Method of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of drainage and discharge water and can be used in irrigation farming when designing hydro-reclamation systems with a closed water circulation cycle. The method of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation includes removing mechanical impurities, organic substances, heavy metal ions and excess salts. The first step includes removing mechanical impurities and organic substances by treatment in a separator. The second step includes removing heavy metal ions and excess salts in a filter well, having filter elements based on coal production wastes, having a cylindrical shape with a cavity inside which is filled with a rice husk-based sorbent placed in pouches made of basalt fabric.

EFFECT: invention improves the quality of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation, widens the range of using drainage and discharge water having various chemical composition, and simplifies the process of mounting filter elements.

2 tbl

 

The invention relates to cleaning of drainage and waste waters from pollution and regulation of its quality in accordance with regulatory requirements and can be used in irrigated agriculture in the creation of irrigation systems with a closed loop water cycle.

The known method of preparation of drainage water, which is a system for regulating the quality of collector-drainage waters [Ed. St. USSR №1074836, MKI C02F 3/32], including: advancemenu, block physico-chemical regulation, block biochemical regulation in the form of a trench with the higher water vegetation and filtration-overflow dam, dividing it into two sections, the bottom level which is made decreasing in the direction of water movement, and having a layer of soil with herbs, weirs-aerators, and a discharge pipeline in the form of several branches with outlet pipes and valves, padded through the weirs-aerators and the connecting block physicochemical regulation of the storage of treated drainage water the system includes a conditioning unit of purified water and processing unit for making chemical ameliorants, wherein the conditioning unit through weirs-aerators on one side is paired with a unit of biochemical regulation and the drive peeled� drainage waters.

The disadvantages of this method include low efficiency of water treatment process on the initial (spring) and end (fall) of the annual phases of the development of higher aquatic vegetation, low efficiency of aeration of the purified water flow through weirs-aerators compared to the supply air directly into the water column, the lack of care for the higher water vegetation for the recovery and recycling of residues of higher aquatic vegetation after the completion of the annual cycle of the facilities, the lack of water quality control in the cleaning process.

Known structure for cleaning of drainage and wastewater [RU P # 2062634 C1, IPC6 B01D 36/04 dated 27.06.1996], comprising sequentially installed sumps and sorption filters, which is located on the route of the drainage channel, the filters are in the form of wells defined therein a removable mesh containers filled with sorbent, while the level of the top of the wells is located at the bottom of the channel.

The disadvantages of this structure should include the uneven distribution of the load on the sorption filters and, consequently, low efficiency of water treatment as a result of the location of the top face (plane) of the main group wells with filtration sorption filters, except for the last level of the bottom of the channel. This leads to separation of the flow of water within the buildings on the upper part, passing only through the final filter, the middle part, overcoming the hydraulic resistance of the main filter group, and the lower part, which is not cleared at all.

Also known filter trench (A. A. Kuptsova improving the quality of drainage water with natural sorbents: author. dis. Cand. tech. Sciences / Kuptsova Anastasia. - M., 1998. - 20 C. ) in the form of a channel with an impervious coating, divided into successive sections that are hydraulically interconnected by means of vertically mounted removable filter elements with granular sorbent.

The disadvantages of the filter of the trench, there is no regulation of the rate of water infiltration through the filter elements in connection with the known seasonal dynamics of urban drainage flow, uneven load flow according to the height of the filter elements, the second and subsequent sections of the trench portion of the filter above the water level in the section is not used.

The prototype of the claimed invention may be a method of purification of drainage flow and device for its implementation [RU P # 2401804 IPC C02F 1/28, B01D 25/02, B01D 36/06, EU 11/00, C02F 103/10 from 20.10.2010 Bulletin. No. 29]. The method comprises the sequential removal of mechanical approx�this, organic substances, heavy metals, and also of excess salts on the filter matrix, which contains the sorbents. Sorbents are in the filter matrix in the following sequence, depending on the size of the data: shell - 50%, glauconitic sand - 30%, clay - 20%.

The disadvantages of this method include the inability to regulate the rate of water infiltration through the filter elements, the uneven load flow according to the height of the filter elements.

The essence of the invention is to provide a method for the preparation of drainage and waste waters for the purpose of secondary use for irrigation of agricultural crops; reduction of anthropogenic impact in this category water on the environment.

The technical result - the method of preparation of the drainage and wastewater, including the removal of mechanical and organic impurities (in the first stage of cleaning), heavy metal ions the excess of salts (in the second stage of purification).

The technical result consists in the fact that in the proposed method used in the first stage of cleaning the separator and, consequently, the second filter well, which includes filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, manufactured according to known recipe (RU P # 249844 IPC B01D 39/06, B01D 20/02, C02F 1/00 dated 20.11.2013 Bulletin. No. 32), with FD�Moo cylinder with a cavity inside. The selected cavity is filled with a sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which in turn is poured into bags made of basalt fabric VATHI TBA-100 for easy replacement or regeneration of the spent sorbent.

The task is achieved in that in the method of preparation of drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops as a filter matrix used filter elements on the basis of waste coal production and instead of three sorbents use one sorbent is a sorbent on the basis of rice husk.

The method allows to increase the quality of preparation of drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops, and to expand the range of use in drainage and waste waters with different chemical composition, to simplify the process of assembling filter elements through the use of easy filter element.

The method is implemented in the following technological scheme: the separator, which will remove water from coarse mechanical impurities with the cleaning effect of 70-80%, and filter well, filled with filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, manufactured according to known recipe that has the shape of a cylinder with a cavity inside. The selected cavity is filled with a sorbent - sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which in its very�go to sleep in bags, made of basalt fabric VATHI TBA-100 for easy replacement or regeneration of the spent sorbent. The cleaning effect on heavy metals and salts can reach 85-90%.

Example. Fence drainage and waste waters, with a flow rate of 20 l/s is carried from the drain (overflow) network directly when applied to the irrigation of agricultural crops.

1. According to the proposed method of drainage of water with initial concentrations of suspended solids 10 mg/DM3initially fed to the separator, which removes 80% of suspended solids 2 mg/DM3and there is a partial loss of heavy metals and salts to 20% of the initial amount. Then water is fed to the filter wells in which the drainage water goes through the purification of suspended solids down to 99%, by salts of heavy metals - up to 95%, salts of hardness up to 91%.

2. According to the proposed method of waste water with initial concentrations of suspended solids 15 mg/ DM3initially fed to the separator, which removes 80% of suspended solids to 3 mg/DM3and there is a partial loss of heavy metals and salts to 20% of the initial amount. Then water is fed to the filter wells in which the drainage water goes through the purification of suspended solids down to 90%, salts of heavy metals - up to 95%, salts of hardness up to 90%.

The research results before and after training�of drainage and discharge of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crops is presented in table 1 (example 1). The research results before and after preparing wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crops are shown in table 2 (example 2).

A method of preparing drainage and waste waters for irrigation of agricultural crops, including removal of mechanical impurities, organic substances, heavy metal ions and also excess salts, characterized in that the removal of solids and organic matter in the first stage by processing in the separator, heavy metal ions and excess salt in the second stage filter in the well, which includes filter elements on the basis of waste coal production, having the form of a cylinder with a cavity inside, which is filled with a sorbent on the basis of rice husk, which is poured into bags made of basalt fabric.



 

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