Method of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of drainage and discharge water and can be used in irrigation farming when designing hydro-reclamation systems with a closed water circulation cycle. The method of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation includes removing mechanical impurities, organic substances, heavy metal ions and excess salts. The first step includes removing mechanical impurities and organic substances by treatment in a separator. The second step includes removing heavy metal ions and excess salts in a filter well, having filter elements based on coal production wastes, having a cylindrical shape with a cavity inside which is filled with a rice husk-based sorbent placed in pouches made of basalt fabric.
EFFECT: invention improves the quality of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation, widens the range of using drainage and discharge water having various chemical composition, and simplifies the process of mounting filter elements.
The invention relates to cleaning of drainage and waste waters from pollution and regulation of its quality in accordance with regulatory requirements and can be used in irrigated agriculture in the creation of irrigation systems with a closed loop water cycle.
The known method of preparation of drainage water, which is a system for regulating the quality of collector-drainage waters [Ed. St. USSR №1074836, MKI C02F 3/32], including: advancemenu, block physico-chemical regulation, block biochemical regulation in the form of a trench with the higher water vegetation and filtration-overflow dam, dividing it into two sections, the bottom level which is made decreasing in the direction of water movement, and having a layer of soil with herbs, weirs-aerators, and a discharge pipeline in the form of several branches with outlet pipes and valves, padded through the weirs-aerators and the connecting block physicochemical regulation of the storage of treated drainage water the system includes a conditioning unit of purified water and processing unit for making chemical ameliorants, wherein the conditioning unit through weirs-aerators on one side is paired with a unit of biochemical regulation and the drive peeled� drainage waters.
The disadvantages of this method include low efficiency of water treatment process on the initial (spring) and end (fall) of the annual phases of the development of higher aquatic vegetation, low efficiency of aeration of the purified water flow through weirs-aerators compared to the supply air directly into the water column, the lack of care for the higher water vegetation for the recovery and recycling of residues of higher aquatic vegetation after the completion of the annual cycle of the facilities, the lack of water quality control in the cleaning process.
Known structure for cleaning of drainage and wastewater [RU P # 2062634 C1, IPC6 B01D 36/04 dated 27.06.1996], comprising sequentially installed sumps and sorption filters, which is located on the route of the drainage channel, the filters are in the form of wells defined therein a removable mesh containers filled with sorbent, while the level of the top of the wells is located at the bottom of the channel.
The disadvantages of this structure should include the uneven distribution of the load on the sorption filters and, consequently, low efficiency of water treatment as a result of the location of the top face (plane) of the main group wells with filtration sorption filters, except for the last level of the bottom of the channel. This leads to separation of the flow of water within the buildings on the upper part, passing only through the final filter, the middle part, overcoming the hydraulic resistance of the main filter group, and the lower part, which is not cleared at all.
Also known filter trench (A. A. Kuptsova improving the quality of drainage water with natural sorbents: author. dis. Cand. tech. Sciences / Kuptsova Anastasia. - M., 1998. - 20 C. ) in the form of a channel with an impervious coating, divided into successive sections that are hydraulically interconnected by means of vertically mounted removable filter elements with granular sorbent.
The disadvantages of the filter of the trench, there is no regulation of the rate of water infiltration through the filter elements in connection with the known seasonal dynamics of urban drainage flow, uneven load flow according to the height of the filter elements, the second and subsequent sections of the trench portion of the filter above the water level in the section is not used.
The prototype of the claimed invention may be a method of purification of drainage flow and device for its implementation [RU P # 2401804 IPC C02F 1/28, B01D 25/02, B01D 36/06, EU 11/00, C02F 103/10 from 20.10.2010 Bulletin. No. 29]. The method comprises the sequential removal of mechanical approx�this, organic substances, heavy metals, and also of excess salts on the filter matrix, which contains the sorbents. Sorbents are in the filter matrix in the following sequence, depending on the size of the data: shell - 50%, glauconitic sand - 30%, clay - 20%.
The disadvantages of this method include the inability to regulate the rate of water infiltration through the filter elements, the uneven load flow according to the height of the filter elements.
The essence of the invention is to provide a method for the preparation of drainage and waste waters for the purpose of secondary use for irrigation of agricultural crops; reduction of anthropogenic impact in this category water on the environment.
The technical result - the method of preparation of the drainage and wastewater, including the removal of mechanical and organic impurities (in the first stage of cleaning), heavy metal ions the excess of salts (in the second stage of purification).
The technical result consists in the fact that in the proposed method used in the first stage of cleaning the separator and, consequently, the second filter well, which includes filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, manufactured according to known recipe (RU P # 249844 IPC B01D 39/06, B01D 20/02, C02F 1/00 dated 20.11.2013 Bulletin. No. 32), with FD�Moo cylinder with a cavity inside. The selected cavity is filled with a sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which in turn is poured into bags made of basalt fabric VATHI TBA-100 for easy replacement or regeneration of the spent sorbent.
The task is achieved in that in the method of preparation of drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops as a filter matrix used filter elements on the basis of waste coal production and instead of three sorbents use one sorbent is a sorbent on the basis of rice husk.
The method allows to increase the quality of preparation of drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops, and to expand the range of use in drainage and waste waters with different chemical composition, to simplify the process of assembling filter elements through the use of easy filter element.
The method is implemented in the following technological scheme: the separator, which will remove water from coarse mechanical impurities with the cleaning effect of 70-80%, and filter well, filled with filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, manufactured according to known recipe that has the shape of a cylinder with a cavity inside. The selected cavity is filled with a sorbent - sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which in its very�go to sleep in bags, made of basalt fabric VATHI TBA-100 for easy replacement or regeneration of the spent sorbent. The cleaning effect on heavy metals and salts can reach 85-90%.
Example. Fence drainage and waste waters, with a flow rate of 20 l/s is carried from the drain (overflow) network directly when applied to the irrigation of agricultural crops.
1. According to the proposed method of drainage of water with initial concentrations of suspended solids 10 mg/DM3initially fed to the separator, which removes 80% of suspended solids 2 mg/DM3and there is a partial loss of heavy metals and salts to 20% of the initial amount. Then water is fed to the filter wells in which the drainage water goes through the purification of suspended solids down to 99%, by salts of heavy metals - up to 95%, salts of hardness up to 91%.
2. According to the proposed method of waste water with initial concentrations of suspended solids 15 mg/ DM3initially fed to the separator, which removes 80% of suspended solids to 3 mg/DM3and there is a partial loss of heavy metals and salts to 20% of the initial amount. Then water is fed to the filter wells in which the drainage water goes through the purification of suspended solids down to 90%, salts of heavy metals - up to 95%, salts of hardness up to 90%.
The research results before and after training�of drainage and discharge of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crops is presented in table 1 (example 1). The research results before and after preparing wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crops are shown in table 2 (example 2).
A method of preparing drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops, including removal of mechanical impurities, organic substances, heavy metal ions and also excess salts, characterized in that the removal of solids and organic matter in the first stage by processing in the separator, heavy metal ions and excess salt in the second stage filter in the well, which includes filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, having the form of a cylinder with a cavity inside, which is filled with a sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which is poured into bags made of basalt fabric.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of household and industrial sewage water. The method of sewage water purification includes balancing a water flow and biological purification with active sludge. Initial sewage water is supplied through a self-cleaning filter device for straining, and mechanically purified sewage water is discharged into a balance tank and supplied into a tank of biological purification. Separation of purified water and active sludge is carried out by means of submergible membrane cassettes with membrane modules. Separation of permeate is realised by the action of a weak vacuum. Permeate is supplied into a pure water tank and further by a gravity flow to an installation of ultraviolet disinfection. Disinfected water is discharged into a water body. Continuous aeration of the membrane cassettes with membrane modules is realised by means of a group of membrane unit blast blowers. The membrane modules are periodically washed and alternated with relaxation modes. Also realised is the periodic prophylactic cleaning of the membrane cassettes and periodic restoring cleaning.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the quality of purified water discharges and provide the relaxation of applied devices.
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining drinking water includes intake of water from a natural source, purification from solid admixtures and processing by passing water through an apparatus, which represents a device, which has an external and an internal cylinder. Water from a supplying tube is passed through the central cavity of the device with a possibility of spiral twisting by countercurrent flows at a rate of 0.2-3.0 m/s and magnetisation. Water processing is carried out at a temperature of 5-25°C, with further realisation of flow-through magnetic processing in an apparatus, which represents a magnetic tube with a diameter of 5-20 cm, through which water flows at a rate of 0.2-3.0 m/s.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create water, which can be used for constant consumption by people without damage to health, as well as to reduce energy consumption, increase reliability, ecological compatibility and resource saving.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for reagentless purification and disinfection of water comprises two hydraulic cyclones 20, 21, a reactor tank 1 with an air-stripping tower 2, in the top part of which there are two ejectors 3, 4, mixing chambers of which are directed towards each other. Over the mixing chambers there is a cupola-shaped reflection shield 5, over which there is a filter cartridge 8. The reactor tank 1 is divided by two vertical perforated partition walls 9, 10 into two compartments. The first compartment 12 of the reactor tank 1 contains a settling tank 15 linked to a drainage system. The second compartment 13 of the reactor tank 1 is equipped with upper 17 and lower 18 water level sensors. The outlet of the reactor tank 1 is connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and a pipe for feeding water to the consumer. The hydraulic cyclones 20, 21 are connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and the drainage system, and through mesh filters 22, 23 to inlets of receiving chambers of the ejectors 3, 4.
EFFECT: invention increases the water/air contact area and provides further dispersion, cavitation, agitation, aeration and degassing of the treated water.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: recycling water system for auto washing comprises technological equipment associated with a system of pipelines with a waste-water purifying apparatus, and includes a storage tank 47, into which waste water flows by gravity, a pump 48 for supplying water from the storage tank 47 into ta reactor 49, a compressor 52 for mixing a medium in the reactor 49, a metering pump 51 of a working solution of a coagulant, a flotation plant 54, a storage tank 59 for collecting the purified water after the flotation plant 54, course 61 and fine 66 mesh filters, a storage tank 63 for collecting the purified water after course mesh filters, a diaphragm pump 55 and a receiving tank of sludge 56.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of waste-water treatment and the overall system performance.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: flotation-filtration plant comprises an intake filter 1, a suction pipeline 2, a check valve 8, a pump unit 3, an ejector 4 connected to a bypass pipeline 5 and installed at the inlet of the pump unit 3, a flotation cell 22 with a filter 29 and a layer of filtering bed 30. A protective grid is installed at the inlet of the ejector 4. The ejector 4 is connected to a two-stage saturator 15, 16. The second saturator stage through the check valve is connected to a distribution manifold 21 by nozzles 20 which are set in the upper part of the flotation cell 22 with the latter comprising a scraper unit 25, a tray 26 and an overflow tube connected to the upper part of the filter while the filter is fitted with a layer of adsorbing filtering bed which is held by a supporting frame 31 and a pressing frame 32. An adsorbent is made as a cylindrical ring with two hemispherical surfaces being fixed on the side surface of the adsorbent opposite each other so that diametral planes of the hemispheres coincide with the upper and lower bases of the cylindrical ring respectively and the vertices of the hemispherical surfaces are turned to each other.
EFFECT: invention allows for improvement of waste water treatment efficiency up to the level providing for multiple reuse of the said water.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment plants. Proposed BBC plant comprises prefiltering unit 1, primary cleaning unit 2, decontamination unit and control unit. Additionally, this plant comprises water accumulator connected with prefiltering unit and water feed unit connected with primary cleaning unit and decontamination unit. Said primary cleaning unit 2 is composed by nanofiltration and hyperfiltration devices.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of filtration.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment plant to be deployed in situ. Proposed system comprises several modules interconnected by water lines. Said modules include at least one water filter, at least one water pump connected therewith, motor and ICE. Note here that said modules include filter module, two pump drive modules composed by said motor and said ICE. Pump allow selection of its drive by engagement with either said motor or ICE. Note here that said motor and ICE can be alternatively engaged with said pump and pump feed line. Flexibility and compact lightweight design are optimised by pump component to be mounted using standard fittings in alternative modules of primary propulsors which allow accommodate and feed the pump.
EFFECT: ease of transportation, installation and operation for production of purified drinking water from whatever water sources.
16 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological water treatment and may be used for domestic and industrial effluents cleaning of dissolved and suspended organic substances including those in pools with wide range of effluents level variation. Proposed complex comprises tank connected with pontoon 5, 6, modules 9 of water thin-layer settling and treatment, suction pipeline 17, pump 18 and pressure pipeline 20. Said tank is composed of separate units 1, 2, 3, 4 interconnected to make a top overflow 14. Every said unit can make, at least, one bottom overflow. Said units accommodate modules for aerobic of anaerobic treatment furnished with carriers 11, 10 for immobilisation of microorganisms. Said complex is equipped with, at least, one heating system 13 and covers 23.
EFFECT: complex treatment of domestic and industrial effluents cleaning of dissolved and suspended organic substances including those in pools with wide range of effluents level variation.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment intended for storm flows cleaning of oil products and suspended substances and can be used for cleaning storm flows and industrial effluents. Proposed device comprises settling zone, coalescence zone, two-level cylindrical mechanical filter with major working surface of oleophilic sorption material, floating bed filter and sorption filter with activated charcoal. Settling zone is equipped with oil products collector comprising oil product withdrawal pipeline, flow distributor and inclined baffle for concentration of oil product film in oil product withdrawal container. Coalescence zone is provided with oil product film collection tray wherefrom said film is forced into settling zone by pump. Two mechanical quartz-sand-filled filters are located downstream of coalescence zone. Purified water is discharged from sorption filter with activated charcoal from its top section.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in domestic water supply as well as in treatment of natural, surface and underground water from suspended material. Coagulant is actively mixed in a stream of water, a flocculant is then added and mixed. The stream of water with the added flocculant is fed into a flocculation chamber with rotary motion of the water, said chamber being fitted with inserts in form of a wing section. Further, the stream of water is fed into the coagulation chamber of a settling tank. A portion of the residue formed in the coagulation chamber of the settling tank is recycled into the flocculation chamber at the same time as the flocculant.
EFFECT: invention increases the degree of purity of water, reduces reactant consumption by recycling a portion of the residue and increases the rate of coagulation of astabilised particles which takes place in both the flocculation chamber and the coagulation chamber of the settling tank.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment plant of a combined heat and power plant includes water pre-cleaning unit I, reverse osmosis unit II, ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation and a unit for obtaining chemically treated make-up water IV for a heat network. The first deaerator 8 is connected to high-pressure steam boiler 9. Water pre-cleaning unit I includes in-series connected clarifier 2, coagulated water tank 3, mechanical filter 4, as well as washing solution tank 20. Reverse osmosis unit II includes reverse osmosis plant 5. Ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation includes in-series connected filter 6 for H-ionisation and filter 7 for OH-ionisation, as well as neutralising tank 17. Unit IV for obtaining chemically treated make-up water for the heat network includes in-series connected tank 18 for chemically cleaned water and the second deaerator 25. Clarifier 2 is connected to FeCl3 solution tank 27 and to NaOH solution tank 28.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing consumption of reagents and salt content of chemically treated water, as well as simplifying a process flow diagram.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents and use thereof. The sorbent for antimony anions comprises particles or granules of zirconium oxide and has a distribution coefficient for the antimony anions of at least 10000 ml/g at a pH in the range of 2 to 10. The sorbent comprises particles with an average particle size in the range of about 10 nm to 100 um and having a flow rate of 100 to 10000 bed volumes per hour; the granules with an average size of 0.1 to 2 mm and having a flow rate of 10 to 50 bed volumes per hour. Also claimed is a method for the novel sorbent preparation and a method for antimony and, potentially, technetium removal from aqueous solutions, specifically from nuclear waste effluents. The distribution coefficient is high, which makes the material suitable for industrial application.
EFFECT: preparation process is straightforward and the sorbent can be produced from readily available materials at moderate conditions.
20 cl, 5 dwg, 5 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Proposed process comprises combining of heated gas and effluents to the make the mix thereof, separating of said effluents into drops to increase the area of interface between effluents and heated gas for accelerated heat and mass transfer between drops of said effluents and heated gas. Then, heat is transferred from heated gas to effluents for their partial evaporation, portion of effluents drops are removed from said mix for making of gas without fluid and concentrated fluid, and separation of suspended solids from concentrated fluid. Fluid concentration system comprises the concentrator unit. Note here that said concenytrator comprises gas inlet, gas outlet and mixing channel arranged there between. Note also that said mixing channel has contracted section for gas flow to up its rate at flowing from said inlet to said outlet. This system comprises fluid inlet pipe for liquid to be concentrated to be injected into mixing channel. Note here that said pipe is arranged in mixing channel between gas inlet and contracted section. Fog catcher is arranged downstream of concentrator unit and includes gas passage connected to gas outlet and including fluid collector to remove fluid from gas in fog catcher gas passage, and removed fluid connection vessel. Blower is connected to fog catcher to create gas flow to be forced to mixing channel and gas passage.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.
27 cl, 2 tbl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water using catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The invention relates to a method wherein part of feed water is heated by a reforming product and the other part of feed water is heated by gaseous combustion products before feeding the feed water into a deaerator. Water contained in the gaseous combustion products is condensed to obtain a product in the form of liquid water. The present method can be combined with a water thermal treatment process.
EFFECT: easier extraction of water from gaseous combustion products, availability of low-grade heat of the reforming product stream for the water thermal treatment process.
19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water from hexavalent chromium compounds includes reaction thereof with an iron-containing dispersant with simultaneous exposure to a magnetic field generated by an electromagnet to obtain an insoluble precipitate. The iron-containing dispersant used is ground iron or steel chips. Exposure is carried out using a controlled magnetic field, the direction of the intensity vector of which is varied by periodically changing the polarity of current in the electromagnet windings, and the intensity value is controlled by varying the value of current in the windings. A chromium hydroxide Cr(OH)3 precipitate is obtained by neutralising the unreacted mixture with an alkali.
EFFECT: high degree of purity of waste water while cutting the duration of the process, easy implementation and high efficiency of the method.
1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Treatment of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises the fed of water flow portion to aerator, to distiller and /or evaporator and therefrom to said aerator again. Note here that process gas is fed to said aerator to produce gaseous flow to be fed to the plant for production of synthesis gas.
EFFECT: possibility to use at least a portion of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor as a process water for production of synthesis gas.
14 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic water activation installation comprises a chamber filled with water and equipped by electrodes, a cover with a channel for water supply. The chamber is limited by a recess in the piston bottom, cylinder walls and the cover with a channel for water supply, a plug with an insulated positive electrode is screwed into the cover, a cylindrical electrically insulated spring-damper is installed between the bottom part of the cylinder additionally serving as a negative electrode and the piston, the lateral part of the cylinder is fitted by a hole to discharge water after electrohydraulic impact in the water-filled chamber from a corona discharge between the electrodes at switching on of a high-frequency generator of primary pulses.
EFFECT: improvement of electrohydraulic water activation efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.
2 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in gas and oil production industry for associated crude iodine production from iodine-lean confined groundwater. The method is implemented by a sequence of electrochemical iodide ion oxidation, molecular iodine sorption on carbon, electrochemical reduction of iodine to iodides, and desorption. All stages are performed in the same chemical reactor represented by a sorption column. Activated carbon with minimum iodine adsorption capacity of 1,000 mg/g is used as a sorbent. Graphite electrode at the column bottom is used as an anode, copper cathode in the form of plate at the column top is used as cathode. After the carbon is saturated with iodine, electrode polarity is reversed to desorb iodine from carbon in the form of iodide ions. Confined groundwater, including one with low iodine content, is used as iodine source.
EFFECT: enhanced iodine production efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for protection against contaminants introduced by gravity draining at steam pumping and/or those peculiar thereto. This system is used at the plant based on gravity draining at steam pumping for production of heavy oil. This control system allows the simultaneous control over silicon dioxide, hardness and oil contamination existing in evaporator feed water.
EFFECT: ruled out heat exchange surface fouling, higher reliability.
9 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment device comprises a hydrocyclone with feeding and drain branch pipes, an input, output and washing pipelines with appropriate branch pipes and gate valves, treatment wastes gathering tank with quick-detachable lid and pipeline valve, pipes filter installed in the inner part of the hydrocyclone, its lower end is dead and a corrosion-resistant flanged drain branch pipe is threaded to the upper end, and is flange-mounted to the outlet branch pipe of the hydrocyclone. The device is additionally equipped with tank connecting the output and washing pipelines. The washing pipeline is equipped with washing pump, thus permitting periodic change of the operation mode. The outlet hole of the feeding branch pipe in the hydrocyclone is made as a segment with the arc length l ≈ 1.55d, where d is diameter of the inlet hole of the feeding branch pipe in the hydrocyclone and is set at the angle of φ = arctg0.32(0.12÷0.4) to the perpendicular of the hycrocyclone axis. Flooding of the pipe filter and installed on it drainage branch pipe is performed to interface plane of the cylindrical and cone parts of the hydrocyclone.
EFFECT: intensification of the water treatment process, increased time between washings of the pipe filter, increased quality of the pipe filter washing.
3 dwg, 1 tbl