Water treatment plant of combined heat and power plant
SUBSTANCE: water treatment plant of a combined heat and power plant includes water pre-cleaning unit I, reverse osmosis unit II, ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation and a unit for obtaining chemically treated make-up water IV for a heat network. The first deaerator 8 is connected to high-pressure steam boiler 9. Water pre-cleaning unit I includes in-series connected clarifier 2, coagulated water tank 3, mechanical filter 4, as well as washing solution tank 20. Reverse osmosis unit II includes reverse osmosis plant 5. Ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation includes in-series connected filter 6 for H-ionisation and filter 7 for OH-ionisation, as well as neutralising tank 17. Unit IV for obtaining chemically treated make-up water for the heat network includes in-series connected tank 18 for chemically cleaned water and the second deaerator 25. Clarifier 2 is connected to FeCl3 solution tank 27 and to NaOH solution tank 28.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing consumption of reagents and salt content of chemically treated water, as well as simplifying a process flow diagram.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the field of thermal and industrial power engineering and can be used to provide consumers with chemically purified and chemically demineralized water.
Known system of training of additional water systems for heat, contains consistently included the installation of pre-treatment of water with clarified water line, installation of ro water with the lines of the permeate and concentrate and dosing node in the clarified water antiscalant. The system further comprises a bypass in relation to the installation of ro water clarified water line connected to the permeate line and the node of decarbonization in the permeate line with line decarbonizing permeate. On line concentrate the installation of a reverse osmosis desalination placed electrodialysis unit (EDU) with bipolar membranes with the withdrawal line of acid solution in the permeate line to the node of decarbonization, the withdrawal line of the alkaline solution in the permeate line after the node of decarbonization and the withdrawal line diluate  - equivalent. The disadvantage of this system is the poor quality of chemically treated water, which this system may only be used for water treatment for heating systems (Stiffness permeate the DOE analogue of 0.06 mEq/l versus 0.004 mg-EQ/l net�adjoint of the invention). Another disadvantage of this system is the presence of discharge of salt water withdrawal line diluate from ED.
Known ion-exchange system chemical treatment and reverse osmosis desalination of water for boilers of thermal power plants, which contains a series-connected array of advanced water purification, water softening unit with line removal of excess regenerating solution filter cation exchange unit to reset, reverse osmosis with drain lines and concentrate and permeate. In addition, the system contains additional installation for the concentration of solutions and obtaining desalinated water by the method of thermal desalination to install evaporative lines concentrate and demineralized water  - analogue. The disadvantage of this system is the complexity of its technological scheme due to the presence of additional plants for the concentration of solutions and obtaining desalinated water by the method of thermal desalting on evaporative installation, resulting in increased space requirements, material requirements and therefore the overall system cost. Another disadvantage of this system is the discharge of saline effluent line drain highly mineralized waste regeneration solution filter cation exchange unit.
Known water treatment system additional water for �elovich electric power plants, containing series-connected array of advanced water purification, water softening unit, reverse osmosis unit, and a deaerator connected to a steam boiler of high pressure, and installation for preparation of chemically purified water. The water pretreatment unit comprises serially connected to the clarifier with the flow of source water and discharge of sludge coagulated water tank, mechanical filter with drain line water wash tank and the wash solution supply line flushing solutions to the clarifier, line discharging wash water mechanical filter connected to the tank of washing solutions, water softening unit comprises a series-connected filter cation exchange unit connected to the tank rinsing solutions through withdrawal line regeneration solution, and a tank with softened water line discharging softened water, reverse osmosis unit contains a reverse osmosis system with drain lines and concentrate and permeate, the withdrawal line of softened water is connected to the unit for preparation of chemically treated water, wherein it is additionally introduced block ion exchange for deep desalination of water containing series-connected N filter-and the filter working OH-working with the lines of the allotment regeneration water in buck Converter, and the line from�ode permeate of a reverse osmosis unit connected to the filter H-working, a buck Converter and discharge line of the concentrate of a reverse osmosis unit connected to the unit for preparation of chemically treated water  - prototype. The disadvantages of the prototype should include:
- high consumption of reagents Ca(OH)2; NaCl and technological complexity of the scheme, due to the presence of water softening unit with filter Na-cation exchange;
- relatively low purity of the chemically purified water (salinity - 740 g/t).
Impact and results of the invention are as follows:
- reduce the consumption amount of the reactants due to the exclusion of Ca(OH)2NaCl;
- simplification of the technological scheme due to the exclusion of the softening unit;
- increase purity by reducing salinity chemically purified water.
These results are achieved by the fact that the drinking water treatment installation of thermal power plant containing a block of water pretreatment, reverse osmosis unit, ion exchange unit for deep water desalination unit producing chemically treated water for heating system and the first deaerator connected with a steam boiler of high pressure, the water pretreatment unit comprises serially connected to the clarifier with the flow of source water and discharge of sludge coagulated water tank, mechanical filter with the drain line of the wash� water line and drain the clarified water, and tank rinsing solution supply line flushing solutions to the clarifier, line discharging wash water mechanical filter connected to the tank of the wash solution, the reverse osmosis unit contains a reverse osmosis system with drain lines and concentrate and permeate, the ion exchange unit for deep water desalination comprises a series-connected filter H-working and filter OH-working with the lines of the allotment regeneration water in buck Converter, a unit for production of chemically purified water for heating system comprises a series-connected tank chemically treated water and the second deaerator, the line of withdrawal of the clarified water with a mechanical filter connected to the tank chemically purified water, discharge line of the permeate of a reverse osmosis unit connected to the filter H-working, the line of flow of demineralized water from the filter OH-the working connected with the first deaerator tank neutralizer and discharge line of the concentrate of the reverse osmosis plant is connected to the tank chemically treated water, according to the invention were introduced into the solution tank FeCl3tank NaOH solution, connected to the clarifier, and the supply line of reagents for pH correction coagulated water, and the line of withdrawal of the clarified water with a mechanical filter connected to the reverse osmosis
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows the proposed water treatment unit of heat and power plant.
In the drawing have the following meaning:
I - preliminary treatment block,
II - unit reverse osmosis
III - block ion exchange,
IV - a unit for production of chemically purified water for heating systems,
1 - supply line of the source water,
2 - clarifier,
3 - coagulated water tank,
4 - mechanical filter,
5 - reverse osmosis,
6 - filter H-working (H-filter)
7 - filter IT-working (OH-filter)
8 - the first deaerator,
9 - steam boiler high pressure
10 - line discharging the clarified water with a mechanical filter,
11 - line discharging the concentrate from the reverse osmosis plant,
12 - line removal of permeate from the reverse osmosis plant,
13 - supply line of demineralized water with HE filter,
14 - conveying line deaerated water,
15 - line exhaust regeneration solutions with N-filter,
16 - line exhaust regeneration solutions with OH-filter,
17 - buck Converter,
18 - installation preparation of chemically purified water,
19 - line discharging flushing water from the mechanical filter,
20 - tank flushing solutions
21 - supply line flushing solutions to lighten�al,
22 - the line of discharge of sludge from the clarifier,
23 - supply line of reagents for pH correction coagulated water.
24 - supply line of chemicals for pH correction, chemically treated water,
25 - the second deaerator,
26 - supply line of chemically treated water to fuel heating systems (Hocv on title),
27 - buck solution of FeCl3,
28 - tank NaOH solution.
Water treatment installation of thermal power plant contains consistently included the pre-cleaning unit I water II unit reverse osmosis unit III ion exchange and the first deaerator 8, connected to a feed line 14 dearyou water, with a steam boiler 9 high pressure and unit IV preparation of chemically purified water for heating systems.
Unit I water pretreatment comprises serially connected to the clarifier 2 with lines 1 and 22 respectively of the feed water and discharge of sludge coagulated water tank 3, a mechanical filter 4 with line 10 of the clarified water outlet and the line 19 of the drain wash water in the tank 20 wash solution with line 21 flow of wash solution into the clarifier 2.
Unit II reverse osmosis system contains a 5 reverse osmosis with lines 11 and 12, respectively discharging the concentrate and permeate.
Unit III ion exchange for deep desalination of water contains consistently connected and�e filter 6 H-working and the filter 7 OH-working with the lines of the allotment regeneration water 15 and 16, in buck Converter 17. Line 12 removal of permeate installation 5 reverse osmosis system is connected to the filter 6 H-working.
Unit IV receiving chemically treated water for heating system comprises a series-connected tank 18 chemically treated water and the second deaerator 25.
Line 10 discharging the clarified water with a mechanical filter 4 is connected to the tank 18 chemically purified water.
Line removal of permeate of a reverse osmosis unit connected to the filter H-working.
Line 13 flow of demineralized water from the filter OH-the working connected with the first deaerator 8.
Buck Converter 17 and line 11 of the concentrate outlet installation 5 reverse osmosis system connected to the tank 18 chemically treated water
The proposed water treatment installation of thermal power plant is characterized in that it introduced the tank 27 solution of FeCl3tank 28 NaOH, United with the clarifier 2, line 23 of the reagent for pH correction coagulated water, line 10 discharging the clarified water with a mechanical filter connected with 5 reverse osmosis.
Thus, in comparison with the prototype water treatment unit is characterized in that in the clarifier serves 2 (metered) reagents FeCl3and NaOH, an input line 23 of the reagent for pH correction, proposed in�podgotovitelnoe installation is missing a water softening unit, and, accordingly, no waste regeneration effluent Na-cationite filters and feed (dosing) reagent NaCl.
Water treatment installation of thermal power plant works as follows.
The raw water line 1 is fed to the block I pre-cleaning, clarifier 2 of which are in the process of coagulation and softening due to the dosage of the reagents supplied from a tank 27 of a solution of FeCl3and tank 28 of NaOH, and subsequent clarification in the mechanical filter 4, which is installed after the coagulated water tank 3. Before serving coagulated water in a mechanical filter carry out pH adjustment, by filing reagents (acid) through the line 23. Clarified water after the filter 4 through line 10 is fed into the block II reverse osmosis. Further permeate with install 5 reverse osmosis on line 12 enters the block III ion exchange for deep water desalination in a filter 6 N-working and the filter 7 OH-working.
Then, on line 13 of demineralized water with filter 9 OH-the working enters the deaerator 8 with a further feed line 14 into the boiler 9 medium or high pressure. Regeneration water filter 6 H-working and filter 7 OH-working on the lines, respectively 15 and 16, are directed to the buck Converter 17.
Of clarified water with a mechanical filter 4 water� on line 10, concentrate with install 5 reverse osmosis on line 11, and regeneration water tank Converter 17 are served in tank 18 unit IV preparation of chemically treated water, for example, be used to fuel heating systems.
Wash water via line 19 with the filter 4, which is installed in the unit I pre-cleaning, is directed into the tank 20 of the wash solutions with further feed to the clarifier 2 via line 21. In the process clarifier 2 sludge is removed via line 22.
Material balance for the processing steps of the present invention water treatment plant heat and power plant at Kazan CHP-2 in January 2012 are shown in table 1.
|No.||Q, t/h||W0||Na||SO4||Cl||The ogon||SiO2||OK||BB||SS||pH|
|Source water in WWS||225||4,43||0,35||2,53||1,77||0,34||0,002||9,79||8,83||Of 1.82||336,4||8,16|
|Clarified water after Matt||235||0,4||4,38||1||1,77||0,64||0,27||5,4||4||0,1||280||10,3|
|Permeate the DOE||To 124.2||0,004||0,22||0,2||0,02||0,2||0,01||0,1||0,4||0||16||8,9|
|MT - mechanical filter;|
|WWS - clarifier;|
|The DOE - installation �Vice versa osmosis;|
|Hocv - chemically treated water;|
|CWA - chemically demineralized water.|
Thus, in comparison with the prototype, the use of this invention will reduce the amount of reagents CA(Oh)2, NaCl, to simplify the technological scheme and to enhance the purity by reducing salinity chemically treated water to 610 g/t, and to reduce the number of discharges of spent regeneration solutions.
Sources of information
1. Pat. No. 2322403 of the Russian Federation. The system of training of additional water systems for heat / I. A. Malakhov, A. A. Asgarnia, V. In Shishchenko, G. I. Malakhov. The invention of 2008. - No. 11.
2. Pat. No. 2322402. System ion exchange chemical treatment and reverse osmosis desalination of water for boilers of thermal power plants / I. A. Malakhov, A. A. Asgarnia, G. I. Malakhov. The invention of 2008. - No. 11.
3. Pat. No. 133526. Water treatment installation of thermal power plant / N. D. Chicherov, A. A. Chicherov, S. M. Vlasov. The utility model 2013. - No. 29.
Water treatment installation of thermal power plant containing a block of water pretreatment, reverse osmosis unit, ion exchange unit for deep water desalination unit producing chemically treated water for heating system and the first deaerator, with�United with a steam boiler of high pressure, the water pretreatment unit comprises serially connected to the clarifier with the flow of source water and discharge of sludge coagulated water tank, mechanical filter with line discharging wash water and the line of withdrawal of the clarified water, and tank washing solution supply line flushing solutions to the clarifier, line discharging wash water mechanical filter connected to the tank of the wash solution, the reverse osmosis unit contains a reverse osmosis system with drain lines and concentrate and permeate, the ion exchange unit for deep water desalination comprises a series-connected filter H-working and filter OH-working with the lines of the allotment regeneration water in buck Converter, a unit for production of chemically purified water for heating system comprises serially connected chemically purified water tank and a second vent, wherein the withdrawal line of clarified water with a mechanical filter connected to the tank chemically purified water, discharge line of the permeate of a reverse osmosis unit connected to the filter H-working, the line of flow of demineralized water from the filter OH-the working connected with the first deaerator, buck Converter and discharge line of the concentrate of the reverse osmosis plant is connected to the tank chemically treated water, wherein the�, that were introduced into the solution tank FeCl3tank NaOH solution, connected to the clarifier, and the supply line of reagents for pH correction coagulated water, and the line of withdrawal of the clarified water with a mechanical filter connected to the reverse osmosis unit.
SUBSTANCE: method of production of bacteriologically pure cultures of marine blue-green algae provides chemical sterilisation of microalgae cultures by treatment them in the solution of sterile sea water containing 0.1% phenol and 1.0% ethyl alcohol. Microalgae are kept in sterile sea water containing phenol and ethyl alcohol in a predetermined ratio for 4-5 hrs. Irradiation with UV light is carried out for 9-10 minutes. The treatment of microalgae with antibiotics and fungicide is carried out. At that the antibiotics are used as chloromycetin and ampicillin in the amount of 50 µg/ml each, and fungicide is used as nystatin in the amount of 25 µg/ml.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of extraction of bacteriologically pure culture of blue-green microalgae.
1 tbl, 20 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for processing sewage waters of the production of nitroaromatic or nitrohydroxyaromatic compounds, for instance, nitrobenzene or dinitrotoluene. To realise the method two-stage processing, including a stage of preliminary reduction and a stage of wet oxidation, is carried out. At the first stage alkaline sewage water is mixed with an organic reducing agent, which does not form salts in the sewage water, selected from peat, brown coal and/or hard coal. Processing in reducing conditions is carried out with heating to a temperature from 80 to 200°C and exposure at the said temperature for the time period from 5 min to 5 hours. At the second stage the sewage water obtained at the first stage is acidified and subjected to oxidation with oxygen-containing gas, for instance oxygen.
EFFECT: method suggests a technically safe, simple and economic technology of processing and purification of sewage waters, providing the reduction of harmful admixture to the level, acceptable for the supply of processed sewage waters to biological purification.
4 cl, 5 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method includes stage of water storage in container (a); its treatment (b); activation of operations for water keeping in the container within parameters range of the water quality (c), and treated cooling water supply from the container to the industrial process (d). Water treatment (b) is performed during 7 days to restore the oxidation-reduction potential of at least 500 mV upon decontaminants injection to water. The following operations are activated 1) oxidant injection; 2) coagulant and/or flocculant injection; 3) suction of water part containing sediments, water filtering, and filtered water return to the container.
EFFECT: invention supplies the industrial process with high quality cooling water with low expenses.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining water for an industrial process includes the water purification and removal of suspended in water solid particles by filtration of a small part of the total water volume, which includes: a) water collection; b) water storage; c) processing of water for 7 days by the periodical addition in it of disinfectant substances; d) activation of one and more operations (1)-(5) by means, made with a possibility of obtaining information, which relates to water quality parameters, regulated by the said means for bringing the water quality parameters in their limits: 1) introduction in water of oxidising substances; 2) introduction of coagulants, flocculants or their mixtures; 3) absorption of a part of the water, which contains precipitated particles and obtained in operations (1) and/or (2); 4) filtering the said part of the absorbed water; 5) return of the filtered water and e) application of the processed water in the process downstream of the flow.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide the water purification and removal of the suspended solid substances without a necessity to filter the entire volume of the water.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention includes a settlement chamber, a vessel for acceptance of floating fat mass, an auger enclosed within a perforated housing, and two vessels connected with the latter: one for collection of dehydrated wastes and the other -for collection of liquid. The control unit is connected to the sensors monitoring the level of wastewater and sediment in the settlement chamber and the level of liquid in the liquid collection vessel. In the lower part of the settlement chamber a brush with a drive is installed. The chamber has an opening wall connected to the drive and is equipped with horizontally oriented perforated partitions. The system is additionally equipped with a waste collection vessel, a chamber for coagulant solution preparation, a chamber for mixing water being treated with the coagulant solution and, having an automated doser and a flotator. The coagulant solution preparation chamber, the mixing chamber, the floating fat mass receptacle vessel, the flotator, the waste collection vessel and the dehydrated waste collection vessel are equipped with liquid level sensors. The settlement chamber is equipped with sediment level sensors with pressure sensors installed in the auger and in the settlement chamber. The system pipelines are equipped with water flow rate and pH sensors. All the sensors are connected to the control unit.
EFFECT: high quality of preliminary treatment of wastewaters and automation.
SUBSTANCE: method of treating natural water includes oxidation, neutralisation and two-step filtration. Oxidation with simultaneous transfer of impurities into a dissolved state is carried out with carbonic acid solution obtained from saturating raw water with carbon dioxide. Neutralisation of the formed compounds is carried out with calcium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1-1.3 g/l, followed by removal of the precipitate first in a settling tank and on a filter with a neutral charge, and then on a filter with a weakly basic charge.
EFFECT: invention enables to remove iron and manganese compounds, bicarbonates of alkali-earth metals, silicic acid and salts thereof and organic impurities from water, simplifies the water treatment technique and lowers the content of impurities to values which do not exceed the maximum allowable concentration.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of contaminated water. This method comprises bringing of water in contact with at least one adsorbent powder in zone (2) of preliminary interaction with mixing. Then, follow flocculation with weighted flakes and deposition. Mix of sediment, ballast and adsorbent powder is removed from sedimentation zone bottom (5). Said mix is fed into hydraulic cyclone (11) to displace hydrocyclone (11) top product containing the mix of sediment and adsorbent powder into transition zone (14). Mix of sediment and adsorbent powder are returned from transition zone (14) to zone (2) of preliminary interaction. Process incorporates the step whereat at least one index of adsorbent powder in preliminary interaction zone (2) is obtained. Suspension of green adsorbent powder in water is fed upstream of zone (2) when concentration of said powder in this zone is lower than preset threshold value and the step of acidification of said sorbent.
EFFECT: production of water suitable for drinking.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of purification of water from natural springs for their further application as initial water for obtaining vapour in processes of steam or vapour-oxygen conversion of hydrocarbon gases (synthesis-gas production). Installation for preparation of desalinated water contains successively connected heat exchanger for heating initial water, unit of preliminary clarification, unit of ultrafiltration, unit of ultraviolet decontamination, unit of filters with filtration degree not more than 5 mcm and unit of two-step reverse osmosis.
EFFECT: invention ensures increase of service term of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, water decontamination.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of sewage purification from cyanide-ions includes its processing with sulfate of bivalent iron in quantity 293 wt.p to 100 wt.p. CN-ions in presence in water of sorbent in form of fibrillated cellulose fibres, which contain in wt %: not less than 54% of fibres with length not more 0.63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with length not more than 1.23 mm, with formation of reaction product in form of insoluble particles of iron cyanide. Reaction product is obtained in form of composite material, which consists of cellulose fibres with sorbed on them iron cyanide particles. Product of processing is discharged from water with application of pressured flotation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify process of purification, reduce iron sulfate consumption, increase purification degree and provide possibility of carrying out purification in continuous mode.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.
EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents and use thereof. The sorbent for antimony anions comprises particles or granules of zirconium oxide and has a distribution coefficient for the antimony anions of at least 10000 ml/g at a pH in the range of 2 to 10. The sorbent comprises particles with an average particle size in the range of about 10 nm to 100 um and having a flow rate of 100 to 10000 bed volumes per hour; the granules with an average size of 0.1 to 2 mm and having a flow rate of 10 to 50 bed volumes per hour. Also claimed is a method for the novel sorbent preparation and a method for antimony and, potentially, technetium removal from aqueous solutions, specifically from nuclear waste effluents. The distribution coefficient is high, which makes the material suitable for industrial application.
EFFECT: preparation process is straightforward and the sorbent can be produced from readily available materials at moderate conditions.
20 cl, 5 dwg, 5 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Proposed process comprises combining of heated gas and effluents to the make the mix thereof, separating of said effluents into drops to increase the area of interface between effluents and heated gas for accelerated heat and mass transfer between drops of said effluents and heated gas. Then, heat is transferred from heated gas to effluents for their partial evaporation, portion of effluents drops are removed from said mix for making of gas without fluid and concentrated fluid, and separation of suspended solids from concentrated fluid. Fluid concentration system comprises the concentrator unit. Note here that said concenytrator comprises gas inlet, gas outlet and mixing channel arranged there between. Note also that said mixing channel has contracted section for gas flow to up its rate at flowing from said inlet to said outlet. This system comprises fluid inlet pipe for liquid to be concentrated to be injected into mixing channel. Note here that said pipe is arranged in mixing channel between gas inlet and contracted section. Fog catcher is arranged downstream of concentrator unit and includes gas passage connected to gas outlet and including fluid collector to remove fluid from gas in fog catcher gas passage, and removed fluid connection vessel. Blower is connected to fog catcher to create gas flow to be forced to mixing channel and gas passage.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.
27 cl, 2 tbl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water using catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The invention relates to a method wherein part of feed water is heated by a reforming product and the other part of feed water is heated by gaseous combustion products before feeding the feed water into a deaerator. Water contained in the gaseous combustion products is condensed to obtain a product in the form of liquid water. The present method can be combined with a water thermal treatment process.
EFFECT: easier extraction of water from gaseous combustion products, availability of low-grade heat of the reforming product stream for the water thermal treatment process.
19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water from hexavalent chromium compounds includes reaction thereof with an iron-containing dispersant with simultaneous exposure to a magnetic field generated by an electromagnet to obtain an insoluble precipitate. The iron-containing dispersant used is ground iron or steel chips. Exposure is carried out using a controlled magnetic field, the direction of the intensity vector of which is varied by periodically changing the polarity of current in the electromagnet windings, and the intensity value is controlled by varying the value of current in the windings. A chromium hydroxide Cr(OH)3 precipitate is obtained by neutralising the unreacted mixture with an alkali.
EFFECT: high degree of purity of waste water while cutting the duration of the process, easy implementation and high efficiency of the method.
1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Treatment of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises the fed of water flow portion to aerator, to distiller and /or evaporator and therefrom to said aerator again. Note here that process gas is fed to said aerator to produce gaseous flow to be fed to the plant for production of synthesis gas.
EFFECT: possibility to use at least a portion of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor as a process water for production of synthesis gas.
14 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic water activation installation comprises a chamber filled with water and equipped by electrodes, a cover with a channel for water supply. The chamber is limited by a recess in the piston bottom, cylinder walls and the cover with a channel for water supply, a plug with an insulated positive electrode is screwed into the cover, a cylindrical electrically insulated spring-damper is installed between the bottom part of the cylinder additionally serving as a negative electrode and the piston, the lateral part of the cylinder is fitted by a hole to discharge water after electrohydraulic impact in the water-filled chamber from a corona discharge between the electrodes at switching on of a high-frequency generator of primary pulses.
EFFECT: improvement of electrohydraulic water activation efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.
2 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in gas and oil production industry for associated crude iodine production from iodine-lean confined groundwater. The method is implemented by a sequence of electrochemical iodide ion oxidation, molecular iodine sorption on carbon, electrochemical reduction of iodine to iodides, and desorption. All stages are performed in the same chemical reactor represented by a sorption column. Activated carbon with minimum iodine adsorption capacity of 1,000 mg/g is used as a sorbent. Graphite electrode at the column bottom is used as an anode, copper cathode in the form of plate at the column top is used as cathode. After the carbon is saturated with iodine, electrode polarity is reversed to desorb iodine from carbon in the form of iodide ions. Confined groundwater, including one with low iodine content, is used as iodine source.
EFFECT: enhanced iodine production efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for protection against contaminants introduced by gravity draining at steam pumping and/or those peculiar thereto. This system is used at the plant based on gravity draining at steam pumping for production of heavy oil. This control system allows the simultaneous control over silicon dioxide, hardness and oil contamination existing in evaporator feed water.
EFFECT: ruled out heat exchange surface fouling, higher reliability.
9 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in industry at the stage of fine or additional purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions, in the purification of vapour condensate in boiler houses and TPP plants in the creation of closed technological water circulation. To realise the method of ion-exchange water purification sewage waters and technological solutions are passed through a sorbent, containing hydrazide groups. as the sorbent used is activated carbon, preliminarily processed with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in volume ratios of 1:2-2.5, at a temperature of 350-450°C. The method provides the removal of ions of metals with a variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, as well as ions of metals: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+ from water, with the preservation by the sorbent of the sorption activity in a wide range of the water solution pH values.
EFFECT: purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to food industry. Milk raw materials lactose is hydrolysed. One performs the first nanofiltration of hydrolysed milk raw materials for separation of protein into the first nanofiltration retentate and sugars and mineral substances- into the first nanolfiltration permeate. One performs the second nanofiltration of the first nanofiltration permeate for separation of sugars into the second nanofiltration retentate and mineral substances - into the second nanofiltration permeate. The low-lactose or lactose-free milk product manufacture method involves manufacture of a lactose-free or low-lactose milk product with the desirable composition; such product contains the first nanofiltration retentate and the second nanofiltration permeate produced by the proposed method. The product can by concentrated till formation of a concentrate or powder.
EFFECT: inventions group ensures an efficient method for separation of proteins, sugars and mineral substances contained in milk without calcium and protein losses.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 17 tbl, 10 ex