Road-building composite material
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for construction of an earth bed and a facility of reinforced road bases on roads of categories I-V in road climatic zones II-V, as well as pavements on roads of categories IV-V as material for construction of earth bed fills and reinforcement of soil bases of construction and other sites. Road-building material containing drilling sludge with density of 1.3 to 1.8 kg/dm3 and with humidity of 30%, cement as the main binding material in the amount of 5-15% of the weight of the mixture, wastes of thermal utilisation of oil sludges (ash slag) with density of 1.2 to 1.6 kg/dm3 in the amount of 30-40% of the mixture weight, mineral filler and a sorbent - complexing agent, where organic fibrous (peat) sorbent is used as the sorbent - complexing agent in the amount of 2-4% of the mixture weight; Portland cement is used as cement; additionally, it contains liquid glass or organohydride-siloxanes, and sand is used as filler, with that, content of sand as a part of material is 5, or 10, or 30 wt %. The invention is developed in subclaims of formula of invention.
EFFECT: reduction of cement consumption; improvement of environmental situation due to utilisation of wastes of drilling and an ash and slag mixture.
4 cl, 4 ex, 7 dwg
The invention relates to the construction and can be used for the construction of subgrade and devices fortified road base on the roads (I-V categories II-V road-climatic zones, as well as coatings on the roads of IV-V categories as a material for construction of embankments, subgrade and strengthening of soil foundations construction and other fields.
From the patent of the Russian Federation 2303011 known building material "Burrit, including drill cuttings, cement and urea-formaldehyde foam, characterized in that it contains drilling mud density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3, urea-formaldehyde foam with a density of 10-30 kg/m3in the amount of 10-25% by volume of drill cuttings, cement in an amount of 10-20% by volume of drill cuttings and optionally a mineral filler with a particle size of from 2.7 to 3.1 mm, selected from the group consisting of sand and crushed granite, in the amount of 10-20% by volume of drill cuttings.
The mixture is prepared by adding to the drilling mud with a density of from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3with constant stirring, urea-formaldehyde foam having a density of 10-30 kg/m3in the amount of 10-25% by volume of drill cuttings; cement in an amount of 10-20% of the volume of drilling waste; mineral filler in an amount of 10-20% by volume of drill cuttings. Mixing of drill cuttings and to�palezieux components to obtain a homogeneous, quickly getting denser mass produced with the help of an excavator due to the motion of the excavator bucket in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
From the patent of Russian Federation №2399440 known mixture for obtaining a building material comprising drill cuttings, mineral additive, an accelerator, a desiccant and a hardener, characterized in that it contains as mineral supplements loam, sand, sandy-clayey fraction, as the accelerator is calcium chloride and/or sodium, as the desiccant is at least one of: peat, mineral wool, slag wool, cellulose fibers, silica gel, penoizol, as a hardener, cement and/or bitumen and additionally carboxymethylcellulose - CMC and/or polyvinylacetate - PVA and exhaust technology solution density of 1.08-1,86 t/m3and drilling waste water resulting from production drilling operations, with the following ratio of components, wt. %:
|specified technological solution||Of 1.0 to 40.0|
|indicated mineral Supplement||0,9-45,0|
|the specified desiccant||1,0-38,0|
|CMC and/or ΠΒΑ||0,1-0,2|
|the specified accelerator||1.0 to 2.0|
|cement||From 1.0 to 22.0|
|these waste water drill||else|
The closest analogue of the claimed invention is the construction material gerontology fortified, disclosed in the patent of the Russian Federation 2471737, including drilling mud density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3, cement as the main binder in the amount of 4-12% by weight of the mixture, desiccant and construction gypsum in the amount of 2-4% by weight of the mixture, mineral filler - natural sand in the amount of 40-70% by weight of the mixture.
The disadvantage of the prototype is that in a large enough percentage of the number of used building gypsum, which reduces the resistance of the material. In addition, all materials based on gypsum are designed for use in areas with normal humidity (above 60%). When the hydration structures containing more than 2% of gypsum, the strength thereof is reduced, in addition, gypsum products change shape under load. Also a simple mix of plaster and cement binders leads to the destruction of the material and cu�yne its low durability.
The task, which directed the claimed invention, is to expand the range of road construction composite materials (DSCM) and nomenclature of soils, suitable for the consolidation (for example, a one-dimensional sand with acidic environments).
The technical result of the claimed invention are: saving of cement 10-30% compared to conventional norm for reinforced soils, reduces the consumption of imported stone materials, up to the complete rejection of their application with replacement DSCM, JERUSALEM (soil strengthened the road construction), obtaining reinforced soil (HS) with the desired characteristics of strength, waterproof, frost resistance and deformability, effective drilling waste management, reducing costs for maintenance and reclamation of sludge pits and landfills, improvement of ecological situation, the use of components in a mixture of drilling waste, which is waste drilling and thermal utilization of waste sludge (ash-slag mixture). Drilling mud is a waste, but when it is used as a component DSCM eliminated the migratory activity of toxicants, and the waste becomes a secondary class of material.
The claimed technical result is achieved due to the creation of road construction composite material comprising b�digital slurry density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM 3and a humidity of 30%, cement as the main binder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the mixture, the waste thermal utilization of sludge (slag) with a density of 1.2 to 1.6 kg/DM3in the amount of 30-40% by weight of the mixture, a mineral filler and a sorbent complexing agent, where the sorbent complexing agent used organic fibrous (peat) the sorbent in the amount of 2-4% by weight of the mixture, as cement Portland cement is used as filler sand is used, and the content of sand in the composition of the material is in the range of 5-30 wt. %. As the cement used is Portland cement M-400. As the sorbent-complexing agent is preferably used crushed dried peat. The material further comprises a liquid crystal. As the sorbent-complexing agent is preferably used in organic fibrous (peat) sorbent.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1. The General scheme of processing of drill cuttings.
Fig. 2. A diagram of the area of recycling of drill cuttings with obtaining technology JERUSALEM.
Fig. 3. The scheme of location of containers for the recycling of drill cuttings on the technology JERUSALEM
Fig. 4. Applications of reinforced soil road construction during the construction and maintenance of well pads, where � - the waterproofing of the well pads, B - repair of pads when surface subsidence in the area wellheads, strengthening of slopes of embankments, Mr. dumping grounds well pads.
Fig. 5. The use of reinforced soil road construction in reclamation of sludge pits with a preliminary excavation of drill cuttings from the barn.
Fig. 6. The use of reinforced soil road construction in reclamation of sludge pits without prior excavation of drill cuttings from the barn.
Fig. 7. A typical variant of a road embankment using soil fortified road construction, where D - filling road base, Ε is the strengthening of slopes of the roadway.
The implementation of the invention
Disposal of drill cuttings together with the waste thermal utilization of sludge at a constant technology and recipe washing liquid pertaining to IV or III class of hazard, with environmentally friendly material is made by binding and neutralizing toxins in the monolithic structure of the consolidated material and the elimination of their migratory activity. DSKM - artificial material obtained by mixing career in mixing devices, either in landfills or directly on the road (with the use of cutters, excavators and Avtograd�ditch) drill cuttings together with ash and slag mixtures, with cement or other inorganic binding agents and additives of active substances and sorbents with subsequent packing and seal when brought to optimum moisture and answering on a project or interim terms of normalized quality indicators on strength, frost resistance and environmental safety. In composition, structure, physical-mechanical characteristics and other properties, and applications, methods for preparing DSCM is a type of fortified soil or processed materials in accordance with GOST 23558-94. Used in the composition of the claimed composition of the drilling sludge (SS) is temacapulin (from semi-liquid to viscous consistency) and paste comprises particles of drill cuttings and waste drilling mud (ARR). The composition of the solid phase BSH are different degrees of dispersion (colloid to 5-10 mm) particles of drill cuttings and introduced into the washing liquid mud powder (bentonite, montmorillonite), and insoluble and poorly soluble additives (calcium carbonate, barite, etc.). The liquid phase BSH is formed due to the discharge of a certain amount of drilling mud and waste water when washing equipment.
The composition of the SB is composed of particles of drill cuttings and drilling mud, their ratio may be different, for example, brown�Oh sludge deposits OJSC "TNK-Nizhnevartovsk" contains, wt. %:
- cuttings - 55-75;
- drilling fluid exhaust (EX) - 25-45.
In this case, the ARR includes the following components: sand in the amount of 3-4%, water in an amount of 90 to 92% and colloidal phase low density - 5-6%, which was composed of the following chemicals: bentonite mud powder (for example, brand PMBA), drugs CMC (connection polyanionic cellulose), soda and caustic soda, chalk, barite, water-soluble and high-molecular polymer compound (polyacrylamide, polyacrylonitrile), salt (potassium chloride, sodium chloride) and other substances.
The plant uses SD having a density in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3and humidity in the range of 30-60%.
Used in the composition of the claimed composition of the mixture of ash (SSS), are formed by thermal treatment (firing) of wastes generated during oil and gas (oil-contaminated soils and oil sludge cleaning of pipelines and tanks from oil and oil products, and drill cuttings). SSS consist of ash component (particles of ash and slag of less than 0,315 mm) and a slag comprising: a slag sand - grain size from 5 mm 0,315; slag crushed - grains larger than 5 mm. Residual oil content in TSS not exceed 0.5%. Additionally to this in a mixture of sorbent-complexing agent, ZS� can be considered as a desiccant, in the amount of 30-40% by weight of the mixture, which are the tonnage of waste requiring disposal, promising for applications because they have developed specific surface area and hydraulic binding properties (reactivity). These materials in combination with the main binder (cement) bind significant amounts of water and impurities, making DM in inert and durable composite material. Used as the main binder in the composition DSCM cement provides strength, water-resistance, in combination with a liquid binder (liquid glass) addresses the fluidity BSH, gives the material strength properties, binds toxicants and ABOUT components, reducing the migration of contaminants into the environment.
Used as a sorbent of organic complexing fibrous sorbent (crushed dried peat, produced by TU 1392-005-48952916-2001) a density of not more than 180 kg/m3eliminates migration activity of pollutants, will destroy residual oil content. In a preferred embodiment of the invention as sorbent-complexing agent is used in organic fibrous (peat) sorbent.
Use in the claimed composition of the mixture as mineral filler more common and have�its wider range of fractions of dispersed natural non-cohesive soils - sand according to GOST 25100-95 reduces the cost DSCM. In accordance with table B10 GOST 25100-95 particle size distribution of natural sand (size and content of the grains) can be arbitrary, i.e. can be used Sands from gravel to silt. The base case mineral filler is the choice of the most widespread in the oil and gas regions of Western Siberia of fine sand and/or silt with characteristics: particle size larger than 0.10 mm - not less than 75% for small or, respectively, less than 75% for silt. Moreover, the dosage of sand (0-30% by weight of the mixture) is selected based on its granulometric composition and SB on the condition of obtaining the number of the plasticity of the mixture of the order of 7-12, i.e. optimal granulometry of the mixture corresponding to a light sandy to loam that is most favorable for soil stabilization, including technogenic, cement. Administered amount of filler depends on the moisture content and density BSH, for example, with a minimum density of 1.3 kg/DM3and maximum humidity BSH (70%) enter the maximum amount of sand - 30% by weight of the mixture; at a maximum density of 1.8 kg/DM3and, accordingly, the minimum humidity (40%) flow rate of sand is 0-10% by weight of the mixture. Also the flow of sand is dependent on the strength and scope of the final product in the construction of buildings.
In the manufacturer.�th compositions may use different grades of cement. The basic variant of the binder is Portland cement, slag cement and Portland cement with mineral additives according to GOST 10178, sulfate and pozzolan cements in accordance with GOST 22266, as well as cements for mortars according to GOST 25328 grades not lower than 400 for coatings and 300 bases.
To improve the properties and performance DSCM improving additives used, including as microadditives are used:
- calcium chloride, sodium chloride, calcium nitrite (up to 2% by weight of the mixture), which accelerate the curing of the material, and antifreeze additives are able to produce DSCM in the winter. The above microadditives are powder granular substances, in the North preferably Socko of view of their transportation and the introduction with stirring compositions.
To improve DSCM can be used and other microadditives, including those supplied in liquid form (solutions, emulsions):
- organosilsesquioxane (NGL 136-41, NGL 136-M, manufactured according to GOST 10843-76, THE 6-02-694-76) - in the amount of 0.5% by weight of the mix;
- liquid glass (sodium silicate) in an amount up to 1% by weight of the mix. These additives improve the water resistance and water resistant, reduce water absorption and permeability, which eliminates the suffusion � leaching of toxic components ABOUT from the composition;
- lime ground unslaked,
- gipsotsementnyj-pozzolanic binders (GCPW), which are widely used in the USSR in the production of sanitary-engineering cabins, ventilation blocks, wall stones, panels grounds under floors, large panel and gypsum partition walls, mortar and putty compounds. The main advantages GCPV is the ability to quickly Stripping products while maintaining the possibility of exploitation of the products in wet conditions. Under the optimal composition HCPV products based on it are quite hardy and can withstand up to 75 cycles of freezing / unfreezing. Creating gipsotsementnyj-pozzolanic binders has greatly expanded the field of application of gypsum materials and products in construction through the use of their exterior, including load-bearing structures and in buildings with a relative humidity of over 60%.
DSCM, depending on the magnitude of the total specific effective activity of natural radionuclides (Aeff) contained in DSCM, processed materials, soils, used in:
Andeffto 740 Bq/kg for the construction of roads and areas without restrictions;
AndeffSt. 740 to 2800 Bq/kg for oilfield road construction outside built-up areas and areas of projected building.
The use DSCM for construction to�one clothes and subgrade of roads, playgrounds and other facilities contributes to the improvement of environmental safety and reliability of structures, eliminates the possibility of getting components BSH and waste into the environment.
Thus, thanks to the invention made possible the transformation of drill cuttings and waste thermal utilization of sludge in an inert composite material linking in the structure of the pollutant, excluding their migration in the environment.
The process of recycling of drill cuttings comprising the following steps (Fig. 1):
- The accumulation of drill cuttings (BSH).
- The addition and mixing of components of a mixture by an excavator.
- The resulting mixture is moved to the stack to complete the hardening process.
- Made material stored at temporary storage sites and transport to the dumping area features.
For the production DSCM, JERUSALEM in the territory of cluster pad:
- Equipped Playground recycling.
- Imported materials (components): sand 4, cement 3, NGL 136-41 (or others) 2.
In the container 1 is delivered drill cuttings (or is taken out of the barn). In drilling mud components are added (the latter may be any other Supplement).
- Mixing of components of the excavator until blended.
- Excavation and stacking.
In one embodiment, is embodied�I of the invention a method of processing drilling waste includes recycling of drilling waste to produce road-building composite material, including drilling mud density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3, cement as the main binder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the mixture, thermal utilization of waste sludge (slag) with a density of 1.2 to 1.6 kg/DM3in the amount of 30-40% by weight of the mixture, a mineral filler and a sorbent complexing agent, where the sorbent complexing agent used organic fibrous (peat) the sorbent in the amount of 2-4% by weight of the mixture. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the components of the mixture are placed close to the excavator at a distance of the length of the transfer arrows.
For processing drilling waste settling, leveled the ground, not less than 20×20 m. the site is subdivided into sections stockpiling and storage of materials, processing site, access roads, the site for storage of materials. Allowed the expansion of the site through the use of secondary material obtained. 1 capacity for processing is installed in the ground 7. Preferably, the container has a volume of 40 m3and dimensions of 6.4 x 2.5 x 2.5 m NGL 2 is stored in metal barrels for 0.2 m3. Cement stored in bags FIBC, sand - bulk with a maximum height of 2 m, SSS - in bulk with a maximum height of 2 m. DSCM 6 is formed in bulk with a maximum height of 4 m (Fig. 2)
The upper edge of capacity�and must rise above the terrain to a height of no more than 0.5 m, in order to avoid collapse of the container under the pressure of soil - the side walls on the outside are reinforced by logs. The upper edge of the container is reinforced concrete beam or pipe serving as a bump stop 8 during discharge of drilling wastes (Fig. 3). Posted on shrub swamps grounds eventually "shrink" in the peat, wellheads are exposed.
To restore the design level can be agreed with the oilers places of cluster pad be removed by excavating the soil and fill the recess JERUSALEM.
After setting the excavated soil is levelled by a bulldozer, platform 8 is planned (Fig. 4).
During construction of well pads in areas with shallow groundwater, in water protection zones is the waterproofing of the bases.
As a waterproofing material, usually a polymer film is used, which does not always provide the necessary degree of waterproofing due to its low mechanical strength.
More reliable sealing can be accomplished by using JERUSALEM 9 with the addition of liquid glass to improve waterproofing properties of the composite material.
In water protection zones is advisable to carry out the isolation of JERUSALEM 9 bottom and side layer of the composite polymer film (Fig. 4).
During the construction of cluster pad allowed the use of JERUSALEM 9 for dumping grounds and ukral�of embankments - to save imported construction land (Fig. 4).
The use of JERUSALEM in reclamation of drilling sludge pits is made of two main schemes - with a hollow drill cuttings from the body of the barn and processing of drill cuttings in the body of the barn.
When pulling drill cuttings 13 out of the barn its processing is carried out on-site processing and JERUSALEM received is placed in a barn by a method of this kind. This method is applicable for large barns, while the limit of the soil, a large level of occurrence of sludge. During this procedure, a slight reinforcement of sludge khvorostyanoy lining 10, then JERUSALEM 9 is applied to a bulldozer method of this kind. The work is consistently around the perimeter of the barn. The formation of the next strip of soil 11 is performed after setting of JERUSALEM, prepared strip serves as a place to work and the arrival of a bulldozer. Ground 11 is applied to the peat layer 12 (Fig. 5).
In the processing of drill cuttings 16 in the body of the barn (Fig. 6) the arrangement of the separation strip 14 for the passage of the excavator; the distance between the dividing strips and the embankment should be no more than two lengths of the boom and arm for embracing the entire volume of BSH in the processing. Processing of drill cuttings produced along the dividing strip 14 and embankment to the length of the boom of the excavator. The filling 11 production�tsya after setting JERUSALEM. The primer is reclaiming layer 16.
The construction of the structural layers of roads with the use of JERUSALEM carried out by the following main ways: by mixing on a specially prepared gidrolizovannykh sites in the right of way of the highway using multipass milling (DC-74); cooking the mixture in soil-mixing plants (HB-50A, B, etc.).
Also is the strengthening of the slopes of the roadway (Fig. 7) using crushed stone 16 and sand 17.
Building material DSCM M40, indicator of frost F25, includes, mass. %:
|BSH, sample # 1||38|
|Portland cement M-400||15|
Implementation of the composition of the resulting material with the strength with�atie 0.4 MPa, suitable for construction of load-bearing bases of pavement, for example, on commercial road.
Building material DSCM M20 mark, indicator of frost F15, includes, mass. %:
|BSH, sample # 1||43|
|Portland cement M-400||10|
Implementation of the composition of the resulting material with a compressive strength of 0.2 MPa, suitable for the construction of additional layers (anti-freeze, etc.) grounds of pavement, for example, a field roads; as well as for the strong embankments.
Building material DSCM brand M10, indicator of frost F5, includes, mass. %:
|BSH, sample # 1||58|
|Portland cement M-400||6|
Implementation of the composition of the resulting material with a compressive strength of 0.05 MPa, suitable for the construction of earthworks, backfilling and reclamation of sludge pits.
On site processing of imported materials, is placed in a container of drilling mud, in which you add components in the following ratio, wt.%:
|BSH, sample # 1||38|
|Portland cement M-400||15|
The mixture was stirred excavator "Hitachi" until a homogeneous mixture, and then produce notch and stacking.
1. Road construction is a composite material comprising a drilling mud density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3and a humidity of 30%, cement as the main binder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the mixture, the waste thermal utilization of sludge (slag) with a density of 1.2 to 1.6 kg/DM3in the amount of 30-40% by weight of the mixture, a mineral filler and a sorbent complexing agent, where the sorbent complexing agent used organic fibrous (peat) the sorbent in the amount of 2-4% by weight of the mixture, as cement Portland cement is used, further comprises a liquid glass or organosilsesquioxane, and the filler is used, the sand, the sand content in the composition of the material 5, or 10, or 30 wt. %.
2. Material according to claim 1, characterized in that the cement used is Portland cement M-400.
3. Material according to claim 1, characterized in that as a sorbent of complexing agent used crushed dried peat.
4. Material according to claim 1, characterized in that as a sorbent-complexing agent uses�I organic fibrous (peat) sorbent.
SUBSTANCE: device to seal areas of metal-concrete adjacency comprises a plate steel part of protective sealed doors, hatches or flanges of tubular inputs of engineering utilities with holes for injectors. Holes are evenly arranged along the steel part. The device comprises a source of DC current with a rheostat or an autotransformer and an electromagnet. The electromagnet is installed on the steel part, with a coil in the form of a winding from current-conducting wire with insulation and ends of this wire, closed to poles of the source of DC current. The coil of the electromagnet is arranged on a crossbeam of the U-shaped magnetic conductor. The lower part of each stand of the magnetic conductor fully complies with the shape, volume and geometric dimensions of the inner space of the hole for the injector. The height of the lower part of magnetic conductor stands is equal to thickness of the steel part. The distance between centres of cross sections of the electromagnet magnetic conductor stands is equal to double distance between centres of holes for injectors.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase quality of sealing, to reduce power inputs and consumption of materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and environmental management, in particular to methods of waterproofing heap leach pads and waste deposits, in particular to the creation of screens of tailing dumps, sludge tanks, solid domestic waste landfills and bulk arrays preventing environmental pollution by toxic components and dusting as a result of infiltration and erosion processes. In the method of the preservation and isolation of anthropogenic deposits, which consists in preparing a waterproofing mixture containing polyethylene wastes, laying it on the surface of the storage area, application to the chilled surface of a drainage layer of a coarse material, preliminarily in screening the bulks on the surface of the array body the slope is created of 2-5° from the centre to the edges, after the creation of the said slope 0.2-0.4 m pugged clay and sealing are applied on the surface of the layer, laying of the waterproofing mixture to the prepared surface is carried out extrusively at a temperature of 180-200°C in bands with the width of 2-2.5 m with mutual 0.15-0.2 m overlapping, the said drainage layer is applied with the thickness of 0.1-0.15 m, and the waterproofing mixture as polyethylene wastes contains the polyethylene wastes of high and low pressure, and additionally - polyisobutylene and carbon black, with the following ratio of components, wt %: polyethylene wastes of high pressure 74-76, polyethylene wastes of low pressure 14-16, polyisobutylene 6-7, carbon black 3-4.
EFFECT: formation of the coating that prevents the infiltration of atmospheric waters and productive solutions from the bodies of piles, dumps, sludge tanks and solid domestic waste landfills, increase in the strength of the said coating.
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of a well, placement of a stretching tight shell in it and supply of sealing substance. The well is formed by driving a pipe with a plug at the end and a stretching tight shell on the outer surface into soil. The sealing substance is supplied into the specified shell via longitudinal slots made in the pipe. The device comprises a working organ and a facility of impact load application to it, comprising a pipe, where a rod is inserted as capable of longitudinal displacement in it and contact with the working element. The stretching tight shell is placed onto the pipe and fixed, and longitudinal slots are made underneath in the pipe. The working element is made in the form of a rod, forming a plug, with a cone-shaped tip at the end and inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The rod comprises an accessory to prevent fallout from the pipe, and its cone-shaped tip protrudes from the pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of a stretching tight shell into it, expansion of device capabilities for creation of a pile with a support in a base.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to produce cracks in clayey waterlogged soils includes drilling of wells, formation of cracks by injection of cracking material into a well, and tamping of wellheads. At the same time burnt lime of grade 1 and 2 is used for cracking. Wells are filled with lime in layers with subsequent ramming and compaction of each layer.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of formation of stable and resistant cracks in waterlogged clayey soils around a well in radial direction.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises well drilling, cracking by injection into the well of crack-forming material, plugging of hole mouth. Meanwhile the well cross-section is transformed from cylindrical into square, and then layer by layer the well is filled with quicklime with compaction and sealing of each layer. Into the formed cracks in a radial direction from angles of square cross-section well and by means of injector the strengthening solution is injected. The method allows to obtain stable cracks in a radial direction from angles of well square, that results in increase of strengthening volume. Due to wedging action of lime slaking and the stress concentrations the cleavage cracks are formed, the length of which amounts 2-3 lengths of the side of square well, and the width 5-15 mm. At the expense of increase of parameters of cracks in a radial direction from angles of square section well with the subsequent injection of strengthening solution the physico-mechanical properties of the ground are improved, as far as the infilling of all formed cracks results in ground strengthening, that improves bearing capacity of clay saturated soils. Besides the given method allows to work with small-sized and minimum quantity of machinery in any conditions of building.
EFFECT: increase of bearing capacity of clay water-saturated soils.
SUBSTANCE: when creating an anti-filtration screen of a hydraulic structure for storage of industrial wastes, for instance, a sludge reservoir, layers of the screen on the base of the sludge reservoir are formed using a suspension of industrial wastes, containing finely dispersed particles, with compaction of layers. The base of the sludge reservoir is made from clay or loam, compacted, the compacted layer is poured with a water suspension of finely dispersed dust of gas treatment from electrothermal production of silicon and/or siliceous ferroalloys with the solid to liquid ratio within 3÷10:1. The suspension is maintained until absorption into the layer of the sludge reservoir base. The clay or loam layer is laid on top and compacted. The water suspension is poured in the amount of 50-100 l/m2.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to prevent contamination of soil layer adjacent to storages due to reduction of coefficient of filtration of insulating material, to recycle anthropogenic wastes in the form of a finely dispersed dust of gas treatment of electrically thermal production of silicon or siliceous ferroalloys.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention increases tensile and compression strength of priming coats, as well as water-resistance thereof while reducing binder consumption to 0.003-0.012 wt %. The effect is achieved by using cation-active imidazoline and polyacrylic acid in the composition, which form an insoluble polyelectrolyte interpolymer complex during chemical reaction.
EFFECT: invention relates to a method of producing a stable structural composition based on a priming mixture of clay and sand as natural filler and can be used for industrial purposes for producing moulding agents, accelerated hardening of priming coats and endowing priming coats with hydrophobic properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to strengthening of soils. In the method of soil strengthening in the area to be strengthened, a compacting agent is supplied from a loading reservoir into soil with a mixing facility located in a device for supply of the compacting agent. The device for supply of the compacting agent is located in connection with a transfer facility, and a facility for mixing for a compacting agent located on the device for supply of the compacting agent, is moved by the transfer facility at choice to any point in the zone, which must be strengthened, in vertical direction (y), horizontal direction (x) and/or in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane stretching via the specified vertical direction and horizontal direction. A support bridge included into the transfer facility is located for passage via the area, which must be strengthened, and in connection with the support bridge the first transfer elements are located for movement of the facility for mixing of the compacting agent in vertical direction (y) and/or horizontal direction (x), and the transfer facility comprises the second transfer elements and the support bridge, and the device for supply of the compacting agent with the facility for mixing is moved by the second transfer elements in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane passing via the specified vertical direction (y) and horizontal direction (x), and providing both ends of the support bridge by the second transfer facilities to maintain the support bridge on the material of the support and/or the soil of the base, as a result of which the distance (A) between the second transfer facilities is adjusted for compliance with the width of the area to be strengthened, in longitudinal direction of the support bridge.
EFFECT: increased stabilisation of soil strengthening, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in production of works for soil strengthening.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of protection of karst occurrence comprises drilling wells in the area of karst formation and injection of reinforcing material. While injecting the reinforcing material in the form of a polymer-mineral composition in the rock mass of the area of karst formation two layers are created: the lower insulating-stabilising layer which prevents access of water to the karst at the depth of occurrence of karst rocks and stabilising the situation at the stage of karst formation, located within the boundaries of the sliding wedge, and the upper bearing layer serving as a bearing local layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer. Drilling wells is carried out sequentially - first inclined well is drilled to the upper transition zone of the geological horizon exposed to karst formation, the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 10 meters is pumped, which forms a lower insulating-stabilising layer, then the inclined well is drilled to contact with the upper boundary of groundwater, and the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 5 meters is pumped, which forms the upper bearing layer. Then the control vertical well is drilled to contact with the upper bearing and the lower insulating-stabilising layer. The core-sample is raised from each layer to check the presence of the polymer-mineral composition. Between the bearing and the insulating-stabilising layers in the rock mass the channel of flow of groundwater from the water collection area to the discharge area is formed, preserving the natural hydrogeological mode in the rock water-bearing mass of the karst formation area.
EFFECT: increase in protective properties of rocks with karst occurrence, improvement of physical and chemical and bearing properties of the soil, increase in the strength properties of the soil, reduction of the possibility of landslides occurrence.
SUBSTANCE: first, size and depth of a karst formation under a building foundation is determined; then, the first type of wells is formed along the building perimeter at least in one row; injectors are introduced to each of the above wells and a hardening solution is injected into well walls. Wells are formed so that at injection between adjacent wells in the row there can be formed intersecting zones of compacted soil; in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located around a karst formation caving zone, there formed are at least two rows of wells of the second type, which are located in an arch periphery line, into which there also pumped is a hardening solution by means of injectors, so that wall-shaped structures are formed by means of the hardening solution throughout the height of the karst formation out of intersecting solid elements that are flat as to vertical direction. Then, in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located above dome-shaped arch of the karst formation caving zone, there formed is the third type of wells located along the imagined surface of the dome-shaped arch of the karst formation and going beyond the perimeter of the zone enveloped with wells of the second type, to which there also pumped is the hardening solution by means of injectors, so that a dome-shaped massif of at least one layer of intersecting flat-parallel elements is formed above the karst formation with formation of compacted geomassif above the dome-shaped massif. After that, at least one well of the fourth type is formed with its opening to the cavity of the karst formation, which is filled with the hardening solution, with formation in the cavity of the karst formation of a volumetric elements; at availability of suffusion processes in the karst formation, to the karst formation cavity there added is at least one flexible envelope, to which the hardening solution is pumped, after hardening of which the soil is additionally compacted above layers of flat-parallel elements of the dome-shaped massif by pumping of the hardening solution in a downward or upward direction to cracks and cavities formed during formation of a dome-shaped arch out of flat-parallel elements. Cement mortar and/or raw mix containing a siliceous component, a gas-forming agent and a mixing agent is used as a hardening solution.
EFFECT: improving reliability of reinforced geomassif; reducing labour input and material consumption at its formation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for production of concrete contains, wt %: Portland cement 18-28; fine aggregate 29.9-38.5; plasticizing agent 0.1-1.5; water 12-26; used calculators crushed and sieved through the mesh No. 5 with previously extracted from them storage batteries 16-30.
EFFECT: safe disposal of the used calculators, while maintaining the strength characteristics of concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an admixture for a cementitious composition comprising microfibrillar cellulose and/or a derivative thereof. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing said admixture and to the use of the microfibrillar cellulose and/or a derivative thereof in the concrete admixture. The invention further relates to a cementitious composition comprising said admixture and methods of manufacture and use thereof. A cement admixture, wherein the admixture comprises microfibrillar cellulose; and/or a derivative thereof; and/or labile chemically modified cellulose pulp or cellulose raw material which forms microfibrillar cellulose during the use of the admixture; and optionally water, wherein the microfibrillar cellulose is obtained from raw material comprising plant material. A method of manufacturing a cement admixture comprising providing microfibrillar cellulose and/or a derivative thereof, mixing together said microfibrillar cellulose and/or a derivative thereof, and optionally water, adding at least one plasticiser and/or dispersing agent prior to, during or after providing microfibrillar cellulose to obtain said admixture. The invention is expanded in dependent claims.
EFFECT: paste thixotrophy is increased, water bleeding diminished and concrete durability properties are increased.
22 cl, 16 dwg, 7 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to piping, namely, to materials applied onto the outer surface of pipes as a protective weighting coating. In the method to manufacture a protective weighting concrete coating of a pipeline, including mixing of cement, filler, plasticising additive and water, injection of the produced mix into the annular space created by the outer surface of the pipeline and a leave-in-place form installed on it with a gap, hardening of the produced coating, portland cement is supplied for mixing with account of its content in the mix from 8.8 wt % to 20.0 wt %, water is introduced in terms of water to cement ratio from 0.31 to 0.63, plasticising additive supplied for mixing is a plasticising agent and a defoaming agent in the amount of 1.0 kg/m3 to 3.0 kg/m3, the filler supplied for mixing with grain size not exceeding 10 mm is selected from barite or iron-containing ore, or gabbrodiabase, or granite in the mixture or separately, at the same time components are mixed to produce a mix having a flow index measured by flow equal to 55 - 75 cm, and the index of air content from 1% to 4% of the volume. The invention is developed in invention claims.
EFFECT: provision of density of a protective concrete material within 2600 - 3400 kg/m3.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite material contains cement, filler, water and additionally a filler. At the same time the filler is barite ore with particle size from 0.01 to 160 mcm, filler - wood chips with particle size from 0.5 to 20 mm at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 17-25, barite ore - 35-56, wood chips - 6-12, water - 20-30.
EFFECT: increased strength, reduced coefficient of heat conductivity, density.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hydraulically setting mixture containing, wt %: a) 6-25 cement, b) 50-90 of at least one aggregate, wherein the maximum grain size ranges from 8 mm to 63 mm and/or sand with grain size of 5 mm, and c) 0.001-8 of at least one fluoroorganyl-substituted silicon compound, wherein the fluoroorganyl-substituted silicon compound is 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyltrimethoxysilane which is in solid granular form on an inorganic material used as a substrate. The invention also relates to a method of producing the mixture and use of the mixture to produce structural materials.
EFFECT: obtaining structural materials with a surface having dirt-repellent properties and which is easy to clean for a long time.
11 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to dry concrete or mortar composition, containing porous granules and to concrete or mortar, manufactured from said composition. Dry concrete or mortar composition, containing particles-cores, to the surfaces of which particle of hydraulic binding substance are fixed, and separate particles of hydraulic binding substance, particles-cores consist of inert or pozzolanic material and together with binding substance attached to them form porous granules, which, in their turn, are fixed to the surface of dry filling agent. Concrete or mortar, manufactured from said dry composition, mixed with water, is described. Invention is developed in dependent items of the invention formula.
EFFECT: increase of strength and fire resistance of concrete, obtained from claimed dry composition.
25 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a hydraulic composition which includes: at least one hydraulic binder, at least one first plasticising additive which includes at least one phosphonic-amino-alkylene group, at least one second plasticising additive which includes at least one polymer with a comb-like structure, wherein the weight concentration off the dry residue of the second additive is 25-100% of the weight concentration of the dry residue of the first additive. The invention also relates to concrete which includes said hydraulic composition and the composition of a diluting mixture for said hydraulic composition. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: low viscosity of the hydraulic binder-based composition over the processability duration of the composition.
10 cl, 6 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powders for obtaining a self-levelling freshly-prepared concrete mixture. The powder contains, wt %: from 94% to 99% of particles of at least one fire-proof material, whose main component is represented by aluminium oxide and/or zirconium dioxide, and/or silicon dioxide; from 1% to 6% of hydraulic cement; from 0 to 0.03% of organic fibres; optionally from 0.075% to 1%, preferably from 0.1% to 1% of a surface-active substance; and optionally a setting accelerator, with the fraction of particles, possessing the size less than 40 mcm, being distributed relative to the powder mass in the following way, wt %: fraction <0.5 mcm - ≥4%, fraction <2 mcm - ≥5%, fraction <10 mcm - ≥16%, fraction <40 mcm - 29-45%, and a part of zirconium dioxide in the fraction of particles with the size less than 10 mcm, called "fine fractions", is in the range from 35 wt % to 75 wt % relative to the total weight of the said fraction.
EFFECT: improvement of the concrete mixture self-levelling.
24 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building equipment and can be applied in the production of concrete products for the improvement of their basic physical-chemical properties. The complex additive for concrete mixtures and mortars contains a superplasticiser C-3, a mixture of Iceland spar, aluminium sulphate and fine-grained pyrite in a ratio, wt %: superplasticiser C3 10-30, Iceland spar 50-80, aluminium sulphate 5-7.5, fine-grained pyrite 5-7.51.
EFFECT: improvement of basic properties of concrete: increase of strength and reduction of moisture permeability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for concrete production, which contains cement, a fine filler, a plasticising additive and water, additionally contains milled and sieved through net No. 10 mobile phone waste with preliminarily extracted accumulators with the following component ratio, wt %: cement 24-36; fine filler 12.7-17.9; plasticising additive 0.1-1.5; water 18-36; milled and sieved through net No. 10 mobile phone waste with preliminarily extracted accumulators 10-40.
EFFECT: safe utilisation of mobile phones.
SUBSTANCE: dry construction mixture comprises portland cement, silica sand with fineness module equal to 0.95-1.1 and filler. What is new is that it contains the ferric hydrate cake as the filler - non-ferrous metal waste, ground to the fineness module of 0.90-0.95, at the following ratio of components, wt %: Portland cement 25-27, the mentioned ferrous hydrate cake 20-30; the mentioned quartz sand - the rest.
EFFECT: increase of water-holding capacity, improved heat engineering indexes by reducing the density, increased strength, application of cakes in dry construction mixtures expands the range of raw materials, saves natural resources, required for manufacture of building lime, improved environmental situation by reducing the emission of industrial wastes into the environment.