of soils covered with a protective coating that is made in the form of a removable flexible moisture-and heat reflective Mat, remove with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined from the relation:
m
where 10-4- constant coefficient;
λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of the insulating Mat, W/(m·K);
tMs. n- crenelate air temperature of the area of finding a career, °C;
N is the duration of the warm period of the year, days.



 

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Reinforcing mesh // 2539196

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EFFECT: higher static stability of a slope, protection against various effects and drainage of filtration waters.

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FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.

17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

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