Compact effluents concentrator running on waste heat

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Proposed process comprises combining of heated gas and effluents to the make the mix thereof, separating of said effluents into drops to increase the area of interface between effluents and heated gas for accelerated heat and mass transfer between drops of said effluents and heated gas. Then, heat is transferred from heated gas to effluents for their partial evaporation, portion of effluents drops are removed from said mix for making of gas without fluid and concentrated fluid, and separation of suspended solids from concentrated fluid. Fluid concentration system comprises the concentrator unit. Note here that said concenytrator comprises gas inlet, gas outlet and mixing channel arranged there between. Note also that said mixing channel has contracted section for gas flow to up its rate at flowing from said inlet to said outlet. This system comprises fluid inlet pipe for liquid to be concentrated to be injected into mixing channel. Note here that said pipe is arranged in mixing channel between gas inlet and contracted section. Fog catcher is arranged downstream of concentrator unit and includes gas passage connected to gas outlet and including fluid collector to remove fluid from gas in fog catcher gas passage, and removed fluid connection vessel. Blower is connected to fog catcher to create gas flow to be forced to mixing channel and gas passage.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.

27 cl, 2 tbl, 17 dwg

 

Related applications

This application is a partial continuation of application for U.S. patent No. 12/705,462, filed on 12 February 2010, which is a partial continuation of application U.S. patent No. 12/530,484, filed September 9, 2009, which is a national phase U.S. for international application PCT/US08/56702, filed March 12, 2008, which claimed priority to provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/906,743, filed March 13, 2007, This application also claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. No. 61/152,248, filed February 12, 2009, and provisional application for U.S. patent No. 61,229,650, filed July 29, 2009, Each of the applications№12/530,484; 60/906,743; 61/152,248; and 61/229,650 fully disclosed and included in this document by reference.

The technical field to which the invention relates

This invention relates, in General, to the hub fluid, and more particularly to a compact, inexpensive mobile hub of wastewater, which can be easily connected to the sources of waste heat and use them for concentrating liquids.

The level of technology

The concentration of volatile substances can be an effective form of treatment or preliminary treatment of a variety of wastewater, and it can be conducted as part of commercial systems for processing different types. At high concentration, many wastewater can� to turn into waste with the consistency of sludge with a high content of dissolved and suspended substances. Such concentrated wastes can be easily cured by conventional methods used in landfills, or, if appropriate, they are sent for further processing before final disposal. Concentration of wastewater can significantly reduce the cost of freight and the need for storage and can contribute to the further recovery of materials from waste water.

Industrial waste water are very different from each other in their parameters, since they are formed during many industrial processes. Waste water are formed not only in the normal mode of operation of industrial enterprises, but also by the occurrence of uncontrollable events generated by breakdowns, accidents, and natural disasters. With the resulting wastewater proceed as follows: immediately sent to the treatment plant; is subjected to preliminary processing, and then sent to the treatment plant; treated in their place of education or outside the place of their education with the aim of recycling valuable components or treated in their place of education or outside of their place of education for the purpose of simple preparation for final disposal. If the source stock�x water is an uncontrolled event, in any of the scenarios of wastewater must be enabled effective method of localization and regeneration of the Strait.

An important parameter characterizing the efficiency of the method for concentrating wastewater, is the ratio of the volume of residue after concentration to the volume of wastewater received on the concentration. It is desirable to achieve low relationship of the volume of residue to the volume of incoming wastewater (high levels of concentration). If wastewater containing dissolved and/or suspended non-volatile substances, the volume reduction that can be attained with the use of a particular method of concentration, based on the evaporation of volatile substances is largely determined by the selected method of heat transfer of liquid to be treated.

Conventional methods used for concentration by evaporation of water and other volatiles can be divided into direct heat transfer system and the indirect heat transfer depending on which method of heat transfer to the liquid, subjected to concentration (process fluid). To devices for indirect heat transfer are vessels with a shirt filled with the process liquid, or plate, immersion tubular coil or coils that are immersed in technology, the�environmental liquid. To supply heat required for evaporation, using shirts or coils pass a heating medium such as steam or hot oil. The device for direct heat transfer, in which a heating medium lead into direct contact with the process liquid, is used, for example, in systems with submersible combustion chamber.

The effectiveness of the systems of indirect heat transfer in which heat exchangers are used, such as shirts, plate, submersible pipes or coils, usually limited by the formation of a solid precipitate on the surfaces of heat exchangers that are in contact with the process liquid. The design of such systems is complicated also because of the need to have a separate device used to transfer heat to the coolant, such as steam boiler, or a device used for heating a fluid such as an oil heater. This design is limited to the use of two systems of indirect heat transfer for conduction of concentration. Those liquids which form deposits on the heat exchangers in the heating process, called Nechiporuk liquids. If the liquid contain certain compounds such as carbonates, which when the temperature increases, the solubility decreases, sediment, commonly called the scum will be formed even when �sravnitelno low concentration due to the high temperature on the surface of the heat exchanger. In addition, if the wastewater contains compounds with high solubility at high temperatures, such as sodium chloride, they will also precipitate after reaching high concentrations. Precipitation, which often have to be removed from the surface of the heat exchanger, to ensure the efficiency of heating, can be a mixture of suspended solids, born wastewater, and solids settling from the process fluid. The negative effects of the deposition of solids on the surface of the heat exchanger is to reduce the time during which may be the indirect heat transfer before you have to stop work for the next cleaning. This negative effect imposes a limit on the amount of wastewater that can effectively heat, especially if the wastewater composition comprises nicepeople fluid. Therefore, the methods operating on the principle of indirect heat transfer, in General, unsuitable for the concentration of the majority of wastewater and provision of low volume balance to the volume of incoming wastewater.

In U.S. patent No. 5.342.482, which is included in this description by reference, describes a special type of hub with direct heat transfer in the heat of�m is implemented sparging process of heat exchange, according to which the gaseous products of combustion are generated and fed via the inlet pipe in a dispersing device, immersed in the process liquid. Dispersing device comprises several spaced apart exhaust tubes extending in a radial direction from the inlet pipes, each exhaust tube has a small hole located at a distance from each other in different places on the surface of the exhaust tube to produce gaseous products of combustion in the form of small bubbles so evenly, to the extent feasible, across the cross section of the fluid subjected to heat in a working vessel. According to modern concepts about the known devices of this type, this hub provides the desired close contact between the liquid and hot gas at high interface. The peculiarity of this method lies in the fact that the heat transfer, and mass transfer occur in dynamic conditions are constantly updating interfacial surface formed by sparging the gas phase through the process liquid and not on a solid surface of the heat exchanger, which can precipitate the solids. Thus, implemented in this hub barbata�process offers significant advantages compared to conventional methods of indirect heat transfer. However, the small holes in the exhaust pipes, which are used for distribution of hot gases by volume of process fluid in the hub according to U.S. patent No. 5342482, become clogged by solids deposited from nicepeoplemusic liquids. Consequently, an inlet tube through which the hot gases are supplied to the process fluid, covered with a crust of solid precipitate.

Because of the need to pass a large volume of gas through a continuously flowing stream of the liquid phase of the concentrator, as proposed in U.S. patent 5342482, usually have a larger cross-section. The inner surface of such vessel and any valve that is installed inside it, called the "wetted surface" of this method. This wetted surface must withstand exposure to varying concentrations of hot technological environment during operation of the system. In systems designed for handling a variety of wastewater, the materials of construction wetted surfaces require special design solutions in respect of corrosion resistance and temperaturesalinity, which should include the cost of equipment and the cost of its maintenance and replacement after a certain time. Generally speaking, increasing the lifetime and reducing the cost of those�quarter maintenance/replacement of the wetted surface provide, choosing any high quality metal alloys, or certain structural plastics, such as those that are used for the production of glass vessels. However, the normal concentration measures using indirect or direct heating, need more and the devices for supplying hot coolant, such as water vapor, oil or gas, capable of heating the liquid in the vessel. Although many high-quality alloys meet the requirements in respect of corrosion resistance and temperaturesalinity, but the vessels and fittings, manufactured from them, are too expensive. On the other hand, although structural plastics and can be used for the manufacture of the entire vessel as a whole or as a coating on the wetted surface, low temperature resistance makes it impossible to apply many structural plastics. For example, the high temperature of the inlet pipe intended for supplying hot gas to the inside of the vessel according to U.S. patent No. 5.342.482 does not allow for its production of structural plastics. Thus, the production of vessels and other equipment used to implement these methods, and their maintenance are very expensive.

In addition, in all these systems need a heat source that�s could be concentration or evaporation. We developed a lot of systems that use the heat generated by different sources, for example, the heat generated by the engine combustion chamber or a gas compressor as a heat source for wastewater treatment. A description of one such system is shown in U.S. patent No. 7.214.290. In this system, the heat released during the combustion of gas generated from organic waste, and is used in submerged gas evaporator for wastewater treatment at the dump. In U.S. patent No. 7.416.172 describes the submerged gas evaporator in which it is possible to provide the supply of waste heat to the gas inlet of the evaporator, to use it for concentration or evaporation of liquids. Although waste heat and is considered a cheap source of energy, for effective use in wastewater treatment, waste heat in many cases has to be transported a considerable distance from the source of waste heat to the place where they spend the evaporation or concentration. For example, in many cases, the landfill will operate the generators that use one or more internal combustion engines that use as fuel gas generated from organic waste. The exhaust gases of these engines, which are usually thrown through the muffler and exhaust TRU�in the atmosphere on the roof of the building, where are the generators are a source of waste heat. But to collect and use this waste heat, you have to connect to the exhaust pipe a substantial amount of expensive pipes and conduits and feeding them waste heat to the place where the manufacturing system, which is usually placed on the zero point away from the building that houses the generators. It should be noted that pipe, piping and regulating devices (e.g., throttle or shut-off valves) are made of expensive materials capable of withstanding high temperatures, which are exhaust gases in the exhaust pipe (for example, 982,2°C), and they have to isolate, so that the exhaust gases are not cooled during transport. The materials used for their isolation, prone to destruction under the influence of many factors, such as the fragility, susceptibility to erosion after a certain time and sensitivity to cyclical fluctuations in temperature, which further complicates the design. Insulation also increases the mass of pipes, piping and control devices, which increases the cost of support structures.

Disclosure of the invention

Offered here is a compact device for concentrating liquids easily can be connected to the source of ubron�th heat such as a torch for burning off gas released from organic waste or exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine, and use this waste heat for carrying out the method for concentrating direct heat transfer without the use of large expensive vessels and the many expensive thermally stable materials. Compact hub fluid contains gas admission pipe, the exhaust pipe and the mixing or flow passage connecting the gas inlet with the exhaust pipe, wherein the flow channel has a narrowed portion in which the speed of gas flow through the flow channel increases. Through the pipe for supplying the fluid located between the gas inlet and the narrowed area of the flow channel and injected into the gas flow of the fluid in the front narrowed area so that the gas-liquid mixture is completely mixed in the flow channel, resulting in evaporation or concentration portions of the liquid. In the mist eliminator scrubber or located behind the narrowed area and connected to the exhaust conduit are separated entrained gas stream of droplets of fluid, and the collected liquid is returned to the nozzle to supply it via a recirculation loop. Fresh liquid entering the concentration, also BB�converges in the recirculation circuit at a speed, sufficient to offset the total reduction in the amount of liquid due to evaporation in the flow channel and due to dissipation of concentrated liquid.

The proposed compact hub fluid has a number of signs that provide a cost-effective concentration of wastewater that are very different from each other in their parameters. The hub has a corrosion resistance against waste waters that are very different from each other in their parameters, is characterized by moderate cost of manufacture and reasonable operating costs, is able to operate continuously with a high degree of concentration and effectively uses heat energy directly from multiple sources. In addition, the hub is sufficiently compact that it may move during transportation to the places where the waste water formed as a result of an uncontrollable event, and set near sources of waste heat. Thus, the proposed hub is a cost-effective, reliable device with a long life, which is in continuous mode concentrates the waste water that are very different from each other in their parameters, and thereby eliminates the need of�ycnih of heat exchangers with solid surfaces used in conventional systems with indirect heat transfer, which are subject to clogging and covered with a crust of limescale.

It is also proposed a method for concentrating wastewater, comprising: combining the heated gas and liquid wastewater for the formation of a mixture of heated gas and portable liquid wastewater; portable crushing waste water into droplets to increase the area of the boundary surface between the transported liquid waste water and heated by gas to provide rapid mass and heat transfer between the drops portable liquid effluent and the heated gas; heat transfer from the heated gas to transportable liquid effluents for the partial evaporation of portable liquid wastewater; removal of part of portable drops of liquid waste water from the mixture to obtain gas content of the fluid and concentrated fluid; and separation of suspended solids from the concentrated liquid.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that it further includes a recirculation remote portable drops of liquid wastewater and combination remote portable drops of liquid sewage from the fresh liquid sewage.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may characterizat�Xia, the removal of part of portable drops of liquid waste water includes passing the mixture of heated gas and portable drops of liquid waste water through a crossflow Gazpromavia block.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized in that the mixture of heated gas and portable drops of liquid wastewater has a temperature of approximately 66°C to about 88°C.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by heated gas comprises exhaust gas generated during combustion of the fuel.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized in that the fuel is selected from the group including gas from organic waste, natural gas supplied directly from the wellhead natural gas, purified natural gas, prop, and combinations thereof.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that the fuel is gas from organic waste.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that the fuel is natural gas supplied directly from the wellhead of natural gas.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may character�to exploit the what fuel is purified natural gas.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that the heated gas has a temperature of from about 482°C to about 649°C.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that wastewater is selected from the group including leachate, return water, formation water, and combinations thereof.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that wastewater is leachate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by the fact that wastewater contain from about 1 wt. % to approximately 5 mass. % solids of the total weight of the filtrate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by liquid concentrate contains at least about 10 wt. % solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by liquid concentrate contains at least about 20 wt. % solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized �eat what liquid concentrate contains at least about 30 wt. % solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by liquid concentrate contains at least about 50 wt. % solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by partially evaporated mixture obtained in step b., contains from about 5 wt. % to approximately 20 wt. % fluid by weight of the partially evaporated mixture.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the method may be characterized by partially evaporated mixture obtained in step b., contains from about 10 wt. % to about 15 mass. % fluid by weight of the partially evaporated mixture.

Also proposed is a system for concentrating a liquid, comprising: a hub unit having: gotovushe the pipe; the exhaust hole; a mixing channel, located between the gas inlet and gas exhaust hole, wherein the mixing channel has a narrowed portion in which gas flow inside the mixing channel increases its speed when the flow from the gas pipe to the exhaust hole; inlet ø�th nozzle of the liquid, through which the liquid is subjected to concentration, is injected into the mixing channel, and an inlet fluid is located in the dilution tunnel between the gas inlet and the narrowed area; a mist eliminator located outside the hub unit and contains: getproposal channel mist eliminator is connected to the exhaust conduit of the hub unit, a collection of fluid located in getproposal channel mist eliminator for removing liquid from gas flowing through getproductname channel mist eliminator, and a reservoir for collecting fluid, a remote collection of liquid from gas flowing through getproductname channel mist eliminator; and a fan connected to the mist eliminator is to create a flow of gas, flowing through the mixing and getproductname channels.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system may be characterized in that the reservoir contains a Vee bottom.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system can be characterized by V-shaped bottom has a slope on one side of the tank to the other side.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system can be characterized by circuit further comprises washing the mist eliminator, spray mouse� the liquid to Vee bottom.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system can be characterized by the cleaning fluid comprises one of: a concentrated liquid, water, or a combination thereof.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system may be characterized in that the circuit contains a washing pump for pumping the liquid in a spray bottle.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system may be characterized by further comprises a first recirculation circuit, which delivers the concentrated liquid from the reservoir to the inlet of the fluid for further concentration, and the second recirculation circuit, which delivers the concentrated liquid from the reservoir to the device separation of solid substances and liquids.

According to one embodiments of the invention, the system may be characterized in that the device for the separation of solids and liquid is one of: a settling tank, vibrating sieve, filter press and rotary vacuum filters.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 shows the General diagram of the compact hub fluid.

Fig. 2 shows a variant implementation of the hub fluid, whose scheme is shown in Fig. 1, is installed on the sump for liquid or skids, to clothe�to secure its transportation by truck.

Fig. 3 shows a perspective view of a compact hub fluid, which implements a method for concentrating, whose scheme is shown in Fig. 1, connected to a source of waste heat, representing the torch for burning off gas released from organic waste.

Fig. 4 shows a perspective view of the block of heat transfer compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 shows a perspective view of the block of evaporation / concentration compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6 shows a perspective view easy-open manholes on the unit compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7 shows a perspective view of the open state of one of the easy-open manholes shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 shows a perspective view easy-open locking mechanism used on the viewing hatches shown in Fig. 6 and 7.

Fig. 9 shows a schematic representation of a control system that can be used to adjust the various blocks in a compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 10 shows the image of a compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 3, which� connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine as a source of waste heat.

Fig. 11 shows a schematic representation of another embodiment of a compact hub fluid.

Fig. 12 shows a top view of a compact hub fluid, shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13 shows a schematic representation of a third embodiment of a compact hub fluid, which is a distributed hub fluid.

Fig. 14 shows an enlarged cross section of the unit for concentration of liquid distributed hub fluid, shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 shows a top view of the unit for concentration of liquid, shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 16 shows a side view in the closed condition of the chiller unit and plot the profile of the Venturi distributed hub fluid, shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 17 shows a schematic side view of an example of a hub used for concentration of the leachate of landfills and produced water from natural gas wells.

The implementation of the invention

Fig. 1 shows a General diagram of the hub of the liquid 10, which contains a gas admission pipe 20, the exhaust hole 22 and the flow channel 24 connecting the gas pipe 20 with the exhaust hole 22. Flow passage 24 has a narrowed portion 26 on which vozrastayushchei flow of gas through the flow channel 24 and in the place or near it in the flow channel 24, turbulent flow. Narrowed portion 26 in this embodiment, the implementation may be a Venturi device. Through the pipe for supplying liquid 30 liquid subjected to concentration (by evaporation), is injected into the chamber for concentrating the fluid in the flow channel 24 in the front narrowed area 26, and the injected fluid mixes with the gas flow in the flow channel 24. An inlet for fluid supply 30 may include one or more interchangeable nozzles 31, which are intended for injection of fluid into the flow channel 24. An inlet 30 regardless of whether it contains the nozzle 31 or not, may deliver the fluid in a flow channel 24 at any angle, including perpendicular and parallel to the gas flow. Near the inlet for fluid supply 30 may also be located the partition wall 33 in such position that the liquid coming from the pipe 30 is reflected from it in a flow channel in the form of small droplets.

When the flow of gas-liquid flow through a narrowed portion 26 according to the Venturi effect the speed increases and turbulent flow, which completely mixes the gas and liquid in the flow channel 24 near the nozzle 30 and behind him. The acceleration in the flow through the narrowed portion 26 creates lateral forces between the gas flow and liquid drops, as well as between liquid drops and walls�AMI narrowed area 26, which leads to the formation of very small droplets of liquid entrained in the gas, increasing, thus, the area of the boundary surface between the drops of liquid and gas and promoting the rapid transfer of mass and heat between the gas and liquid drops.

The liquid comes out of the narrowed section 26 in the form of very small droplets of liquid regardless of the geometric shape of the fluid entering narrowed portion 26 (e.g., the fluid can flow in narrowed portion 26 in the form of a film). As a result of turbulent mixing and transversal forces some of the fluid evaporates quickly and becomes a component of the gas flow. When the flow of gas-liquid mixture through the narrowed portion 26 can change the direction and/or flow rate of gas-liquid mixture with the adjustable flow restrictors, such as a Venturi plate 32, which in General is used to create a large pressure drop in the flow channel 24 before and after the Venturi plate 32. The position of the Venturi plate 32 can be adjusted to change the size and/or shape of the narrowed section 26, and it can be manufactured of corrosion resistant material, including high performance alloys, such as Hastelloy, Inconel or Monel".

From the narrowed section 26 of the gas-liquid mixture enters the mist eliminator 34 (also called gas�a purifier or separator), connected to the exhaust opening 22. The mist eliminator 34 removes from the gas stream carried by him liquid droplets. The mist eliminator 34 contains getproposal channel. The separated liquid collects in the fluid collector or sump for the liquid 36 in this getproductname channel, and a sump for the fluid 36 may be provided with a container for storing the collected fluid. To the sump for fluid 36 and/or the vessel can be connected to the pump 40, intended for feeding fluid through the recirculation circuit 42 back to the inlet for fluid supply 30 and/or flow channel 24. Thus, the liquid volume can be reduced by evaporation to the desired degree of concentration. Fresh or new fluid aimed at concentrating, served in the recirculation circuit 42 through the pipe for supplying the fluid 44. Instead, this new liquid can be injected directly into the flow channel 24 before the Venturi plate 32. The feed rate of fresh liquid in the recirculation circuit 42 may be equal to the sum of the rate of evaporation of the liquid at the gas-liquid mixture passing through the flow channel 24 and the speed of the fluid through the pipe for the selection of concentrated fluid 46 that is located on the vessel or by the vessel for storing the separated liquid 40. The ratio of the volume of circulating fluid�STI to the volume of fresh fluid generally may have a value in the range from 1:1 to 100:1, but is typically in the range from 5:1 to 25:1. For example, if in the recirculation circuit 42, the fluid circulates at a rate of about 10 Gal/min, fresh or new liquid can be fed at a rate of about 1 gallon/minute (i.e. 10:1). To take away some of the fluid through the pipe for the selection of concentrated liquid 46 will be possible once the liquid in the recirculation circuit 42 reaches the desired level of concentration. The recirculation circuit 42 acts as a buffer or a shock absorber in the evaporation process, ensuring the presence of sufficient amount of moisture in the flow channel 24 to prevent complete evaporation of the liquid and/or prevent the formation of dry particles.

After passing through the mist eliminator 34 gas stream enters the exhaust fan 50, which sucks the gas through the flow channel 24 and getproposal channel mist eliminator, creating a vacuum. Of course, the hub 10 could operate at elevated pressure generated by the circulator (not shown) placed in front of the nozzle for supplying the fluid 30. Finally, the gas is vented to the atmosphere through the exhaust hole 22 or sent for further processing.

The hub 10 may include a pretreatment system 52 is designed for handling liquid concentrate, which�traveler can be a waste of water. For example, as a pretreatment system 52 may be used air deodorizer designed to remove substances that could create nasty smell or controlled as air pollutants. In this case, air deodorizer can be a air deodorizer conventional type or may represent another hub offered here is of a type that can be connected in series as an air deodorizer. In the pretreatment system 52 is concentrating the liquid may if necessary be heated by any suitable method. In addition, gas and/or waste water, circulating through the hub 10 may be subjected to preliminary heating in the heater 54. Pre-heating can be used to increase the evaporation rate, and hence the rate of concentration of the liquid. Pre-heating the gas and/or waste water can be produced by burning renewable fuels such as wood chips, biogas, methane, or mixtures thereof, fossil fuels, or by using waste heat. In addition, pre-heating the gas and/or waste water can be produced by using waste heat generated in byteneutral or in a flare for burning gas, released from organic waste. For pre-heating the gas and/or wastewater can also use waste heat from the engine, such as an internal combustion engine. Also, natural gas can be used as a source of waste heat, natural gas may be supplied directly from the mouth of the gas wells in the raw state or after completion of a gas well to the stabilization of the gas flow or after stabilization of the gas flow in a more stable mode of natural gas wells. Additionally, natural gas can be purified before burning in a flare. In addition, the gas flow exiting the exhaust opening 22 of the hub 10, can be fed into a flare system or any other device for further processing 56, intended for the treatment of gas before emission into the atmosphere.

We offer you here the hub of the liquid 10 can be used for concentration of a plurality of wastewater, such as industrial waste water, wastewater, generated during natural disasters (floods, hurricanes), depleted or caustic effluents, such as landfill leachate, return water from wells completed natural gas, formation water produced during operation of natural gas wells, it.p. The hub of the liquid 10 is easy to operate, energy efficient, reliable and cost-effective. The usefulness of this hub fluid increases due to the possibility to install the hub fluid 10 on a trailer or a movable slide so that you can successfully process wastewater generated during accidents and natural disasters, or used for the regular treatment of wastewater generated at spatially disparate or remote locations. We offer you here the hub of the liquid 10 has all required parameters and provides significant advantages over conventional hub fluid, especially when you want to process a variety of waste water.

In addition, the hub 10 can be produced mainly from having high corrosion resistance of low cost materials such as fiberglass and/or other structural plastics. This feature is partly due to the fact that the proposed concentrator is designed to operate at minimal differential pressure. For example, the differential pressure supposed to be set in the range from 10 to 30 inches of water column. And since in the zone of contact of the gas with the liquid when casting method, there is a strong concentration turbulentnost� inside limited (compact) passage at the site with the profile of the Venturi or directly behind him the overall design is very compact compared to conventional concentrators, in which the contacting of the gas with the fluid flows in major technological vessel. As a result, the amount of high-quality metal alloys required for the manufacture of the hub 10, is quite small. And since the size of the parts, made of high quality alloys, small, and these parts can be easily replaced in a short period of time with minimal labor costs, the manufacturing costs can be cut even more by the design of some of these wear parts or all of these wear parts are of lower quality alloys and by periodic replacement. If necessary, these lower-quality alloys (e.g., carbon steel) can be applied with corrosion-resistant and/or erosionally the lining material, such as structural plastics, including elastomeric polymers, to increase the service life of such parts. Similarly, the pump 40 can be coated with a corrosion-and/or rationalwiki lining material to increase the life of the pump 40, thereby further reducing the cost of maintenance and replacement of parts.

It is clear that the hub 10 provides fluid directly� contact is exposed to the concentration of the fluid with the hot gas, creating a heat exchange and mass transfer between hot gas and liquid, for example, subjected to concentration of wastewater in a highly turbulent regime. In addition, the hub 10 creates a very compact area of the gas-liquid contact, making it minimal in size compared to known hubs. The heat produced by direct contact, enhances the efficiency of energy use and makes it unnecessary heat exchangers with solid surfaces, which are used in conventional hubs with indirect heat transfer. In addition, the compact area of the gas-liquid contact makes it unnecessary tedious process vessels used in conventional concentrators indirect or direct heat transfer. These features allow the manufacturing hub 10 small mass compared to conventional concentrators using a relatively cheap manufacturing techniques. Both of these factors increase the portability and profitability. Thus, the hub fluid 10 is more compact and lightweight than conventional hubs, which makes it ideal as mobile units. In addition, the hub fluid 10 is less prone to fouling and clogging due to the heat transfer by direct contact and the lack of TV�rdih of heat transfer surfaces. Thanks to the heat exchange by direct contact hub fluid 10 can also be used for the treatment of liquids containing significant amounts of suspended solids. As a result, it is possible to achieve a high degree of concentration, without frequent cleaning of the hub 10.

In particular, the hub fluid, which is used for indirect heat transfer, the heat exchangers are prone to fouling and are subjected to accelerated corrosion at normal working temperature of the circulating coolant in them (steam or other hot fluid medium). Each of these factors imposes significant restrictions on lifetime and/or the cost of construction of conventional hubs with indirect heat transfer, and also on how long they can work before you need to stop them and to clean or repair the heat exchangers. As a result of the refusal cumbersome process vessels of the mass of the hub fluid, as well as the initial cost and cost of replacement parts of high quality alloys decreases significantly. In addition, due to difference in temperature between the gas and liquid, a relatively small amount of liquid in the system, and low relative humidity of the gas prior to its mixing with the liquid concentrator 10 operates at a temperature close to the�erature adiabatic saturation specific gas-liquid mixture, which typically has a value in the range from 150°F to 215°F (i.e., the hub is "disconation" hub).

In addition, the hub 10 is designed to operate under vacuum, which greatly facilitates the use of different fuels or sources of waste heat as an energy source for evaporation. In fact, thanks to the flowing design of these systems for heating and supply of gas to the hub 10 can use the burner with the supercharged and naturally aspirated. Simplicity of design and reliability of a hub 10 provided with a minimum number of moving parts and a minimal need for replacement parts. In General, for the hub only need two pumps and one exhaust fan, if it is designed to work on waste heat, such as exhaust gases of the engine, the motor generator or a motor vehicle), flue gases from industrial pipes, gas compressor systems and flares used, for example, for the combustion gas emitted from the organic waste. These features provide significant advantages in that a positive impact on operational flexibility and the cost of purchasing, operation and maintenance of the hub 10.

The hub 10 can operate in starting or�stanovivshiesya state. Starting the sump mist eliminator 34 and the recirculation circuit 42 can be filled with fresh sewage. During the initial processing of fresh water supplied to the nozzle for supplying the fluid 30 at least partially vaporized in the constricted section 24 and is deposited in the sump mist eliminator 34 in a more concentrated form than fresh water. After a certain time of waste water in the sump reaches a mist eliminator 34 and the recirculation circuit 42 required level of concentration. Since then, the hub 10 can operate in a continuous mode in which the particulates are withdrawn into the nozzle for the selection of concentrated liquid 46, is equal to the number of solid particles received in fresh waste water through the pipe for supplying the fluid 30. Similarly, the amount of water evaporated in the hub 10, is replaced by an equal quantity of fresh water in the waste water. Thus, the hub 10 operates at a temperature close to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the mixture of heated gas and liquid. The result is a high efficiency of the concentrator 10.

Fig. 2 shows a side view of the hub of the liquid 10 that is installed on the movable frame 60, such as a sump for liquid, a trailer or sled. Mobile frame has� such size and shape, so it was easy to load on the vehicle or attach to the vehicle 62, such as a tractor-trailer. Similarly, a hub mounted on such frame, can be easily downloaded on a train, vessel or aircraft (not shown) to quickly deliver to remote locations. The hub of the liquid 10 can operate as a fully Autonomous unit with its own burner and the fuel supply system, or the hub of the liquid 10 can use existing at the place of use of the burner and/or the source of fuel or waste heat. Fuel for the hub 10 can serve as renewable fuels, such as waste (e.g., paper or wood chips) and the gas emitted from organic waste. In addition, the hub 10 can run on any blend of traditional fossil fuels such as coal or oil, renewable fuels and/or waste heat.

Mounted on the trailer model, the hub 10 is capable of processing not less than one hundred thousand gallons of wastewater per day, while larger stationary units, which are mounted on landfills, wastewater or gas or oil fields, capable of processing hundreds of thousands of gallons of wastewater per day.

Fig. 3 shows the con�specific embodiment of the compact hub fluid 110, which works using the principles described above with reference to Fig. 1, which is connected to a source of waste heat in the form of a flare for burning gas generated from organic waste. Generally speaking, compact hub fluid 110, shown in Fig. 3, is designed for concentrating wastewater such as landfill leachate, using waste or waste heat generated in the flare combustion gas generated from organic waste, thus as stated in the standards of the Agency for environmental protection (EPA) and/or local regulatory authorities. As you know, most landfills has flare system, used for the combustion gas generated from organic waste, to remove methane and other gases before they escape into the atmosphere. Normally the gas at the outlet of the flare unit has a temperature in the range from 1000°F to 1500°F, but can warm up to 1800°F. Compact hub fluid 100 shown in Fig. 3, is equally effective when the concentration of the return water or produced water from natural gas wells, and can use the waste gas flare natural gas, or propane flare located at the wellhead or near it. In some Prim�made the supply of natural gas in the flare of the natural gas can be supplied directly from the well of natural gas.

As shown in Fig. 3, compact hub fluid 110 is typically connected to a flare 115 and contains a heat transfer unit 117 (shown in enlarged form in Fig. 4), the unit for pre-processing of the 119 air discharge unit 120 (shown in enlarged form in Fig. 5), Gazpromavia block 122 and exhaust manifold 124. An important feature is that the flare unit 115 holds the torch 130, in which any known method is combusted gas generated from organic waste, and flare-cap unit 132. Flare-cap unit 132 includes a hinged cap 134 (e.g., flare cap or exhaust hood), which closes the top of the torch 130 or exhaust pipe of a different type (for example, the exhaust flue gases) when the flare cap 134 to be in the closed position, or removes a portion of flare gas flare when gas is partially covered, and which allows the flue gas formed in the torch 130, venture out into the atmosphere through the open end, which forms the primary exhaust hole 143, when the flare cap 134 to be in the open or partially open position. Flare-cap unit 132 also contains the drive cap 135, such as a motor (e.g. electric motor, hydraulic motor or pneumatic motor shown in f�G. 4), which moves the flare cap 134 between a fully open position and fully closed position. As shown in Fig. 4, the drive flare of the cap 135 may, for example, turn the flare cap 134 around a hinge axis 136 by opening and closing of the flare cap 134. The drive flare of the cap 135 may use a chain drive or the drive mechanism of any other type, connected to the flare cap 134 to rotate the flare cap 134 around a hinge axis 136. Flare-cap unit 132 may also include a counterweight 137, located on the opposite side from the hinge axis 136 of the flare cap 134 to balance the weight of the flare cap 134 during movement of the flare cap 134 around a hinge axis 136. The counterweight 137 allows to reduce the dimensions of the actuator 135 or lower his power so that he could still turn flare cap 134 between an open position in which the upper part of the torch 130 (or primary exhaust hole 143) is open to the atmosphere, and a closed position in which the flare cap 134 substantially seals the upper end of the torch 130 (or primary exhaust hole 143). Itself the flare cap 134 may be made of a material with high temperature resistance, such as stainless steel�schaya steel or carbon steel, and can be lined with refractory material, for example, the oxides of aluminum and/or zirconium oxide, the lower side, which is in direct contact with the hot flare gases when the flare cap 134 is in the closed position.

If necessary the torch 130 may be provided with a transitional device 138 containing primary gas exhaust hole 143 and the secondary exhaust nozzle 141 in front of the primary gas exhaust hole 143. When flare cap 130 is in the closed position, the flue gases are discharged through the secondary exhaust nozzle 141. The adapter 138 may have a fitting 139 that connects the torch 130 (or exhaust pipe) with a heat transfer unit 117 using a 90-degree knee or bend. You can use other connecting devices. For example, the torch 130 and the heat transfer unit 117 can be combined in essentially any angle in the range from 0 to 180 degrees. In this case, the flare-cap block 132 is mounted on top of the adapter 138 near the primary exhaust hole 143.

As shown in Fig. 3 and 4, the heat transfer unit 117 contains the heat transfer pipe 140, which connects an inlet of the pre-processing unit 119 air with a torch 130, and more specifically, with the transitional device 138 torch 130. The heat transfer pipe 40 between the torch 130 and a block for pre-processing of the 119 air is at a certain height above the ground, leaning on the counter in the form of vertical beam or column. The heat transfer pipe 140 is connected to the fitting 139 or to a secondary exhaust conduit 141 transitional device 138, forming the transition duct between the device 138 and device for carrying out a secondary process, such as the concentration of the liquid. Without support columns 142 are usually not enough, since the heat transfer pipe 140 is made of metal such as carbon or stainless steel and may be lined with materials such as aluminum oxide and/or zirconium oxide, so that it could withstand the temperature of the gas coming from the torch 130 in the block for pre-processing of the 119 air. Thus, the heat transfer pipe 140 is usually a heavy piece of equipment. However, the torch 130, on the one hand, and a unit for pre-processing of the 119 air and concentrating unit 120, on the other hand, are right next to each other, so the heat transfer pipe 140 should be relatively short, thereby reducing the cost of the materials used in the hub 110, as well as the cost of supporting structures holding the heavy side of the hub 110 above the ground. As shown in Fig. 3, the heat transfer pipe 140 and the block for pre-processing of the 119 air form a U-shaped design�Oia, turned legs down.

Unit for pre-processing of the 119 air comprises a vertical pipe 150 and the intake valve atmospheric air (not shown explicitly in Fig. 3 and 4) located on top of the pipe 150. The intake valve atmospheric air (also called air valve) forms a duct between the heat transfer pipe 140 (or the pre-processing unit 119 air and atmosphere. The intake valve allows atmospheric air atmospheric air to enter through a wire screen 152 that is used for protection from birds, and mixed inside the unit for pre-processing of the 119 air with the hot gas coming from the torch 130. If necessary block for pre-processing of the 119 air may be constantly open window near the air valve, which can always let some air into the unit for pre-processing of the 119 air, and the window reduces the size of the required air valve and increase the safety of operation of the concentrator. The supercharger pressure (not shown) can be connected if necessary to the intake side of the valve atmospheric air to enhance the passage of atmospheric air through the atmospheric air valve. When using the supercharger pressure screen for protection from birds 152 and constant� open window (if used) can be connected to the intake side of the supercharger pressure. Although the operation of the inlet valve in the atmospheric air or the air valve will be discussed in more detail below, it should be noted that this valve allows cooling gas coming from the torch 130, to a more acceptable temperature before it goes into the concentrating unit 120. Unit for pre-processing of the 119 air may partly rely on the cross member 154 attached to the bracket 142. Cross member 154 stabilize the unit for pre-processing of the 119 air, which is commonly made from heavy carbon steel or stainless steel or other metal and which can be lined to improve the energy efficiency and temperature resistance in this region of the hub 110. In case you need a vertical pipe 150 can be extended, so you can use it to torches of different heights, and thus make the hub fluid 110 is suitable for many different torches or torches of different heights. This principle is illustrated in more detail with reference to Fig. 3. As shown in Fig. 3, a vertical pipe 150 includes the first section 150A (shown in dashed lines), which is inside the second section 150B, and thus allows you to adjust the length (height) of the vertical pipe 150.

Generally speaking, the preprocessing block air�and 119 is used to mix atmospheric air entering through the intake valve atmospheric air under the mesh screen 152, with the hot gas coming from the torch 130 on the heat transfer pipe 140, to obtain a gas having a desired temperature at the inlet of the concentrating unit 120.

The concentrating unit 120 includes a guide section 156 with decreasing cross-section, the upper end of which is coupled with the lower end of the vertical pipe 150, and the lower end of the cooler 159 of the concentrating unit 120. The concentrating unit 120 also includes a first inlet connection fluid 160 through which new or untreated liquid, sent to the concentration, such as landfill leachate, is injected inside the cooler 159. The nozzle 160 may include, although not shown in Fig. 3, globular dispenser with large cross-section nozzle for injection of untreated fluid into the cooler 159. The liquid is injected into the cooler 159 at this point the system has not yet been subjected to concentration, and therefore contains a large amount of water, and the sprayer has a large cross section, so the spray nozzle is not polluted and clogged with small particles contained in the fluid. It is clear that the chiller 159 is designed to quickly lower the temperature of the gas stream (for example, from 900°F to 200°F) to re�altace strong evaporation of the liquid, injected through an inlet 160. If necessary, you can install, although it is not shown in Fig. 3, the temperature sensor at the exit or near the exit of the pipe 150 or cooler 159 and use it for adjusting the position of the closure member of the inlet valve of the air and thereby to control the temperature of gas in the intake pipe of the concentrating unit 120.

As shown in Fig. 3 and 5, the cooler 159 is connected with the injection fluid chamber connected to a narrowed section or section with a Venturi profile 162, which has a narrowed cross-section compared to the cooler 159 and which contains the Venturi plate 163 (depicted in dashed lines). The Venturi plate 163 creates a narrowed passage at the site with the profile of the Venturi 162, which generates a large pressure drop between the inlet and outlet section of the Venturi profile 162. This is a large pressure drop creates a turbulent gas flow in the chiller 159 and in the upper part or at the entrance of the site with the profile of the Venturi 162 and causes the gas to flow from the site with the profile of the Venturi 162 at high speed, and all this leads to a complete mixing of the gas and liquid at the site with the profile of the Venturi 162. The position of the Venturi plate 163 can be adjusted by a manual control handle 165 (shown in Fig. 5) connected to semimoist plate 163, or with the help of an electric motor or pneumatic cylinder (not shown in Fig. 5).

Recirculation pipe 166 covers from opposite sides of the entrance to the site with the profile of the Venturi 162 and serves to inject a partially focuses (i.e. curculioninae) of the liquid to the area with a Venturi profile 162 to continue to concentrate its and/or to prevent formation of dry particles inside the stacking unit 120, through the many inlets of the fluid located on one or more sides of the flow channel. Although in Fig. 3 and 5 don't explicitly specified, from each of the opposite branch pipe 166, partially covering the plot with the profile of the Venturi 162, may extend several tubes, for example, three tubes of ½ inch diameter, and penetrate through the walls inside the site with the profile of the Venturi 162. Since the liquid supplied to the hub 110 at this point, is a circulating liquid, and therefore, is either partially concentrated or achieved a certain equilibrium concentrations and are more likely to clog spray nozzles, less concentrated than the fluid injected through the pipe 160, the liquid should be applied straight from the tube, without sprays, to avoid clogging. However if necessary before each half-inch hole tubes can install�ü a partition in the form of a flat plate, to cause fluid entering the system at this point, to break up when hitting the partition into small droplets and dispersed in the concentrating unit 120. With such a setup, this recycling system better distributes or recirculation spray the liquid on the gas flow within the concentrating unit 120.

The mixture of hot gas and liquid flows in the turbulent regime through the section with the profile of the Venturi 162. As mentioned above, the Venturi profile 162, which has a movable Venturi plate 163, located across the concentrating unit 120, causes turbulence of flow and complete mixing of the liquid and gas, contributing to the rapid evaporation of a liquid in a gas. Since the mixing action provided by the site with the profile of the Venturi 162, provides a high degree of evaporation, the gas is substantially cooled in the concentrating unit 120 and exits the plot with the profile of the Venturi 162 submerged in knee-164 high speed. In fact, the temperature of the gas-liquid mixture at this point may be about 160°F.

As usual for flooded knee, the device of the spillway (not shown) in the bottom of a flooded knee 164 maintains a constant level partially or fully concentrated recirculation of fluid entering it. Drops recycling machine�selecionou fluid, involved in the gas phase at the outlet of the gas-liquid mixture with a plot of the profile of the Venturi 162, with high speed are displayed on the surface of the recirculating liquid held in the bottom of a flooded knee 164 centrifugal force that occurs when the gas-liquid mixture is forced to turn 90 degrees to get into Gazpromavia block 122. A significant number of drops of liquid involved in the gas phase, which faces the surface of the recirculating liquid held in the bottom of a flooded knee 164, is connected to the recirculating fluid, which leads to increased recirculation of liquid in the bottom of a flooded knee 164 and equality the number of recirculating fluid escaping from the unit spillway and flowing under the influence of gravity into the sump 172 in the lower part Gazpromenergo block 122. Thus, as a result of interaction of gas-liquid stream with the liquid in the flooded elbow 164, of gas-liquid flow the liquid droplets are removed and prevents the collision of suspended particles contained in gas-liquid flow, with a bottom of a submerged knee 164 at high speed, thereby avoiding erosion of the metal walls of the flooded knee 164.

From flooded knee 164 gas-liquid flow, �which contains vaporized the liquid, a certain amount of liquid droplets and other particles, enters Gazpromavia block 122 which represents in this case crossflow Gazpromavia apparatus. Gazpromavia block 122 contains different screens or filters, which contribute to the removal of entrained liquid from gas-liquid flow and remove other particles that could be present in gas-liquid flow. In one specific embodiment of the crossflow Gazpromavia apparatus 122 may contain the input coarse front Bafe 169, which is designed to remove liquid droplets ranging in size from 50 µm to 100 µm. Behind her two replaceable pleated filter 170 in a direction transverse to the stream flowing through Gazpromavia unit 122, and a filter 170 can gradually change the size or configuration, so you can remove the drops progressively smaller, such as 20-30 μm and less than 10 microns. Of course, you can use more or fewer filters or pleated filters.

As in conventional crossflow Gazpromavia apparatus, the liquid is adsorbed by the filters 169 and 170 and the overflow chamber at the bottom of the flooded knee 164, flows by gravity to the reservoir or sump for fluid 172, located in the lower part Gazpromenergo block 122. A sump for fluid 172, which�th can hold, for example, 200 gallons of liquid, thereby collects the concentrated liquid containing dissolved and suspended solids removed from liquid flow, and serves as a source of recirculating the concentrated liquid delivered back to the concentrating unit 120 for further processing and/or to prevent formation of dry particles in the concentrating unit 120 thus, as described above with reference to Fig. 1. In one embodiment, the implementation of a sump for fluid 172 may have an inclined V-shaped bottom 171, having a V-shaped groove extending from the rear side Gazpromenergo unit 122 (the farthest from the flooded knee 164) to the front side Gazpromenergo unit 122 (closest to the flooded elbow 164), and V-shaped groove 175 is tilted so that the bottom of the V-shaped trough below 175 at the end Gazpromenergo block 122, the middle to the flooded elbow 164 than at the end Gazpromenergo block 122 remote from the flooded knee 164. In other words, the V-shaped bottom 171 may be tilted towards the lowest point of this V-shaped bottom 171, located near pit hatch 173 and/or the pump 182. In addition, the concentrated liquid from the sump to the fluid 172 may be connected to the wash pump circuit (not shown in the figures) in a spray bottle (not�asany) inside Gazpromenergo block 122, moreover, this sprayer is designed for spraying liquid on a Vee bottom. In addition, the concentrated liquid from the sump to the fluid 172 may be connected to the wash pump circuit 177 (Fig. 9) in a spray bottle 179 crossflow inside Gazpromenergo unit 122, and the nozzle 179 is designed to spray the liquid on the V-shaped bottom 171. But the sprayer 179 can spray on a V-shaped bottom 171 and unconcentrated liquid or pure water. Dispenser 179 may periodically or continuously spraying the liquid on the surface of the V-shaped bottom 171 to flush solids and prevent sediment deposition on V-shaped bottom 171 or pit on the hatch 173 and/or the pump 182. Due to the presence of this V-shaped inclined bottom 171 and leaching circuit 177, the liquid accumulated in the sump for fluid 172, and is updated constantly mixed and thereby maintains a relatively constant its consistency and leaves the solids in a suspended state. If necessary spray system 177 may be a separate circuit that uses a separate pump connected for example, to the intake side of the sump 172, or may use a pump 182 associated with a recirculation circuit of concentrated fluid, described below, to spray concentration of�yovanny the fluid in the sump for fluid 172 on the V-shaped bottom 171.

As shown in Fig. 3, a return line 180 and the pump 182 are used to return the liquid removed from the gas-liquid flow from the sump to the fluid back into the hub 120 and thus completing the recirculation circuit of the liquid. Similarly, the feed lines 186 may be mounted on the pump 184 to submit new or untreated liquid, such as landfill leachate, through the pipe 160 in the concentrating unit 120. Inside Gazpromenergo unit 122 can also install one or more nozzles 185 near pleated panel filters 170, so they could periodically spraying clean water or a portion of the supplied waste water to pleated filters 170 to wash them.

Concentrated liquid can also be removed from the sump for liquid Gazpromenergo unit 122 through holes 173 and Luke then be further processed or removed in a suitable manner in the secondary recirculation circuit 181. In particular, the concentrated liquid is removed through holes 173 Luke, contains a certain amount of suspended solids which can be separated from this portion of the concentrated liquid and removed from the system using a secondary recirculation loop 181. For example, the concentrated liquid is removed through the pit hatch 173, can be fed through a second�CNY contour concentrated wastewater 181 to one or more devices 183 for the separation of solids / liquids such as a settling tank, vibrating sieve, rotary vacuum filter, horizontal vacuum belt filter, belt press, filter press and/or a hydrocyclone. After separation of the suspended solids and the liquid concentrated wastewater of the device separation of solid substances and liquids 183, the liquid portion of the concentrated waste water without solids can be returned to the sump for fluid 172 for further processing in the primary or secondary recirculation loop connected to the hub.

The gas in the flow through Gazpromavia block 122 have been removed the liquid and suspended solids, is fed through a pipe or duct from the rear side Gazpromenergo unit 122 (for corrugated filters 170) exhaust fan 190 exhaust unit 124 and is discharged into the atmosphere in the form of the cooling gas is mixed with the evaporated water. Of course, to an exhaust fan connected to the motor 192, which causes the fan 190 to create a vacuum in Gazpromavia block 122 to suck the gas from the torch 130 through the heat transfer pipe 140, the pre-processing unit 119 air and concentrating unit 120. As mentioned above with reference to Fig. 1, the exhaust fan 190 is only necessary to create a slight vacuum in gazpromin�m block 122 and thus ensure proper operation of the hub 110.

Although the speed of the exhaust fan 190 and can be changed by using such devices as variable frequency drive, to create different levels of dilution in Gazpromavia block 122 and to work in a certain range of values of gas consumption and even pick up all of the gas from the torch 130, if it is lacking, it is not necessary to adjust the operation of the exhaust fan 190 to create the proper vacuum in Gazpromavia block 122. To ensure proper operation, the gas flowing through Gazpromavia block 122 should be large enough (minimum required) speed input Gazpromenergo block 122. Usually this requirement is met, maintaining a predetermined minimum pressure drop in Gazpromavia block 122. But if the torch 130 does not provide the minimum required amount of gas, the increase in the rotational speed of the exhaust fan 190 will not be able to provide the necessary pressure drop in Gazpromavia block 122.

To find a way out of this situation, crossflow Gazpromavia block 122 has been provided with a circuit for recirculation of gas that can be used to ensure a sufficient supply of gas to the input Gazpromenergo unit 122 and to create the required pressure drop in Gazpromavia block 122. In particular, the circuit for recirculation of gas contains clicks�capital line or channel strip 196, which connects the high pressure side of the exhaust unit 124 (e.g., behind the exhaust fan 190) with the inlet Gazpromenergo unit 122 (for example, with gas nozzle Gazpromenergo block 122), and the valve or the regulating mechanism 198, located in the return duct 196 which is designed for opening and closing the reverse channel 196 to thereby establish a means of communication the high pressure side of the exhaust unit 124 with the inlet Gazpromenergo block 122. During operation, when the gas supply in Gazpromavia block 122 is not large enough to provide a minimum pressure drop in Gazpromavia block 122, the flap 198 (which may be, for example, the gas valve or louver dampers) is open to direct gas from the high pressure side of the exhaust unit 124 (i.e., the gas which has passed through the exhaust fan 190) back to the input Gazpromenergo block 122. This operation ensures the supply of a sufficient quantity of gas to the input Gazpromenergo unit 122 to the exhaust fan 190 to provide a minimum pressure drop in Gazpromavia block 122.

Fig. 6 shows a particularly useful distinguishing feature compact hub fluid 110 shown in Fig. 3, consisting of n�presence of group easy-to-open manholes 200, which you can use to get inside the hub 110 for the purpose of cleaning and inspection. Although in Fig. 6 shows an easy opening hatches 200 on one side Gazpromenergo unit 122, a similar group hatches can be positioned on the other side Gazpromenergo unit 122, and a similar Suite is on the front side of the flooded knee 164, as shown in Fig. 5. As shown in Fig. 6, each easy-to-open manholes 200 on Gazpromavia unit 122 includes a hatch cover 202, which may be a flat metal plate suspended on Gazpromavia block 122 by two hinges 204, and a hatch cover 202 may be opened and closed, turning on the hinges 204. The edges of the hatch cover 202 are many quick opening constipation 206, intended for fixing the manhole cover 202 in the closed position and locking hand hole cover 202 during operation Gazpromenergo block 122. In a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 6, each hatch cover there are eight quick opening constipation 206 located around each of the manhole covers, although you can use any number of such quick opening constipation 206.

Fig. 7 shows one of the hatches 200 in the open position. As shown in this figure, the frame of the hatch 208 is raised above the wall Gazpromenergo block 122 and on props 209, located between the manhole frame 208 and the outer wall Gazpromenergo block 122. Around the hole in the door frame, 208 installed the gasket 210, which may be made of rubber or other compressible material. Similar additional or the main strip can be installed around the perimeter of the inside of the hatch cover 202, to improve the quality of sealing, when the trap door 200 is in the closed state.

Each quick opening constipation 206, which is shown in enlarged form in Fig. 8, has a handle 212 and the latch 214 (in this case in the form of a U-shaped metal brackets) mounted on a hinge axis 216 passed through the handle 212. Arm 212 is pivotally installed on a different axis 218 mounted on the outer wall of the hatch cover 202 with the mounting bracket 219. When you move the handle up 212 and pivotally rotate around a different axis 218 (from the position shown in Fig. 8), the latch 214 is shifted along the outer wall Gazpromenergo unit 122 (when the hatch cover 202 is in the closed position), the latch 214 is disengaged from the hook 220, located on prop 209, and move away from the hatch cover 202. When you turn the knob 210 in the reverse direction, the latch 214 clings to the hook 220 and attract other the connecting rod 218, and hence the hatch cover 202 with the door frame 208. With the closure of all opened them quickly�available constipation 206 hatch cover 202 is pressed down the door frame, 208, a gasket 210 provides a tight connection. Thus, the circuit quickly open all eight of constipation 206 on a particular hatch 200, as shown in Fig. 6, provides a reliable and tight closure of the hatch 200.

The use of easily available openings 200 replaces the lid with holes and lots of bolts extending from the outer wall of the hub, which pass through these holes on the lid and fastened with nuts to compress the cap to the wall of the hub. Although such nut and bolt fastening mechanism, which is widely used in concentrators liquid to provide access to the interior of the hub, and is very reliable, you have to spend a lot of time and effort to the removal and installation of removable covers. Easy opening hatches 200 with quick opening latches 206, shown in Fig. 6, can be used in this case because as the pressure inside Gazpromenergo block 122 is less than the external pressure, inside Gazpromenergo unit 122 creates a vacuum, which does not need to tighten the bolts and nuts removable panel. It is clear that the configuration with hatches 200 makes it easy to open and close the hatches 200 with minimal effort and without tools and thus provides quick and easy access to the snap inside Gazpromenergo block 122, to such�to reflective partition 169 or replacement filters 170, or to other parts of the hub 110, which are located behind the inspection hatch 200.

As shown in Fig. 5, the front wall of a submerged knee 164 of the concentrating unit 120 also has an easy-opening inspection hatch 200, which provides easy access to the interior of a submerged knee 164. However, such easy opening hatches can be if necessary on any part of the hub fluid 110, since the majority of elements of the hub 10 is under negative pressure.

Combination of characters is shown in Fig. 3-8 inherent compact hub fluid 110, which uses the waste heat of the gas, resulting from the flaring of landfill gas, waste heat, that would otherwise be emitted directly to the atmosphere. It is important to note that the hub 110 uses only a minimal amount of expensive material with high temperature resistance for the manufacture of pipes and structural equipment necessary when working with high temperature gases leaving the torch 130. In particular, the length of the heat transfer pipe 140, which is made from the most expensive materials, is minimized, which reduces the cost and weight of the hub fluid 110. In addition, due to the small size of the heat transfer pipe 140 need only minimal�Noe number of scaffolding in the form of support columns 142, which further reduces the cost of construction of the hub 110. In addition, the preprocessing block air 119 is located directly on the concentrating unit 120 and the gas in these blocks comes from the top down, which allows you to set these blocks of hub 110 directly on the ground or on skids. Further, this configuration allows you to place the hub 110 is very close to the torch 130, making it more compact. Similarly, this configuration allows to place high-temperature blocks hub 110 (e.g., the upper part of the torch 130, the heat transfer pipe 140 and the pre-processing unit 119 air) above the ground, and not have to worry about accidental contact, which leads to the achievement of higher levels of security. In fact, due to the rapid cooling that occurs at the site with the profile of the Venturi 162 of the concentrating unit 120, and the plot itself with the profile of the Venturi 162, and submerged knee 164, and Gazpromavia block 122 is typically cooled sufficiently that it was possible to touch them without fear of getting burned (even if at the exit of the torch 130 gas had a temperature of 1800°F). Quick cooling gas-liquid mixture allows the use of materials, lower cost, easier to manufacture and which have a corrosion resistance. In addition, the components flooded after�CSOs knee 164, such as Gazpromavia block 122, the exhaust fan 190 and exhaust manifold 124 may be manufactured from materials such as fiberglass.

The hub fluid 110 is also a very high-speed hub. Since the hub 110 is the hub of direct contact, he was not threatened by sedimentation, clogging or blockage to the extent that is inherent in most other hubs. Further, the ability to regulate the operation of the torch by opening and closing of the flare cap 134 allows you to continuously use the torch 130 for combustion of landfill gas regardless of whether has a hub 110 or not working, not stopping his work during start and stop of the hub 110. In particular, the flare cap 134 can be accessed quickly at any time that the torch 130 could just burn the gas from organic waste, as it usually does when you disconnect the hub 110. On the other hand, flare hood can close quickly at the time of launch of the hub 110 and thereby to direct all the hot gases from the torch 130, the hub 110, which allows the hub 110 to start working without stopping the torch 130. In any case, the hub 110 can be start and stop, changing only the position of the flare cap 134, but without stopping the operation of the torch 130.

p> If necessary during operation of the hub 110 of the flare cap 134 can be partially open to regulate the amount of gas supplied from a torch 130 in the hub 110. This regulation of the gas flow in combination with the regulation of the inlet valve atmospheric air can be used to control the gas temperature at the inlet section of the Venturi profile 162.

In addition, the compact configuration of the preprocessing block of the 119 air, the concentrating unit 120 and Gazpromenergo block 122, the individual parts of the concentrating unit 120, Gazpromenergo block 122, the exhaust fan 190 and at least the lower portion of the exhaust unit 124 can be fixed to install (attach and use as a prop) on the slide rail or plate 230, as shown in Fig. 2. The upper part of the concentrating unit 120, a preprocessing block 119 air and the heat transfer pipe 140, and the upper part of the exhaust pipe can be removed and laid on a slide or plate 230 during transportation or they can be transported in a separate truck. Because of the way the bottom of the hub 110 can be mounted on the slide rail or plate, the hub 110 is easy to remove and install. In particular, during installation of the hub 110 of the rails 230, which is installed Gazpromavia block 122, ZAT�captive's knee 164 and the exhaust fan 190, you can unload in the place in which a hub must be used, just fetched them off the rails 230 on the ground or on another storage area on which the hub 110 is assembled. After that, the plot with the profile of the Venturi 162, 159 and cooler the preprocessing block air 119 can be placed on top and attach to the flooded elbow 164. Then pipe 150 can extend in height so as to match the height of the torch 130 to which to connect the hub 110. In some cases, you may need to first install a flare-cap unit 132 on the existing torch 130. You can then raise the heat transfer pipe 140 at the proper height and secure between the torch 130 and a block for pre-processing of the 119 air, setting in place the support leg 142. For hubs with evaporation capacities ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 gallons a day, perhaps so that the whole torchlight node 115 mounted on the same slide or plate 230 on which is mounted the hub 120.

Since most pumps, pipes, sensors and electronic equipment is located or connected to the concentrating unit 120, Gazpromavia unit 122 or the exhaust pump 190, the installation of the hub 110 at a specific location will not require a great amount of pipes and electrical work on site set�VCI. As a result, the hub 110 can be relatively easy to install and assemble (or disassemble and dismantle) at a particular location. In addition, since most of the components of the stationary hub 110 has a slide 230, the hub 110 can be easily transported by truck or other vehicles and can be easily downloaded and install from specific location, such as the area near the torch in the dump.

Fig. 9 shows a control scheme 300 that can be used for hub 110 shown in Fig. 3. As shown in Fig. 9, the control system 300 includes a controller 302, which may be a controller type digital signal processor, programmable logic controller, which may, for example, control based on multi-stage logic, or any other controller type. The controller 302 is connected, of course, to different components in the hub 110. In particular, the controller 302 is connected to the drive motor 135 of the flare cap 134, which produces the opening and closing of the flare cap 134. The drive motor 135 can be used for adjusting the position of the flare cap 134, moving it between fully open and fully closed positions. But if necessary, the controller 302 can control�TB drive motor 135, so he moved the flare cap 134 in any of the many intermediate positions between the fully open position to fully closed position. If necessary, the motor 135 may continuously move the flare cap 134, mounting at any desired point between fully open and fully closed positions.

In addition, the controller 302 is connected to the inlet atmospheric air valve 306, located on Fig. 3 in the pre-processing unit 119 air in front of the plot with the profile of the Venturi 162, and can be used to control the pumps 182 and 184, which govern the magnitude and the ratio of new injection fluid admitted to the concentration, and recycled liquid subjected to processing in the concentrator 110. The controller 302 may be connected to the level sensor 317 in the sump for liquid, such as a float sensor, proximity sensor, such as radar or acoustic sensor, or a differential pressure sensor). The controller 302 may use the signal received from the level sensor 317 in the sump for liquid to control the pumps 182 and 184 and to maintain the level of the concentrated liquid in the sump for fluid 172 corresponding to the predetermined or desired value. The controller 302 can also be connected to �tagName the fan 190, to control the operation of the exhaust fan 190, which may be a single speed fan, beremennosti fan or fan with continuously variable speed. In one embodiment of the actuator for the exhaust fan 190 is a variable speed motor, the frequency of which is changed to adjust the fan speed. In addition, the controller 302 is connected to temperature sensor 308 is located, for example, at the inlet of the concentrating unit 120 or at the entrance of the site with the profile of the Venturi 162, and receives the temperature signal generated by temperature sensor 308. The temperature sensor 308 may also be located behind the station with the profile of the Venturi 162 or the temperature sensor 308 may include a pressure sensor generating a pressure signal.

During operation, for example, when starting the hub 110, when the torch 130 continues to operate and thus burns the gas from organic waste, the controller 302 must first turn on the exhaust fan 190 to create a vacuum in Gazpromavia unit 122 and the concentrating unit 120. Thereafter or simultaneously, the controller 302 sends a signal to the motor 135 to close flare cap partially or completely and to transmit waste heat from the torch 130 in the heat transfer pipe 140, and consequently, in block �predvaritelnoe air treatment 119. Receiving a temperature signal from the temperature sensor 308, the controller 302 may adjust the intake valve atmospheric air 306 (usually covering it partially or fully) and/or the drive flare of the hood to adjust the temperature of the gas at the inlet of the concentrating unit 120. Generally speaking, the intake atmospheric air valve 306 can be driven to full throttle shifting element, such as a spring (i.e., may be a normally-open valve), and the controller 302 may begin to close the valve 306 to regulate the amount of atmospheric air entering the pre-processing unit 119 air (through the creation of a vacuum in the pre-processing unit 119 air), and thus to bring the mixture of air and hot gases from the torch 130 to the desired temperature. If necessary, the controller 302 may also control the position of the flare cap 134 (setting it to any position between fully open and fully closed positions) and can change the speed of the exhaust fan 190 to adjust the amount of gas supplied to the preprocessing block of the 119 air from the torch 130. It is clear that the amount of gas flowing through the hub 110 can be changed, for example, depending on temperature and humidity atmosfernoj� air the flare gas temperature or the amount of gas coming from the torch 130. Therefore, the controller 302 may adjust the temperature and amount of gas flowing through the concentrating unit 120, by changing one or several parameters, including the degree of closure of the intake of atmospheric air valve 306, the position of the flare cap 134 and the speed of the exhaust fan 190, for example, by measuring the temperature sensor 308 at the inlet of the concentrating unit 120. This feedback system is necessary because in many cases, the air coming out of the torch 130, has a temperature in the range from 1200°F to 1800°F, which is too large or exceeds the value that it should have to ensure the efficient operation of the concentrator 110.

In any case, as shown in Fig. 9, the controller 302 may also be connected to the motor 310, which can change the position of the Venturi plate 163 in the narrower area of the concentrating unit 120 to adjust the level of turbulence generated by the concentrating unit 120. And the controller 302 may control the operation of the pumps 182 and 184 to change the speed (and the ratio of speeds) at which the pumps 182 and 184 serves a circulating fluid and a new waste water to the inputs of cooler 159 and parcel with the profile of the Venturi 162. In one embodiment of the con�roller 302 can adjust the ratio of the circulating fluid to the new fluid at the level of 10:1, so if the pump 184 delivers the new fluid into the intake pipe 160 at a rate of 8 gallons per minute, the recirculation pump 182 delivers the concentrated liquid at a rate of 80 gallons per minute. Instead, or additionally, the controller 302 may adjust flow of new fluid sent for processing in the concentrator (pump 184), supporting the same or a predetermined level the quantity of the concentrated liquid in the sump for fluid 172, for example, by means of the level sensor 317. Of course, the amount of liquid in the sump for fluid 172 will depend on the speed of concentration in the hub, the speed at which the concentrated liquid is pumped by pump or fed into the sump for fluid 172 through the secondary recirculation loop, and the speed with which the pump 182 delivers the liquid from the sump to the fluid 172 to the switch via the primary recirculation loop.

If necessary the intake valve atmospheric air 306 or flare cap 132, severally or jointly, may be in providing security to the open position, such that when the flare cap 134 and the inlet atmospheric air valve 306 is opened in the event of a system fault (e.g., absence of a control signal) or off of the hub 110. In one case�AE engine 135 flare cap may be spring loaded or pressed to the dewatering element, so, like a spring, to keep the flare cap 134 is in the open position or to ensure the opening of the flare cap 134 after de-energizing the motor 135. Or the dewatering element can be a counterweight 137 of the flare cap 134, which may be located in such a position that the flare cap 134 itself moves to the open position under the action of the counterweight 137 when the motor 135 is de-energized or lost control signal. As a result of the flare cap 134 is quickly opened when disconnecting the supply of energy or when the controller 302 opens flare cap, allowing hot gas out of the torch 130 through the upper opening. Of course, you can use other ways of translation of the flare cap 134 to the open position in the absence of a control signal, including using a torsion spring on the hinge axis 136 of the flare cap 134, the hydraulic or pneumatic system that raises the pressure in the cylinder to close the flare cap 134, and when the pressure decreases in the cylinder opens the flare cap 134 in the absence of a control signal.

According to the above, the flare cap 134 and the intake valve atmospheric air 306 operate synchronously, protecting the structural materials used in the hub 110 and, as soon as SIS�EMA will be disabled immediately open automatically flare cap 134 and the inlet atmospheric air valve 306, which thereby does not allow hot gas generated in the torch 130, to penetrate into the hub 110 and at the same time allow atmospheric air to cool the hub 110.

In addition, the intake atmospheric air valve 306 may be similarly spring-loaded or pressed in any other way that it will open when you unplug the hub 110, or in the absence of a control signal supplied to the valve 306. Due to this, the preprocessing block of the 119 air and concentrating unit 120 will cool quickly through the open flare cap 134. In addition, due to the rapid opening of the atmospheric air valve 306 and the flare cap 134, the controller 302 may quickly discontinue the hub 110 without disconnecting or affecting the operation of the torch 130.

Further, as shown in Fig. 9, the controller 302 may be connected to the motor 310 of the plate, a Venturi, or any other actuator that rotates or sets the Venturi plate 163 at a certain angle on the plot with the profile of the Venturi 162. With the help of the engine 310, the controller 302 can change the angle of the Venturi plate 163 to regulate the gas flow through the concentrating unit 120, thereby changing the nature of turbulent �Otok gas flowing through the concentrating unit 120, achieving better mixing liquid with gas and more complete evaporation of the liquid. In this case, the controller 302 can change the speed of the pumps 182 and 184 and to change the inclination of the Venturi plate 163 to achieve optimal concentration wastewater. Understandably, therefore, the controller 302 may coordinate the position of the Venturi plate 163 with the position of the flare cap 134, the position of the inlet valve atmospheric air 306 and speed of the exhaust fan 190 to maximize the degree of concentration (turbulent mixing) waste water, avoiding complete evaporation of water and thereby avoiding the formation of solid particles. The controller 302 can use an input pressure signals from the pressure sensors to select the position of the Venturi plate 163. Of course, the Venturi plate 163 can be adjusted either manually or automatically.

The controller 302 can also be connected to the motor 312, which regulates the damper 198 in the circuit of the recycle gas Gazpromenergo block 122. The controller 302 may cause the engine 312 or the actuator of a different type to move the valve 198 from the closed position to the open or partially open position, for example, by signals from pressure sensors 313, 315, located on the inlet and outlet gas and� Gazpromenergo block 122. The controller 302 may set the valve 198 to a position at which the gas is supplied from the high pressure side of the exhaust unit 124 (for exhaust fan 190) to the input Gazpromenergo unit to maintain a preset minimum pressure drop between two pressure sensors 313, 315. Maintain the minimum pressure drop to maintain Gazpromenergo block 122. Of course, the valve 198 can be adjusted manually or use electronegative.

Thus, from the above it follows that the controller 302 may generate one or more closed/open-loop control loops used to start or stop the hub 110 without disrupting the torch 130. For example, the controller 302 may generate the control loop flare cap that opens or closes the flare cap 134, the control circuit of the air valve, which opens or begins to open the intake valve atmospheric air 306 and the control circuit of the exhaust fan, which starts or stops the exhaust fan 190 depending on, starts or stops the hub 110. In addition, during operation, the controller 302 may generate one or more control loops in real time, which can handling� the various elements of the hub 110 separately or in conjunction with each other, to improve or optimize a method for concentrating. Creating these control loops in real time, the controller 302 may control the speed of the exhaust fan 190, the position or angle of the Venturi plate 163, the position of the flare cap 134 and/or the position of the closure member of the inlet valve atmospheric air 306 to adjust the flow rate of a fluid flowing through the hub 110, and/or temperature at the inlet of the concentrating unit 120 based on the signals from the sensors of temperature and pressure. In addition, the controller 302 can provide the performance of the method for concentrating in stationary conditions by regulating the pumps 184 and 182, which serves new and circulating the liquid in the concentrating unit 120. And the controller 302 may generate the control loop pressure to regulate the position of valve 198 and to ensure the proper operation of Gazpromenergo block 122. Of course, although the controller 302 shown in Fig. 9 in the form of a single control device, which generates different control loops, the controller 302 can represent a variety of control devices, for example, many different programmable logic controllers.

It is clear that we offer you here the hub 110 directly uses the hot gas�s emissions in industrial processes when as these gas emissions have been thoroughly treated to meet the requirements of standards on gas emissions and thus will certainly meet the performance requirements of the method, which generates waste heat, and a method that uses waste heat is simple, reliable and effective way.

Besides the fact that it is an important component of the hub 110 during its operation described here flare cap 134 with automatic or manual actuator can be used in stand-alone mode of operation, to provide protection from weathering of the torch or host the torch to the hub, when the torch is not working. Enclosed flare cap 134, the inner snap-in metal casing torch 130 together with its lining, burners and other critical components of the flare unit 115 and the heat transfer unit 117 is protected from corrosion and General wear and tear associated with exposure to these components. In this case, the controller 302 may control the motor 135 flare cap, setting it to full open or partially open condition during operation of the torch 130 at idle. Furthermore, in addition to the use of the flare cap 134, which is automatically closed when the torch 130 is shut off, and automatically opens when the torch 130 lit, nutritonal 130 may have a small burner, such as a conventional pilot light, which can illuminate when the torch 130 is disabled and flare hood is closed. This small burner is additionally contributes to the protection against wear flare components under the action of moisture, as it will keep the inside of the torch 130 in the dry state. An example of Autonomous torch that can use described here, the flare cap 134 when working offline, is offline torch mounted on the dump, to adjust the gas content in the air, when the power plant to run on gas from organic waste, is disabled.

Although the hub fluid 110 and described above is connected to the torch for combustion of landfill gas, to use waste heat from the torch, the hub of the liquid 110 can be easily connected to other sources of waste heat. For example, in Fig. 10 shows the hub fluid 110 such that it can be connected to the chimney of the power plant 400 with internal combustion engines and to use waste heat from the engines for concentrating wastewater. Although in one embodiment of the engine at the power plant 400 can run on gas from organic waste to produce elektroenergii, the hub 110 can be connected to the exhaust pipe.�of another type, including to engines of this type that operate on gasoline or diesel fuel.

Fig. 10 the exhaust gases from the engine (not shown) at the power plant 400, enter the muffler 402 outside of the power plant 400, and from there into the exhaust pipe 404, equipped with top exhaust cap 406. The cap 406 is provided with a counterweight, so he could close the exhaust pipe 404, when the pipe 404 not exhaust, but is easy to open under the action of the exhaust gases coming out of the pipe 404. In this case, in the exhaust pipe 404 has a Y-shaped connector intended for connection of a pipe 408 to the heat transfer pipe 408, at which the exhaust gas (the source of the waste heat comes from the engine into the expansion section 410. The expansion section 410 is coupled with the cooler 159 of the hub 110 and directs exhaust gas from the engine right in the concentrating unit 120 of the hub 110. When using engine exhaust gas as a source of waste heat is usually not required to install the intake valve atmospheric air before the concentrating unit 120, since the exhaust gas at the outlet of the engine usually has a temperature less than 900°F, so it is not necessary much to cool before entering the chiller 159. The remaining parts of the hub 110 are the same as it was describing�about above with reference to Fig. 3-8. As a result it can be seen that the hub of the liquid 110 can be easily adapted to use a variety of sources of waste heat without making significant changes to the design.

Usually when managing the hub fluid 110 shown in Fig. 10, the controller turns the exhaust fan 190 at the time when the engine works at the power plant. The controller increases the speed of the exhaust fan 190 from minimum to until most or all of the exhaust gases will not go entirely out of the pipe 404 in the heat transfer pipe 408 instead of going out from the exhaust pipe 404 into the atmosphere. To determine when you have reached this mode of operation, it is simple, it corresponds to the time when you increase the speed of the exhaust fan 190 cap 406 first sit down to the top of the exhaust pipe 404. It is important to prevent further increase in the speed of the exhaust fan 190, in which a mode is a bigger vacuum in the hub 110, and thereby make the work of the hub 110 does not lead to changes in back pressure and, in particular, to the creation of undesirable levels of suction experienced by the engine at the power plant 400. The change in back pressure or the creation of suction in the exhaust pipe 404 may adversely affect the combustion of fuel in �the engine, which is undesirable. In one embodiment, the implementation of the controller (not shown in Fig. 10), such as a programmable logic controller, can use the pressure sensor installed in the pipe 404 near the cap 406 to continuously monitor the pressure at this location. Then, the controller may signal to the variable frequency drive on the exhaust fan 190 to adjust the speed of the exhaust fan 190, to maintain pressure at a predetermined level and thereby to ensure that unwanted back pressure or leak had no impact on the engine.

Fig. 11 and 12 shows a cross section of a side view and cross section view from above of one embodiment of hub fluid 500. The hub 500 is installed in a vertical position. However, the hub 500, shown in Fig. 11, may be located in a horizontal position or vertical position depending on the specific restrictions when used for specific purposes. For example, mounted on a truck, the modification of the hub may be in a horizontal position so that the hub can pass under bridges and overpasses during transportation from one place to another. The hub fluid 500 has a gas admission pipe 520 and ha�vipusknoy hole 522. Gas admission pipe 520 and the exhaust hole 522 is connected to a flow channel 524. Flow channel 524 has a narrowed portion 526, which accelerates the flow of gas through the flow channel 524. Before you narrowed by section 526 in the gas flow injected fluid through the pipe 530. In contrast to the embodiment shown in Fig. 1, in a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 11, the narrowed portion 526 directs the gas-liquid mixture in the cyclone chamber 551. Cyclone chamber 551 enhances the mixing of the gas and liquid, acting at the same time as the mist eliminator shown in Fig. 1. Gas-liquid mixture enters the cyclone chamber 551 tangentially (see Fig. 12), and then moves through the cyclone chamber 551 (like air in the cyclone in the direction of the plot to remove the liquid from 554. Cyclone turbulence is enhanced disposed in the cyclone chamber 551 a hollow cylinder 556 through which the gas enters the exhaust hole 522. Hollow cylinder 556 is a physical barrier that provides cyclonic turbulence across a cyclone chamber 551, including on the site and for withdrawing fluid 554.

When the gas-liquid mixture passes through the narrowed portion of flow channel 526 524 and circulates in a cyclonic chamber 551, part of the liquid evaporates and is absorbed by the gas. Then the centrifugal force accelerates the movement�s carried out by gas liquid drops in the direction of the side wall 552 of the cyclone chamber 551, where entrained liquid droplets coalesce, forming a film on the side surface 552. At the same time the centripetal force created by an exhaust fan 550, collect droplets released from the gas inlet cylinder 560 556 and direct it to the exhaust hole 522. Thus, the cyclone chamber 551 operates as a mixing chamber, and as tomanomanous camera. When a liquid film flows down to the camera section to output fluid 554 under the joint action of gravity and vortical motion in a cyclone chamber 551 in the direction of the plot for the withdrawal of fluid 554, constantly circulating in the cyclone chamber 551 gas vaporize part of the liquid film. When a liquid film flows on the land for the withdrawal of fluid 554 of the cyclone chamber 551, liquid is fed into the recirculation circuit 542. Similarly, the fluid circulates through the hub 500, until you reach the required degree of concentration. Part of the concentrated slurry can be selected via pit Luke 546, when the slurry reaches the desired level of concentration (this method is called scavenging). Fresh liquid is introduced into the circuit 542 through an inlet 544 of fresh liquid at a rate equal to the sum of the rate of evaporation and the speed of selection of the slurry through the tank hatch 546.

When the gas circulates in a cyclonic chamber 551 weight of the droplets of liquid and is moved in the direction of the plot for the withdrawal of fluid 554 cyclone chamber 551 under the action of the exhaust fan 550 and in the direction of the inlet hollow tube 560 556. The purified gas enters the hollow tube 556 and finally discharged through the exhaust hole 522 into the atmosphere or sent for further processing (e.g., oxidation in the plume).

Fig. 13 is a diagram of a distributed hub fluid 600 having such a configuration, which allows you to use the hub 600 with many sources of waste heat of various types, and even sources of waste heat that are located in places to which access is difficult, such as the sides of buildings, among the different types of other equipment, away from roads or other access ways. Although described here, the hub fluid 600 is used for the treatment and concentration of the filtrate, such as the leachate collected at the landfill, the hub fluid 600 can be used for concentration of liquids and other type, including the many different wastewater.

Generally speaking, the hub 600 fluid contains gas admission nozzle 620, the exhaust gas inlet or gas outlet hole 622, the flow-through channel 624 extending from a gas outlet 620 to gas outlet openings 622, and a system of recirculation of the liquid 625. The concentrating unit comprises a flow channel 624 that includes a cooling section 659, including gas admission nozzle 620 and an inlet fluid 630, plot � profile Venturi 626, located behind the cooling section 659, and the discharge or exhaust fan 650, connected by site with the profile of the Venturi 626. Fan 650 and submerged knee 654 is connected to the exhaust outlet of the concentrating unit (for example, the outlet section of the Venturi profile 626) to the conduit 652. In this case, submerged knee 654 provides turn flow passage 624 90 degrees. If necessary, submerged knee 654 can provide turn-on angle, which is less than or greater than 90 degrees. The pipe 652 is connected to the mist eliminator shown in this case in the form of crossflow Gazpromenergo device 634, which, in turn, connected to a chimney 622A having a gas outlet hole 622.

Recirculating 625 system includes a sump for fluid 636 connected to the outlet of the fluid crossflow Gazpromenergo device 634, and a recirculating pump 640 connected between the sump for fluid 636 and the conduit 642, which delivers the circulating fluid at an inlet fluid 630. The feeder 644 also delivers the filtrate or other treated liquid (for example, the concentrated liquid) in an inlet fluid 630 to hit the cooler 659. Recirculating 625 system also contains a drain 64, connected to the conduit 642, which delivers a certain amount of the circulating fluid (or concentrated liquid) in the tank 649 storage, settling and recycling. Heavier or more concentrated portions of the liquid in settling tank 649 sink to the bottom of the tank 649 in the form of sludge, which is removed and transported for the purpose of removal in a concentrated form. Less concentrated portions of the liquid from the reservoir 649 fed back into the sump for fluid 636 for reprocessing and further concentration, as well as to ensure that at any time the proper flow in the intake fluid nozzle 630 and thereby prevent formation of dry particles. Dry particles can be formed at a lower ratio of the volume of liquid to be treated to the volume of hot gas.

During operation, the chiller 659 mixes the fluid received from the inlet fluid 630 with containing waste heat gas collected, for example, from the engine muffler and exhaust pipe 629 associated with the internal combustion engine (not shown in the figure). Fluid from the inlet fluid valve 630 may be, for example, the filtrate treated or concentration. As shown in Fig. 13, the cooler 659 is connected in a vertical position�AI over the site with the profile of the Venturi 626, which contains a narrowed portion that accelerates the gas flow and liquid flow channel 624 directly behind the section with the profile of the Venturi 626 in front of a fan and 650. Of course, the fan 650 is used to create a vacuum directly behind the section with the profile of the Venturi 626, suction gas from the exhaust pipe through a section 629 of the Venturi profile 626 and submerged knee 564 to provide mixing of the gas and liquid.

As mentioned above, the cooler 659 receives hot exhaust gas from the exhaust pipe 629 engine and can be connected directly to any desired section of the exhaust pipe 629. In this ostentatious embodiment of the exhaust pipe 629 motor installed outside the building 631, which are one or more generators, which produce electricity using gas from organic waste as fuel. In this case, the cooler 659 may be connected directly to the steam trap (for example, condensing the pot) associated with the exhaust pipe 629 (i.e., to the lower part of the exhaust pipe 629). Here the cooler 659 can be installed directly under or near the pipe 629, so you will need only a few inches or at most a few feet of expensive pipes made of material with high temperature resistance, to connect and� together. But in case of need, the cooler 659 can be connected to another section of the exhaust pipe 629, for example, to the top or to the middle part of the pipe 629 through the knee or the elbow.

As mentioned above, through an inlet 630, the liquid is subjected to evaporation, (e.g., landfill leachate) is injected into the flow channel 624 through the cooler 659. If necessary an inlet fluid 630 may include a removable nozzle for spraying liquid in the cooler 659. An inlet fluid 630 irrespective of whether it has a nozzle or not, can enter the liquid in any direction, and perpendicular to the gas flow and parallel to the gas flow moving in a flow channel 624. In addition, when the gas (and waste heat contained in it) and the liquid pass through the area with the profile of the Venturi 626, according to the Venturi principle the rate of flow increases and turbulent flow is formed, which completely mixes the gas and liquid in the flow channel 624 directly behind the section with the profile of the Venturi 626. As a result of mixing in the turbulent regime of the liquid evaporates quickly and is a part of the gas flow. Evaporation consumes a large amount of thermal energy from waste heat to increase the latent heat, which is removed from the system 600 concentration in the form of water vapor in �the remaining exhaust gas.

The plot with the profile of the Venturi 626 gas-liquid mixture flows in submerged knee 654, where the flow-through channel 624 is rotated at an angle of 90 degrees, changing the vertical direction of flow to a horizontal flow direction. Gas-liquid mixture flows around the fan 650 and enters the region of high pressure on the discharge side of the fan 650, and an area of high pressure is on the pipe 652. The use of a submerged knee 654 at this point the system is necessary at least for two reasons. First, the liquid in the bottom of a flooded knee 654 reduces erosion at the turning point of the flow channel 624, which usually occurs under the action suspended in a liquid mixture of particles at high speed in a 90-degree bend and would hit at a steep angle directly on the bottom surface of the normal knee, a 90-degree bend. The liquid in the bottom of a flooded knee 654 absorbs the energy of these particles and thus protects the lower surface of the flooded knee 654 from erosion. In addition, droplets still contained in the gas-liquid mixture in a flooded knee is much easier to merge and are removed from the stream if they hit the liquid. That is, the liquid at the bottom of the flooded knee 654 is used for catching drops of liquid �arausiaca it, since the liquid droplets contained in the stream are delayed much easier if these atomized droplets of liquid are in contact with the liquid. Thus, a submerged knee 654, which can be an outlet for fluid (not shown), for example, in the recirculation circuit 625 is for removing some of the droplets of the processing liquid and condensate from the gas-liquid mixture emerging from the site with profile Venturi 626.

It should be noted that the gas-liquid mixture flowing through the section with the profile of the Venturi 626, is fast approaching the point of the adiabatic saturation, which is at a temperature far below the temperature of the gas at the outlet of the exhaust pipe 629. For example, although the output from the exhaust pipe 629 gas may have a temperature in the range from 900°F to 1800°F, the gas-liquid mixture in all parts of the system 600 concentration at the site with the profile of the Venturi 626 will typically have a temperature in the range from 150°F to 190°F, although the temperature of the mixture may be above and below this temperature range depending on working parameters of the system. As a result, the areas of concentration 600 for a section of the Venturi profile 626 do not need to produce from temperature resistant materials and no need to isolate them at all, or can be isolated only to the extent, which�Aya necessary during transport of gases with a high temperature, if the insulation is carried out for the purpose of more complete utilization of the waste heat contained in the hot gas. And the areas of concentration 600 for a section of the Venturi profile 626, located in such places, for example, laid on the surface of the earth, where people can communicate with them, do not pose a significant risk or require only minimal perimeter security. In particular, the areas of concentration 600 for a section of the Venturi profile 626 can be made from fiberglass and may need only minimal insulation or may not need it at all. It should be noted that the gas-liquid flow can be supplied through the areas of concentration 600 for a section of the Venturi profile 626 at a relatively large distance, still remaining near the adiabatic saturation point, thereby allowing you to easily transport it by pipeline 652 from the building 631 in a more accessible place in which other equipment associated with the hub 600 can be accommodated in the usual way. In particular, the pipeline section 652 may extend 20 feet, 40 feet or even more distance, although the flow is still in a state close to adiabatic saturation. Of course, these distances may be larger or smaller depending, for example, from ambient temperature, and�using a pipeline type or presence of insulation. In addition, because the pipeline section 652 is located on the high pressure side of the fan 650, you can easily remove the condensate from this thread. In a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 13, the pipeline section 652 shown around the unit cooler or missed under the unit cooler connected with the engines inside the building 631. But the cooler of Fig. 13 represents just one of those obstacles that may be encountered near the building 631 and which do not allow to place all the components of the hub 600 near the source of waste heat (in this case near the exhaust pipe 629). Other obstacles may be other equipment, vegetation, such as trees, other buildings, inaccessible area without roads and convenient approaches.

In any case, the pipeline section 652 directs the gas-liquid flow in a state close to the adiabatic saturation point, the mist eliminator 634, which may be, for example, crossflow Gazpromavia apparatus. The mist eliminator 634 is used for removing entrained droplets of liquid from gas-liquid flow. The separated liquid is collected in the sump for fluid 636, where it enters the pump 640. Pump 640 delivers the fluid through a return line 642 recirculation loop 625 into an inlet liquid�ti 630. Thus, entrained liquid can further be concentrated by evaporation to the required level of concentration and/or filed in order to prevent formation of dry particles. Fresh liquid is supplied to the concentration through an inlet fresh fluid 644. The feed rate of fresh liquid in the recirculation circuit 625 must equal the sum of the rate of evaporation of the liquid at the gas-liquid mixture passing through the flow channel 624 and the velocity of liquid or sludge from settling tank 649 (provided that the liquid level in settling tank 649 does not change). In particular, some of the fluid can be led through the pit Luke 646, when the liquid in the recirculation circuit 625 will reach the desired degree of concentration. The liquid removed through pit Luke 646, can be directed into a settling tank 649 in storage, where the concentrated liquid is allowed to settle and separated into its components (e.g., liquid and semi-solid part). Semi-solid part it is possible to remove from the tank 649 and remove or be further processed.

As mentioned above, the 650 fan sucks the gas through one portion of the flow passage 624, held under negative pressure, and pump the gas through another section of the flow passage 624 under increasing�military pressure. Cooler 659, site profile Venturi 626 and 650 fan can be attached to the building 631 via a connection device of any type and can be in close proximity to the source of waste heat. However, the mist eliminator 634 and the exhaust pipe 622, and a settling tank 649 may be located at some distance from the cooler 659, site profile Venturi 626 and 650 fan, for example, in an easily accessible location. In one embodiment, the implementation, the mist eliminator 634 and the exhaust pipe 622, and a settling tank 649 can be installed on a movable platform, such as a sump for liquid or frame of the trailer.

Fig. 14-16 shows another embodiment of a hub fluid 700, which can be installed on the sump for liquid or frame of the trailer. In one embodiment, the implementation of some components of the hub 700 can remain on the frame and in such a position used to concentrate the liquid, whereas other components can be removed and installed near the source of the waste heat thus, as shown in a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 13. The hub fluid 700 has a gas admission pipe 720 and the exhaust hole 722. Gas admission nozzle 720 communicates with the exhaust hole 722 through the flow� channel 724. Flow passage 724 has a narrowed portion or a portion with a profile Venturi 726, which increases the rate of flow of gas through the flow channel 724. The gas is sucked into the cooler 759 exhaust fan (not shown in the figures). In the gas stream in the cooler 759 fluid is injected through an inlet fluid 730. Gas flows from the site with profile Venturi 726 in the mist eliminator (or crossflow Gazpromavia machine) 734 through the knee 733. From the mist eliminator 734 gas flows into the exhaust hole of the pipe 722 723. Of course, as noted above, some of these components can be removed from the frame and installed directly near the source of waste heat, while other components (such as mist eliminator 734, pipe 723 and the exhaust hole 722) may remain on the frame.

When the gas-liquid mixture passes through the plot with the profile of the Venturi flow passage 724, part of the liquid evaporates and is absorbed by the gas, spending a large portion of thermal energy from waste heat to increase the latent heat, which is removed from the system of concentration of 700 in the form of water vapor in the exhaust gas.

In a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 14-16, the parts of the hub fluid 700 can be removed and installed to the sump for liquid or trailer truck for transportation.For example, cooler 759 and the site has a profile Venturi 726 can be removed from the knee 733, as shown in Fig. 14 by the dashed line. Similarly, you can remove the pipe 723 with fan 750, as shown in Fig. 14 by the dashed line. Knee 733, 734 and the mist eliminator exhaust fan 750 can be mounted on the sump for liquid or trailer truck 799 as a whole. Pipe 723 can be mounted on the sump for liquid or trailer truck 799 separately. A cooling section 759 and the site has a profile Venturi 726 can also be mounted on the pallet or trailer truck 799 or ship them separately. Block design hub fluid 700 facilitates its transportation.

The examples below are given to illustrate aspects of the invention, but not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The first example describes the implementation of the method of concentration of the filtrate. The second example describes the implementation of the concentrate effluent stream obtained as "produced water" or "return water" in the operation of natural gas wells.

Example 1

Node hub similar to the hub described in accordance with Fig. 3, was used for concentration of landfill leachate. The chemical composition of the treated leachate is shown in the table below.

The hub node contained gazpromies unit, which, in turn, contain coarse primary Bafe, and two removable corrugated filter arranged in a line in the direction of fluid flow through gazopromyvateli. The filter was located at a distance of about 18.75 per inch from the first of two pleated panel filters. Two corrugated filter were located at a distance of about 30 inches from each other. The second of the two corrugated filter was located at a distance of about 18,75 inches from the exit of Gazpromavia. The configuration of the filter provided for the removal of water droplets with sizes from 50 to 100 micrometers. The configuration of the first corrugated filter in the direction of fluid flow provided for the removal of water droplets with sizes from 10 to 20 micrometers. Pleated filters are commercially available with company Munters Corporation with offices in Amesbury, Massachusetts. Gazpromavia unit contains a sump capacity of about 757 liters.

The hub node also contained an exhaust fan located downstream Gazpromenergo block, as shown in Fig. 3. Motor operated exhaust fan to create in Gazpromavia block dilution sufficient to exhaust gas from flaring of landfill site through the hub node (specifically, via the node t�propriedade, node pre-processing and Gazpromavia unit hub node). The fan operated at 96% of the rated speed 1350 rpm. During operation, a fan created a differential pressure of 6.5 inches of water. article on the site with the profile of the Venturi and differential pressure of 1.6 inches of water. article on Gazpromavia block.

Input line node hub was connected to the line of flow of the filtrate. In the input line of the stream has created a steady flow of filtrate of about 7.1 gallons per minute (Gal/min) at a temperature of about 25°C. the Filtrate, also referred to in this document as "fresh filtrate, contained mostly water but also contain other chemical components listed in the table above. Accordingly, as water was the main component concentration of the filtrate, heat of vaporization of the filtrate was approximately equal to the heat of vaporization of water, i.e. 1000 BTU/lb. Fresh filtrate contained 2.3 wt. % total solids (by weight of the filtrate). Recycled, and then partially concentrated filtrate was received in a plot with a Venturi profile at a flow rate of 75 gpm./min through the recirculation pipe. Basically, the recirculation rate exceeded about 10 times the flow rate of the filtrate flowing through the input line. At this speed, recirculation and for the purpose OS�implementation of this example, the temperature and heat of vaporization of recirculation of the filtrate was taken equal to the ambient temperature and the heat of vaporization of fresh filtrate.

The area of the inlet node of the hub had a cross-sectional area for the exhaust gas inlet about 10.5 square feet (ft2) and cross-sectional area for the release of exhaust gas is about 15.5 ft2, while the average length of the flow path is about 7 feet 2 inches. The cross sectional area of the inlet of the cooler was approximately equal to 3.14 ft2. The cross sectional area of the outlet of the cooler was equal to approximately 8.3 ft2same as the cross sectional area of the inlet section of the Venturi profile. The cross sectional area of the outlet section of the Venturi profile was approximately 2,42 m2and the cross-sectional area of the narrowest part of the Venturi profile was equal to about 0.24 m2at full opening of the plate Venturi (i.e. at the position parallel to the gas-liquid flow). When working, with the aim of concentrating the processed filtrate, the Venturi plate was always in the fully open position.

When approximated by the heat of vaporization, mass and energy balance can be performed for chiller and Venturi section to determine the amount of heat required to ISPA� " s more than 97 mass. % leachate, although it is possible to achieve higher levels of evaporation. During evaporation, 97 mass. % the concentrated filtrate remains in the liquid phase. The ability of the exhaust fan to extract the gas and the ability of the filter and pleated filters, arranged in Gazpromavia, concentrating the filtrate should also be considered in determining the amount of heat and gas flow. Based on the balance and other factors, it was determined that the flow of the exhaust gas at the site of heat transfer through the cooler and the Venturi section was 11500 cubic feet per minute (5.6 calorific value MBTE in the area of the inlet to the cooler). The flow can be changed depending on the calorific value of the exhaust gas (for example, with a lower calorific value will require a greater flow rate of the exhaust gas, and Vice versa).

A certain gas is combusted in a flare, mainly contain methane, ethane and other hydrocarbons that have the same volatility. The gas was obtained directly from the dump and had to be burned in a flare, and the exhaust gas was produced (optional, you can remove pollutants in accordance with the government regulations that control emissions). The temperature of the exhaust gas of the flare unit was measured near the outlet of damulog� gas and the outlet of the secondary combustion gas and equal to 482°C. The gas temperature has dropped to 476°C after passing gas the entire length of the heat transfer pipe before entering the cooler in site pre-treatment of air. The heat transfer pipe was made of stainless steel and had an inner diameter of 3 feet 3 inch 5 feet and Dean 3 1/8 inches. The pressure in the heat transfer pipe was equal and 0.12 inches of water. article Vertical pipe section of the site pre-treatment of air was also made of stainless steel and had an inner diameter of 3 feet 3 inches when measuring the diameter from the grid to protect from birds to inlets in the cooler.

When using the described node, the filtrate was concentrated to 3 percent of their initial weight in a continuous manner at a constant temperature in Gazpromavia 66,7°C. the Temperature in the portion of the hub and Gazpromavia was close to the adiabatic saturation temperature for the liquid-gas mixture, when the hub was working in a stable mode. The concentrated filtrate contained 21.2% of total solids, while demonstrating the ability to work under zero fluid outlet, and in the separation of precipitated solids from the upper layers of the fluid or filtrate when returning the upper liquid layers or portions of the filtrate in the evaporation zone by recirculation channels. Measured parameters becomes�study method is given in the table below.

Consider the example shows that the system can operate in a safe and secure manner for the concentration of the filtrate. Consider a node can operate using waste heat from gas-fired combustion installation as the main source of energy. Consider the host can also work using the heat obtained from exhaust gas reciprocating engine, usually used in a power plant using gas from organic waste as fuel. In addition, the subject method produced emissions that meet the requirements of governmental regulatory agencies.

Example II

Node hub similar to the hub described in Example I, with the exceptions mentioned below, was used for concentration of produced water from natural gas wells. Instead of the use of landfill gas for receiving heated exhaust gas, this method uses the combustion of propane to receive the heated exhaust gas. Propane is burned in the combustion chamber having an exhaust gas outlet, which was connected to the heat transfer pipe shown in Fig. 3. Otherwise, the processing unit corresponds to a node described in Example I.

Consider the example shows that si�theme can run a safe and secure manner for the concentration of the reservoir water. The example also shows that the site might work by using heat obtained from exhaust gas reciprocating engine. In addition, the subject method produced emissions that meet the requirements of governmental regulatory agencies.

Fig. 17 shows a schematic side view of the hub 800, which was carried out by evaporation of the filtrate and formation water obtained from natural gas wells, as shown above in Example I and Example II. Portions of the hub 800 of Fig. 17 similar sites hub 110 of Fig. 3, are the same for links.

One aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater includes combining the heated gas and liquid wastewater for the formation of a mixture of heated gas and portable liquid wastewater, portable crushing waste water into small droplets to increase the area of the boundary surface between the transported liquid waste water and heated by gas to provide rapid mass and heat transfer, the heat transfer from the heated gas to transportable liquid effluents for the partial evaporation of portable liquid effluents and the removal of part of portable liquid waste water from the mixture to produce a gas with no liquid content.

Another aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater includes the recycling of deleted re�asimah liquid wastewater and combination remote portable liquid wastewater with fresh liquid sewage.

Another aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater comprises passing a mixture of heated gas and portable liquid sewage through the crossflow gazopromyvateli.

Another aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater involves the formation of hot gas during combustion.

Another aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater involves the formation of the heated gas by the combustion of one of landfill gas, natural gas supplied directly from the wellhead natural gas, purified natural gas, propane or one of the combinations of these gases.

Another aspect of the disclosed method for concentrating wastewater includes the selection of wastewater from the group consisting of landfill leachate, return water, produced water, or one of their combinations.

Although certain variants of implementation and the details were shown to illustrate the invention, one versed in the art it will be understood that various changes in the methods and devices disclosed in this document can be made without deviation from the scope of the invention.

1. A method for concentrating wastewater, including:
a) combining the heated gas and liquid wastewater for the formation of a mixture of heated gas and paranoimia wastewater;
b) crushing portable waste water into droplets to increase the area of the boundary surface between the transported liquid waste water and heated by gas to provide rapid mass and heat transfer between the drops portable liquid effluent and the heated gas;
C) the heat transfer from the heated gas to transportable liquid effluents for the partial evaporation of portable liquid wastewater;
g) removal of part of portable drops of liquid waste water from the mixture to obtain gas content of the fluid and concentrated fluid; and
d) separation of suspended solids from the concentrated liquid.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes a recirculation remote portable drops of liquid wastewater and combination remote portable drops of liquid sewage from the fresh liquid sewage.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the removal of part of portable drops of liquid waste water includes passing the mixture of heated gas and portable drops of liquid waste water through a crossflow Gazpromavia block.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that a mixture of heated gas and portable drops of liquid wastewater has a temperature of approximately 66°C to about 88°C.

5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the hot gas content of�it exhaust gas, generated by the combustion of fuel.

6. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the fuel is selected from the group including gas from organic waste, natural gas supplied directly from the wellhead natural gas, purified natural gas, propane, and combinations thereof.

7. A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the fuel is gas from organic waste.

8. A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the fuel is natural gas supplied directly from the wellhead of natural gas.

9. A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the fuel is purified natural gas.

10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heated gas has a temperature of from about 482°C to about 649°C.

11. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the waste water is selected from the group including leachate, return water, formation water, and combinations thereof.

12. A method according to claim 11, characterized in that the wastewater is leachate.

13. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the waste water contains from about 1 wt.% to about 5 wt.% solids of the total weight of the filtrate.

14. A method according to claim 13, characterized in that the liquid concentrate contains at least about 10 wt.% solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

15. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the liquid concentrate contains, at m�re, approximately 20 wt.% solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

16. A method according to claim 15, characterized in that the liquid concentrate contains at least about 30 wt.% solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

17. A method according to claim 16, characterized in that the liquid concentrate contains at least about 50 wt.% solids of the total weight of the concentrate.

18. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the partially evaporated mixture obtained in step b) contains from about 5 wt.% to about 20 wt.% the liquid of the total weight of the partially evaporated mixture.

19. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the partially evaporated mixture obtained in step b) contains from about 10 wt.% to about 15 wt.% the liquid of the total weight of the partially evaporated mixture.

20. System for concentrating a liquid, comprising:
a hub unit having:
gotovushe nozzle;
the exhaust hole;
the mixing channel is located between the gas inlet and gas exhaust hole, wherein the mixing channel has a narrowed portion in which gas flow inside the mixing channel increases its speed when the flow from the gas pipe to the exhaust hole; and
an inlet of the fluid through which the fluid is subjected to concentration, itry�facing in the mixing channel, moreover, an inlet fluid is located in the dilution tunnel between the gas inlet and the narrowed area;
the mist eliminator is located outside the hub unit and contains: getproposal channel mist eliminator is connected to the exhaust conduit of the hub unit;
a collection of fluid located in getproposal channel mist eliminator for removing liquid from gas flowing through getproductname channel mist eliminator;
and a reservoir for collecting fluid, a remote collection of liquid from gas flowing through getproductname channel mist eliminator; and
the fan is connected to the mist eliminator is to create a flow of gas flowing through the mixing and getproductname channels.

21. A system according to claim 20, characterized in that the reservoir contains a Vee bottom.

22. A system according to claim 21, characterized in that the V-shaped bottom has a slope on one side of the tank to the other side.

23. A system according to claim 22, characterized in that the circuit further comprises washing the mist eliminator, spray washing liquid on a Vee bottom.

24. A system according to claim 23, characterized in that the cleaning fluid comprises one of: a concentrated liquid, water, or a combination thereof.

25. A system according to claim 23, characterized in that the circuit contains a washing pump for pumping liquid� in a spray bottle.

26. A system according to claim 20, characterized in that it further comprises a first recirculation circuit, which delivers the concentrated liquid from the reservoir to the inlet of the fluid for further concentration, and the second recirculation circuit, which delivers the concentrated liquid from the reservoir to the device separation of solid substances and liquids.

27. A system according to claim 26, characterized in that the device for the separation of solids and liquid is one of: a settling tank, vibrating sieve, filter press and rotary vacuum filters.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heating, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to drying equipment. A drying method of paste-like materials, namely mud deposits of waste water cleaning stations involves two drying stages, in which the first drying stage is implemented by the first drying device (1) of an indirect type, fed with fluid medium being a heat carrier; this first stage ensures pre-dried mud deposits and water vapour obtained at outlet (1a, 1b); a formation stage of mud deposits at the outlet of the above said first drying device; the second drying stage implemented by the second drying device (7) for already pre-dried mud deposits, which are subject to heating by means of heating gas, namely hot air; with that, the same second drying stage ensures finally dried mud deposits obtained at outlet (7b). With that, pre-dried mud deposits supplied from the first drying device (1) are added to extruder (6) for mud deposits, which can shape cords from these mud deposits or the like shapes that enter the second drying device (7); dried mud deposits supplied from the second drying device (7) are subject to mechanical action (19) to provide them with a granular shape, and at least some part of the obtained granules is subject to combustion (23) to generate heat energy and at least some part of such energy is used for heating of fluid medium being the heat carrier in the first drying device.

EFFECT: invention shall ensure energy consumption reduction.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating, drying.

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6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment by combination of processes including coagulation, sedimentation, flocculation and ballast flocculation additionally perfected by simplified circulation of sediment. Sediment circulation system allows operation at higher density of sediment and with less notable losses of water. Here, sediment accumulated in sedimentation zone bottom part is forced through hydraulic cyclone definite number of times in periodic cycles to increase the density of extracted sediment of solid particles. This system can be controlled also with the help of suspended solid product analyser, flow metre and/or timer.

EFFECT: control over fluid flow behaviour with the help of above described method.

21 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recycling of organic substrates having no value as a starting material for making commodity products, especially organic fertilisers. For implementing the method, the starting substrate is subjected sequentially to the anaerobic processing with obtaining biogas, the aerobic processing with obtaining easily precipitating biosludge and the oxygen-containing gas, the separation into fractions with obtaining a liquid and a solid fraction, followed by thermal recycling of the solid fraction to obtain ash content and gaseous products. The biosludge thermal energy is used to control temperature mode of the anaerobic processing after its contact with the gaseous products of thermal recycling. The thermal recycling is carried out in the mode of gasification using oxygen-containing gas and to obtain gaseous products in the form of the generator gas. The temperature mode of the anaerobic processing and humidity of the solid fraction is controlled by the thermal energy of the biosludge liquid fraction. The biosludge liquid fraction is then sequentially subjected to additional anaerobic processing and stripping. The resulting ammonia water is used for preparing organic fertilisers.

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3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method relates to field of utilisation of concentrated organic substrates, such, as litter-free manure, dung, sediments and sludge of stations of mechanical-biological purification of household and industrial sewages close to them in composition. Method of processing organic substrates into fertilisers and carrier of gaseous energy includes aerobic processing of initial substrate with formation of heated and hydrolysed substrate and heated humid oxygen-containing gases, anaerobic processing with formation of heated effluent and biogas and separation into fractions. Separation into fractions is carried out after aerobic processing. Liquid fraction is subjected to anaerobic processing. Heated effluent is applied as heat carrier for regulation of heat mode of aerobic processing and as source of ammonia nitrogen for enrichment of solid fraction. Heated humid oxygen-containing gases are applied for preliminary heating and aeration of initial substrate.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce duration of aerobic-prepared heated and hydrolysed substrate stayingat limiting anaerobic stage, reduce weight and dimension indices of equipment, refuse from unreliable heat-exchanging equipment and ensure effective application of elements of effluent supply for agrotechnical purposes, with increase of process energy efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydration of water-containing material, in particular, sediments of sewages. Method of sediment dehydration includes expression of sediment by vacuumisation of sub-layer space in pulse mode with application of receiver and fast-acting valve until moisture starts boiling in deep layers and migrate to the surface with simultaneous heating of expressed sediment by sucking of heated air or inert gas through layer of sediment and its following double-side vacuumisation.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce moisture-content of sediment and speed up dehydration.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

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EFFECT: intensified filtration for concentration.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biological treatment of sewage sludge. The method of treating sludge involves mixing sludge, enzymatic treatment, decontamination, drying and conditioning the obtained biomass, wherein the sludge used is a mixture of deposited sludge and pre-treated excess sludge. Pre-treatment involves conversion of excess sludge into an active enzymatic mass by saturating with atmospheric oxygen to concentration of not less than 10 mg/l, air-cavitational and electrochemical treatment using a galvanic pair while feeding intermittent alternating current through the excess sludge pumped into a pressure pipe. The apparatus for treating sludge comprises the following, connected by pipes: a sludge container 1, an intermediate container 5, a drying system, a pump 7, an activator 10 placed in a reactor-balancing tank 11, a device for reducing cavitation 6 placed in front of the pump 7 on the pressure pipe 8 which connects the intermediate container 5 and the activator 10, wherein the reactor-balancing tank acts as a dispensing apparatus. The activator 10 has a chamber for mixing media, having excess sludge and air inlets which are linked to the chamber of an electrochemical coagulator lying on the same axis as itself, wherein the chamber for mixing media is in form of a housing consisting of a cylindrical part and four conical parts; inside the housing on guides there is a cowling, having a cylindrical part and two conical parts; the excess sludge inlet is in form of a conical funnel and flow guides at a tangent to the cylindrical surface of the cowling of the apparatus; the air inlet is in form of a pipe located in the conical part of the housing, lying on the opposite side of the outlet of the treated mass from the cowling, and the converging and diverging conical parts of the housing which act as an electrochemical coagulator, lying at the outlet of the cowling, respectively, are fitted with multi-turn bimetallic spirals which are separated by dielectric spacer plates in form of rings placed between connecting flanges.

EFFECT: low cost of treating deposited sludge and providing high efficiency of treatment from heavy metals.

5 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water using catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The invention relates to a method wherein part of feed water is heated by a reforming product and the other part of feed water is heated by gaseous combustion products before feeding the feed water into a deaerator. Water contained in the gaseous combustion products is condensed to obtain a product in the form of liquid water. The present method can be combined with a water thermal treatment process.

EFFECT: easier extraction of water from gaseous combustion products, availability of low-grade heat of the reforming product stream for the water thermal treatment process.

19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water from hexavalent chromium compounds includes reaction thereof with an iron-containing dispersant with simultaneous exposure to a magnetic field generated by an electromagnet to obtain an insoluble precipitate. The iron-containing dispersant used is ground iron or steel chips. Exposure is carried out using a controlled magnetic field, the direction of the intensity vector of which is varied by periodically changing the polarity of current in the electromagnet windings, and the intensity value is controlled by varying the value of current in the windings. A chromium hydroxide Cr(OH)3 precipitate is obtained by neutralising the unreacted mixture with an alkali.

EFFECT: high degree of purity of waste water while cutting the duration of the process, easy implementation and high efficiency of the method.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Treatment of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises the fed of water flow portion to aerator, to distiller and /or evaporator and therefrom to said aerator again. Note here that process gas is fed to said aerator to produce gaseous flow to be fed to the plant for production of synthesis gas.

EFFECT: possibility to use at least a portion of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor as a process water for production of synthesis gas.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic water activation installation comprises a chamber filled with water and equipped by electrodes, a cover with a channel for water supply. The chamber is limited by a recess in the piston bottom, cylinder walls and the cover with a channel for water supply, a plug with an insulated positive electrode is screwed into the cover, a cylindrical electrically insulated spring-damper is installed between the bottom part of the cylinder additionally serving as a negative electrode and the piston, the lateral part of the cylinder is fitted by a hole to discharge water after electrohydraulic impact in the water-filled chamber from a corona discharge between the electrodes at switching on of a high-frequency generator of primary pulses.

EFFECT: improvement of electrohydraulic water activation efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.

2 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in gas and oil production industry for associated crude iodine production from iodine-lean confined groundwater. The method is implemented by a sequence of electrochemical iodide ion oxidation, molecular iodine sorption on carbon, electrochemical reduction of iodine to iodides, and desorption. All stages are performed in the same chemical reactor represented by a sorption column. Activated carbon with minimum iodine adsorption capacity of 1,000 mg/g is used as a sorbent. Graphite electrode at the column bottom is used as an anode, copper cathode in the form of plate at the column top is used as cathode. After the carbon is saturated with iodine, electrode polarity is reversed to desorb iodine from carbon in the form of iodide ions. Confined groundwater, including one with low iodine content, is used as iodine source.

EFFECT: enhanced iodine production efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for protection against contaminants introduced by gravity draining at steam pumping and/or those peculiar thereto. This system is used at the plant based on gravity draining at steam pumping for production of heavy oil. This control system allows the simultaneous control over silicon dioxide, hardness and oil contamination existing in evaporator feed water.

EFFECT: ruled out heat exchange surface fouling, higher reliability.

9 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in industry at the stage of fine or additional purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions, in the purification of vapour condensate in boiler houses and TPP plants in the creation of closed technological water circulation. To realise the method of ion-exchange water purification sewage waters and technological solutions are passed through a sorbent, containing hydrazide groups. as the sorbent used is activated carbon, preliminarily processed with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in volume ratios of 1:2-2.5, at a temperature of 350-450°C. The method provides the removal of ions of metals with a variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, as well as ions of metals: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+ from water, with the preservation by the sorbent of the sorption activity in a wide range of the water solution pH values.

EFFECT: purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water purification by crystallisation and can be used in everyday life, food industry and medicine. The water purification apparatus includes a temperature-controlled heat-exchange vessel 1, means of feeding source water for purification and means 2 of draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants, means 3 of cooling and freezing water and means 5 of melting ice with cooling 4 and heating elements 6, a control unit 7 connected to the means of feeding source water for purification and draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants 2 from the heat-exchange vessel 1 and means of cooling and freezing water 3 and melting ice 5. The heat-exchange vessel 1 has a flat slit-type internal cavity or an annular slit-type cavity 15, and one of the walls of the heat-exchange vessel 1, which is free from the cooling 4 and heating elements 6, is made of transparent material and has one or more internal air cavities 17.

EFFECT: invention improves the quality of water purification and enables to monitor the purification process.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in mixing cyano-containing solutions and pulps with hydrogen peroxide and a gas ozone-oxygen mixture with the ozone concentration of more than 160 g/m3, in the ozone/hydrogen peroxide ratio of 1.5:1, pH 11-12, temperature of 45-50°C in the presence of copper ions. The cyano-containing solutions and pulps are deactivated in the copper ion concentration of not less than 1:8 to the cyanide and rhodanide concentration.

EFFECT: higher rate and effectiveness of deactivating the cyano-containing solutions and pulps, lower consumption of agents and power costs, improved economical efficiency of the process.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

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