Combined method of producing hydrogen and water

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water using catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The invention relates to a method wherein part of feed water is heated by a reforming product and the other part of feed water is heated by gaseous combustion products before feeding the feed water into a deaerator. Water contained in the gaseous combustion products is condensed to obtain a product in the form of liquid water. The present method can be combined with a water thermal treatment process.

EFFECT: easier extraction of water from gaseous combustion products, availability of low-grade heat of the reforming product stream for the water thermal treatment process.

19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

 

Cross-reference to related applications

The present application is related to patent application U.S. No. 14/061377 entitled “Hydrogen Production Process with High Export Steam” (Method of hydrogen production with high output pair), filed concurrently with the present application.

The level of technology

In the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons consumed a large amount of water. Approximately 5 kg of water is consumed for every kilogram of produced hydrocarbon. Efficient use of water is especially important in regions where water is insufficient.

In industry there is a need to reduce the amount consumed during the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons water (i.e. make-up water), especially in those regions where water is insufficient.

In the industry there is also a need for reducing or eliminating the cost of water treatment on the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Currently the feed water at the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons to be treated so that it meets the requirements for boiler feedwater. This processing includes filtering to remove solid particles, demineralization to remove mineral impurities and a deaeration to remove solvent�'s gases such as O2and CO2.

Summary of the invention

The present invention relates to a method for the production of N2-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water and is aimed at meeting the above needs of the industry. N2-containing product produced using the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons.

In the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons burn a large amount of hydrocarbon fuel to produce heat for the implementation of the reforming reactions. The gaseous products of combustion (flue gas contains water vapor, which is the product of the combustion reaction. The amount of water in the gaseous products of combustion may be from about 60% to about 90% of the total amount of water that entered into the reforming reaction. Removing water from gaseous products of combustion can significantly reduce the need for additional water for the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons.

In the traditional process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, the extraction of water from gaseous products of combustion is still not implemented, as it is expensive. Before the water in the gaseous combustion products can be condensed from the gaseous product�in burning need to take up a large amount of low-grade physical warmth. Traditionally, this heat is dumped into the atmosphere. Consequently, the extraction of water should cover not only the cost of equipment and the cooling system for condensation water, but also the cost of equipment and the cooling system to reset the physical warmth that makes the extraction of water using known designs reforming commercially impracticable.

Industry requires cost-effective methods for the extraction of water from gaseous products of combustion. The present invention helps to achieve this goal by eliminating or reducing costs associated with discharge to the atmosphere of low-grade physical heat of the gaseous products of combustion.

Low-grade physical the heat from gaseous products of combustion (flue gas) and the product of the reforming process, is used to heat make-up water to the makeup water to the deaerator. The gaseous products of combustion is further cooled in the condenser to separate from the gaseous products of combustion of condensed water, thereby obtaining at least a portion of one or more products in the form of liquid water.

Disposal of low-grade physical heat from the gaseous products of combustion for the purpose of heating make-up water makes it possible to remove the need RBU�of syvania or decrease in the number of low-grade physical warmth, want to reset to the atmosphere before the water is separated by condensation from the gaseous products of combustion, and thereby reducing the cost of extracting water. Working mechanism depends on the amount of exhaust steam produced in the process of production of hydrogen.

When it is desirable significant formation of exhaust steam, physical warmth, sent to the heating of feed water recycle in the process of hydrogen production with the purpose of increasing its thermal efficiency. This part of sensible heat withdrawn from the gaseous products of combustion, implements its cost, increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production, therefore, does not contribute to the cost of extraction of water from gaseous products of combustion, which makes the extraction of water more cost effective.

When you need average or low education of exhaust steam heating make-up water using gaseous products of combustion essentially takes low-grade physical warmth of gaseous products of combustion in the reformer product. Low-grade physical warmth is then used as a heat source for the process thermoacetica water, such as the process Multihull distillation or process multistage flash distillation, to obtain purified water. This part of the physical�ow of heat allocated from gaseous combustion products, sells its value in the production of purified water, therefore, does not contribute to the cost of extraction of water from gaseous products of combustion, which makes the extraction of water more cost effective.

With a small education allotted a couple of additional physical warmth of gaseous products of combustion are used as the heat source for processes thermoacetica water and produce treated water. This additional part is given physical warmth implements its cost in the production of purified water and, therefore, does not contribute to the cost of extraction of water from gaseous products of combustion, which makes the extraction of water more cost effective.

In some embodiments, the present invention combines the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons and process thermoacetica water, such as the process Multihull distillation or process multistage flash distillation, by using low-grade heat of the product of reforming and additional physical heat of the gaseous products of combustion in the process thermoacetica water.

In such an optional combination provides a cheap source of energy for thermoacetica water. This combination also provides a new flow of heat (�.e., heat for thermoacetica water) and a source of high-purity water for the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. In the present invention this new flow of heat and a source of high-purity water is used for reflow heat-recovery of the product of reforming and simplifying the system of water treatment in the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons and, thus, to meet the above needs of the industry.

As already outlined, this method has several aspects. Next will be described the specific aspects of this method. Reference numbers and the wording in parentheses refer to exemplary embodiments of the invention, optionally further explained with reference to the drawings and are for the convenience of the reader. However, these reference numbers and wording are used only for explanation and do not limit the described aspect of any particular component or a distinctive feature of the exemplary embodiment of the invention. These aspects can be formulated as claims, in which reference numbers and the wording in parentheses can be omitted or replaced as appropriate on others.

Aspect 1. The method comprising:

(a) the feed gas mixture (15) of the reforming process in many�the ETS containing catalyst tubes (20) in reforming furnaces (10) reforming, the implementation of the reforming reaction involving initial gas mixture (15) of the reforming process under the reaction conditions, effective to produce a product (25) reformer containing H2, CO, CH4and H2Oh, and disposal of the product (25) of the reforming process from the set containing catalyst tubes (20) reforming;

(b) burning fuel (5) with the gas-oxidizing agent (3) in the combustion chamber (30) of the furnace (10) reforming outward array containing catalyst tubes (20) reformer under conditions effective for the combustion of fuel (5) with the formation of gaseous products (35) combustion and heat, which is the energy source for the reaction of the source gas mixture (15) of the reforming process within the set containing catalyst tubes (20) of the reforming process, and discharge of gaseous products (35) of combustion from the combustion chamber (30);

(C) heating the first feed stream (87) water by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products (35) combustion and, thereby, cooling of gaseous products (35) burning;

(d) heating the second feed stream (85) water by indirect heat exchange with the product (25) of the reforming process, the exhaust from the set containing catalyst tubes (20) of the reforming process, and thereby cooling of the product (25) reforming;

(e) the direction of the first feed stream (87) and second water feed stream (85) water into the tank (110), wherein the first Pete�schy direct the flow of water into the tank (110) after it was heated gaseous products (35) burning, and the second supply flow of water is directed into the tank (110) after heating the product (25) of the reforming process, the separation of dissolved gases from the first feed stream (87) water and the second feed stream (85) water in the deaerator (110), discharge from the deaerator (110) outgoing stream (17), wherein the exhaust stream (17) contains the steam and gases generated from dissolved gases, separated from the first feed stream (87) water and the second feed stream (85) water and discharge from the deaerator (110) of the feed stream (123) boiler water, wherein the feed stream (123) boiler water contains at least a portion of the first feed stream (87) of water and at least part of the second feed stream (85) water;

(f) the flow of gaseous products (35) burning in the condenser (9) after the gaseous products of combustion have been cooled first feed stream (87) water, cooling the gaseous products of combustion in the condenser by indirect heat exchange with a coolant, and thereby the condensation of water contained in the gaseous products of combustion, with the formation of flow (8) of liquid water, the separation of the flow (8) of liquid water from the stream (14) depleted water gaseous combustion products, the diversion of flow (8) liquid water from the condenser and the discharge from the condenser (9) of the thread (14) of depleted water gaseous combustion products; and

(g) the formation of water�adaderana product (105) from the product (25) of the reforming process after as a product (25) reformer heated second feed stream (85) water;

(h) where one or several products in the form of liquid water containing stream (8) of liquid water reserved from the condenser (9).

Aspect 2. The method of aspect 1, wherein the first feed stream (87) water heated gaseous products (35) burning at the stage (C) to a temperature from 65°C to 125°C.

Aspect 3. The method of aspect 1 or aspect 2, wherein the gaseous products (35) of combustion are cooled to a temperature in the range from 50°C to 85°C by heating the first feed stream (87) is water.

Aspect 4. The method of any of aspects 1-3, in which the second feed stream (85) water is heated by the product (25) of the reforming process at the stage (d) to a temperature from 65°C to 125°C.

Aspect 5. The method of any of aspects 1-4, wherein the product (25) of the reformer is cooled to a temperature in the range from 25°C to 150°C by heating the second feed stream (85) is water.

Aspect 6. The method of any of aspects 1-5, in which at least one thread of the first feed stream (87) and second water feed stream (85) water contains at least part of the flow (8) of liquid water. Stream (8) of liquid water from gaseous products of combustion may be used as makeup water in the process of reforming.

Aspect 7. The method of any of aspects 1-6, wherein the product (25) of the reforming process are done splitting�t on the second stream (97) liquid water and a depleted water portion (95) of the product of the reforming process after as a product of the reforming process was cooled second feed stream (85) water, wherein one or more products in the form of liquid water additionally contain a second thread (97) of liquid water.

Aspect 8. The method of aspect 7, in which at least one thread of the first feed stream (87) and second water feed stream (85) water contains at least a portion of the second stream (97) of liquid water.

Aspect 9. The method of any of aspects 1-8, in which stage of the formation of hydrogen-containing product (105) comprises the separation of at least part of the product of the reforming process by adsorption at a variable pressure with obtaining a hydrogen-containing product (105) and a gas side (115).

Aspect 10. The method of aspect 9, in which the fuel (5) comprises a side gas (115) and additional fuel (118; 119).

Aspect 11. The method of aspect 10, further comprising introducing a hydrocarbon feedstock (75; 117) to the device (300; 310) hydrodesulfurization to remove sulfur from this oil and the formation of additional fuel (118; 119) of at least part of the hydrocarbons obtained by the installation of hydrodesulfurization.

Aspect 12. The method of any of aspects 1-11, further comprising:

the heated raw water (53) by indirect heat exchange with the product (25) of the reforming stage (a), thereby heating the raw water for its purification through�m process thermoacetica water to produce clean water (42), thus, cooling of the product (25) of the reforming process, and the product (25) of the reformer is cooled by heating the raw water (53), before or after the product (25) of the reformer is cooled by heating the second feed stream (85) water;

where one or several products in the form of liquid water include purified water (42).

Aspect 13. The method of aspect 12, in which stage of heating raw water (53) by indirect heat exchange with the product (25) of the reforming process includes:

the heated working medium in indirect heat exchange with the product (25) of the reforming stage (a) and the heated raw water (53) as a result of indirect heat exchange with the working environment.

Aspect 14. The method of aspect 13, in which the working medium is water, where water working medium is evaporated with the formation of the steam flow (161) having a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute) at heating the product (25) of the reforming stage (a), and where at least a portion of the vapor stream (161) is condensed by heating the raw water.

Aspect 15. The method of any of aspects 12 to 14, further comprising:

the formation of steam (150), at least part of the feed stream (123) boiler water discharged from the deaerator (110), or the absence of the vapor (150);

where the stage of formation of the hydrogen-containing product (105) includes a separation of at least part of the product of reforms�nga with the help of adsorption at a variable pressure with obtaining a hydrogen-containing product (105) and a gas side (115);

where the hydrogen-containing product (105) is characterized by mass flow mH2, steam (150) output from the process is characterized by mass flow msteamwhere msteam=0, when no steam is formed, the source gas mixture (15) of the reforming process is characterized by mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the first feed stream (87) water is characterized by mass flow of the first feed stream of water, the second feed stream (85) water is characterized by a mass flow rate of the second feed stream of water, fuel (5) is characterized by a mass flow rate of fuel gas, an oxidizer (3) is characterized by mass flow of a gas-oxidizing agent; and

where the mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the mass flow rate of the first feed water flow, the mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, mass consumption and mass flow rate of a gas-oxidizing agent is chosen so that0msteammH213,

thus the hydrogen-containing product is at least 95 mol%. of hydrogen.

Aspect 16. The method of any of aspects 1-15, further comprising:

the heated raw water (53) by indirect heat exchange with razoobrazny�mi products (35) combustion stage (b), thus, the heating of raw water for its purification through the process thermoacetica water to produce clean water (42), thereby cooling the gaseous products of combustion and the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the raw water, before the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the first feed stream (87) water;

in this case one or more products in the form of liquid water additionally contain purified water (42).

Aspect 17. The method of aspect 16, in which stage of heating raw water (53) by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products (35) burning includes:

the heated working medium in indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion stages (b) and heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the working environment.

Aspect 18. The method of aspect 17, in which the working medium is water, where water working medium is evaporated with the formation of the vapor stream (221) having a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute) when heated gaseous products of combustion (35) stage (b), and where at least a portion of the vapor stream (221) is condensed by heating raw water (53).

Aspect 19. The method of any of aspects 16-18, further comprising:

the formation of steam (150), at least part of the feed stream (123) boiler water, from�entered as much as possible from the deaerator (110), or absence of the vapor (150);

where the stage of formation of the hydrogen-containing product (105) includes a separation of at least part of the product of the reforming process by adsorption at a variable pressure with obtaining a hydrogen-containing product (105) and a gas side (115);

where the hydrogen-containing product (105) is characterized by mass flow mH2, steam (150) output from the process is characterized by mass flow msteamwhere msteam=0, when no steam is formed, the source gas mixture (15) of the reforming process is characterized by mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the first feed stream (87) water is characterized by mass flow of the first feed stream of water, the second feed stream (85) water is characterized by a mass flow rate of the second feed stream of water, fuel (5) is characterized by a mass flow rate of fuel gas, an oxidizer (3) is characterized by mass flow of a gas-oxidizing agent; and

where in this case the mass flow rate of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the mass flow rate of the first feed water flow, the mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, mass consumption and mass flow rate of a gas-oxidizing agent is chosen so that0msteammH27 .

Aspect 20. The method of any of aspects 12 to 19, in which raw water represents at least one of the following: salt water, river water, tap water, lake water, recycled water for municipal supply, recycled water for industrial consumption and groundwater.

Aspect 21. The method of any of aspects 12 to 20, in which the process thermoacetica water represents one of the following: the process of multiple distillation and process multistage flash distillation.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1A is a technological scheme of the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, which shows that the first part of make-up water is heated gaseous products of combustion, the second portion of feed water is heated by the product of the reforming process, also shows an embodiment of a process thermoacetica water thermal energy through the working environment, such as water/steam, for the purpose of supplying heat energy from the gaseous combustion products and/or product of the reforming process in the process thermoacetica water.

Fig. 1b is a technological scheme of the process multistage flash distillation, combined with the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons is shown in Fig. 1A.

F�G. 1C is a technological scheme of the process of multiple distillation, combined with the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons is shown in Fig. 1A.

Fig. 2A is a technological scheme of the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, which shows that the first part of make-up water is heated gaseous products of combustion, the second portion of feed water is heated by the product of the reforming process, also shows an embodiment of a process thermoacetica water heat energy without the use of a working medium to transfer heat energy from the gaseous combustion products and/or product of the reforming process in the process thermoacetica water.

Fig. 2b is a process flow process multistage flash distillation, combined with the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons is shown in Fig. 2A.

Fig. 3A is a technological scheme of the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, which shows that the first part of make-up water is heated gaseous products of combustion, the second portion of feed water is heated by the product of the reforming process, also shows an embodiment of a process thermoacetica water heat energy without the use of the working environment d�I transfer thermal energy from the product of the reforming process in the process thermoacetica water.

Fig. 3b is a process flow process multistage flash distillation, combined with the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons is shown in Fig. 3A.

Fig. 3C is a technological scheme of the process of multiple distillation, combined with the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons is shown in Fig. 3A.

Detailed description

Subsequent detailed description covers only the preferred exemplary embodiments of the invention and does not limit the scope, applicability, or structure of the invention. On the contrary, the subsequent detailed description of preferred exemplary embodiments of the invention is intended to provide professionals in the field descriptions that make possible the realization of preferred exemplary embodiments of the invention, with the understanding that there are numerous changes in the function and arrangement of elements without departing from the scope of the invention defined in the claims.

The articles "a" and "an" in English means both the singular and the plural as applied to any distinctive features of embodiments of the present invention, description�of fucking in this section and the claims. The use of "a" and "an" does not restrict the value of a single number, unless such a limitation is not formulated specifically. The "the" preceding nouns or noun phrases in the singular or plural, means a particular distinctive feature or specific features and can have the connotation of singular or the plural depending on the context in which it is used.

The adjective "any" means one, some, or all, without distinction, in what quantity.

The term "and/or" placed between the first object and a second object means one of: (1) the first object, (2) the second object and (3) the first object and the second object. The term "and/or" placed between the last two objects from a list of 3 or more objects by means of at least one of the objects contained in this list.

The term "multiple" means two or more, if you do not explicitly specify a number greater than two, for example, "the multitude of three or more", which means three or more.

The expression "at least part" means "part or all". At least part of the flow may have the same composition as the stream from which it is separated. At least part of the flow may have a different composition than the stream from which it is separated. At least part�of an eye may include certain components of the flow, from which it is separated.

In the context of this document "separated portion" of a stream means the portion, having the same chemical composition as the stream from which it is separated.

In the context of this document, "first", "second", "third" etc. are used to distinguish between elements of a set of distinctive features and/or steps and do not indicate the relative position in time or space.

Downstream and upstream refers to the intended direction of flow of the roaming process fluid. If the direction of flow of the roaming process fluid from the first device to the second device, the second device is connected to the first so that it is below him on the stream.

The term "depleted" means the presence of a specified component in a lower concentration in mol%., than in the original stream from which is formed the thread. "Depleted" does not mean that in this thread the specified component is missing completely.

In the context of this document "heat" and "heat" may involve a latent heat, and physical warmth and the corresponding heating.

In the context of this document units denote absolute pressure, not gauge pressure, unless specifically stated that lead�eno excess pressure.

In the context of the present document, the expression "raw water" means untreated water, for example, one or more of the following: salt water (ocean, marine and brackish water), surface water, such as flowing water, river water, lake water, groundwater, reused or recycled water for municipal supply/industrial consumption or waste water from industrial processes. Raw water is generally less pure than water for industrial consumption, such as drinking water.

In the context of the present document, the terms "purified water" means any distilled water (i.e., distillate or condensed water) obtained in the process thermoacetica water.

In the context of the present document, the expression "product of the reforming process or product flow reformer" means any stream containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide generated in the reforming reaction between a hydrocarbon and steam.

In the context of this document "indirect heat exchange" means the transfer of heat from one stream to another stream, where the streams are not mixed with each other. Indirect heat exchange includes, for example, heat transfer from the first fluid to the second fluid in the heat exchanger in which fluids are separated by plates or tubes. Indirect �plooman includes transferring heat from a first fluid to a second fluid medium, whereby to transfer heat from a first fluid to the second fluid medium is used intermediate the working environment. The first fluid may evaporate the working environment, such as water, with the formation of steam in the evaporator, after which the working environment is directed to another heat exchanger or condenser, where the working medium transfers heat to the second fluid. Indirect heat exchange between the first and second fluids with the use of the working environment can be accomplished using a heat pipe, thermosyphon, evaporative boiler, etc.

In the context of this document "direct heat exchange" means the transfer of heat from one stream to another stream, where the streams are mixed directly with each other. Direct heat transfer includes, for example, hydration, where water is sprayed directly into the stream of hot air, and under the influence of heat air water evaporates.

In the claims can be used as a letter stages of the process (for example, (a), (b), (C), (d), etc.). These letters are used to alleviate indications of stage of the process and do not imply the expression of order in which the stated stages take place, unless such order is not specified specifically in the relevant paragraphs and only to the degree in which it is specified.

The present invention relates to a method for producing hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water. Hydrogen-containing product can be, for example, a purified gaseous H2or synthesis gas with a given molar ratio of N2:WITH. One or more products in the form of liquid water can be a water, condensed from the gaseous products of combustion and/or purified water process thermoacetica water.

The term "process thermoacetica" in this context means any process in which by heating raw water is evaporated, after which the evaporated water is condensed, receiving the condensate or the distillate (i.e., treated water). The process thermoacetica water can represent, for example, well-known industrial process thermoacetica, such as the process multistage flash distillation multi-stage flash - MSF) or process Multihull distillation multiple effect distillation - MED).

The method is described with reference to the drawings, in which like numbers throughout the drawings indicate similar elements. In addition, the item numbers that you typed in the description in connection with one of the drawings, may be repeated one or more subsequent drawings without additional descriptions with the purpose of providing context for other distinguishable�of intelligent features.

This method uses a catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, also known as steam reforming of methane (steam methane reforming - SMR), catalytic steam reforming or steam reforming, is defined as any process used to convert raw material to the reforming process in the reformer product during the reaction with steam over a catalyst. The product of the reforming process, also referred to as synthesis gas, in the context of this document means any compound containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The reforming reaction is endothermic and, in General, can be described by the equation CnHm+nH2O→nCO+(m/2+n)H2. Hydrogen is formed simultaneously with the formation of the product of the reforming process.

Fig. 1A shows the technological scheme of the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, suitable for carrying out the method of the present invention.

The method comprises feeding a source gas mixture 15 in reforming many containing catalyst tubes of reformer 20 in the furnace reformer 10, the implementation of the reforming reaction involving the original gas mixture 15 reforming under the reaction conditions, effective from the point of view of product formation 25 reformer containing H2, CO, CH4and H2Oh, and the abduction of 25 product of the reforming process of innogest containing catalyst tubes of reformer 20 of the furnace 10 reformer.

The source gas mixture 15 of the reforming process can be any source of gas mixture suitable for submission to a process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce a product of the reforming process. The source gas mixture 15 of the reforming process may contain hydrocarbons 75, subjected to desulfurization, and pairs 151 and/or the mixture is already subjected to the reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock and steam. These raw materials may be natural gas, methane, naphtha, propane, refinery fuel gas, refinery off gas, or the other suitable for a reforming raw material, known in this field.

As shown in Fig. 1A, hydrocarbon material 75 can be heated by indirect heat exchange with the 25 product of the reforming process in the heat exchanger 70 and sent to the device 300 hydrodesulfurization. Hydrogen 106 for hydrodesulfurization can be added to the raw material before or after heating a hydrocarbon feedstock 75. As hydrogen 106 can be used the product 105. At least part 76 obessesing raw materials may be mixed with the stream 151, and then further heated gaseous products 35 burning in the convective section of the furnace 45 10 reformer before being fed into the containing catalyst tube 20 reforming as a source gas mixture of 15 reforming process.

The reaction of the reforming process takes place in many �aderrasi the catalyst tubes 20 of the furnace 10 reformer. Furnace reformer, also known as catalytic steam reforming, steam reforming of methane and steam reforming of hydrocarbons, in the present context is any oven on fossil fuel used for conversion of a feedstock containing elemental hydrogen and carbon, the product of a reforming reaction with steam over a catalyst, wherein heat is provided by burning fuel.

Furnace reformer with many containing catalyst tubes of reformer, i.e., the tubular installation of the reforming process, well known in this field. Can be used any suitable number containing catalyst tubes of reformer. Appropriate materials and methods of manufacture are known. The catalyst containing catalyst in the reformer tubes can be any suitable catalyst known in this field, for example, Nickel containing catalyst on the substrate.

The reaction conditions, effective to produce a product 25 reforming many containing catalyst tubes of reformer 20 can include a temperature in the range from 500°C to 1000°C and a pressure in the range from 203 kPa to 5066 kPa (absolute). Reaction temperature may be measured by any appropriate temperature sensor, such as thermocouple type J. the reaction Pressure may be measurable�Reno by any appropriate pressure sensor, known in this field, for example, pressure gauge production Mensor.

This method involves burning of the fuel 5 gas-oxidizer 3 in the combustion chamber 30 of the furnace 10 reformer outside, many containing catalyst tubes of reformer 20 under conditions effective from the point of view of combustion 5 with the formation of gaseous products 35 combustion containing CO2and H2O. the combustion of the fuel 5 gas-oxidizer 3 generates heat, which is the source of energy for the reaction of the source gas mixture 15 reforming within the set containing catalyst tubes of reformer 20. The gaseous products 35 of combustion discharged from the combustion chamber 30 of the furnace 10 reforming and direct the convection section 45 reforming furnace for the purpose of supplying heat to other process streams. Combustion chamber (also referred to as radiation, or radiation irradiation section) reforming furnace is the part in the furnace reformer, which is a set containing catalyst tubes of reformer. Convection section of the reformer furnace represents the part in the furnace reformer in which the heat exchangers are distinct from the set containing the catalyst tubes of reformer. The heat exchangers in the convection section can be used for heating of process fluids, non-product re�of orminge, such as water/steam, air, side gas, the source gas of the reforming process prior to submission containing catalyst in the reformer tube, etc.

The conditions effective for the combustion of fuel 5, can include a temperature in the range from 600°C to 1500°C and a pressure in the range from 99 kPa to 101,4 kPa (absolute). The temperature can be measured with a thermocouple, an optical pyrometer or any other calibrated measuring device known in the field of temperature measurement in the furnace. Pressure can be measured by any suitable pressure sensor, known in this field, for example, pressure gauge production Mensor.

Fuel 5 may contain side 115 gas from the adsorber variable pressure 100 and the incremental fuel 118; 119, often referred to as corrective fuel. Before use as fuel 5 a side gas 115 can be heated. Side gas 115 can be heated by indirect heat exchange with the combustion gases and/or product of the reforming process.

The heating side 115 gas by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion involves the heating of the working medium (e.g., water) by indirect heat exchange with the combustion gases in the first heat exchanger and the heating side of gas by indirect heat exchange with the heated working medium in the second taproom�nice. The heating side of gas by indirect heat exchange with the product of the reforming process involves the heating of the working medium (e.g., water) by indirect heat exchange with the product of the reforming process in the first heat exchanger and the heating side of gas by indirect heat exchange with the heated working medium in the second heat exchanger. The product of the reforming process and/or gaseous products of combustion can be used to heat water, which is used for heating gas side. Water can be heated to a temperature in the range from 104°C to 238°C. Hot water may be a boiler feed water withdrawn from the network feed water of the boiler. Hot water can be hot water from a separate closed loop circulation of water/steam.

As shown in Fig. 1A, the method may include the introduction of hydrocarbons 117 together with hydrogen 107 in the installation 310 hydrodesulfurization to remove sulfur from this hydrocarbon feedstock and obtaining, thus, the incremental fuel 118. Alternatively or additionally, the method may include the introduction of hydrocarbons 75 in the installation of 300 hydrodesulfurization to remove sulfur from hydrocarbons with the formation of the source gas mixture 15 from the first reforming portion and the additional fuel 119 of the second part. Hydrocarbon 117 cantake place from the same or other source than hydrocarbons 75.

Gas-oxidizer 3 is an oxygen-containing gas, and may be air, oxygen-enriched air, oxygen depleted air, oxygen industrial quality, or any other oxygen-containing gas, is known in part for its use in a reforming furnace for burning. For example, as shown in Fig. 1A, the air 130 may be compressed in the compressor 135 and as gas-oxidizer 3 is directed into the furnace reformer.

If the fuel and/or gas-oxidizing agent contains nitrogen, the gaseous products of combustion will contain nitrogen.

The method further includes heating the first feed stream 87 water by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 combustion and, thereby, cooling of gaseous products 35 combustion. The first feed stream 87 water provides part of what is commonly called "makeup water" process of reforming. The first supply flow of water is water that, in General, to be suitable for use as boiler feed water needs only to be de-aeration. The first supply flow of water may be distilled water, treated water (decalcified, filtered, etc.) or other suitable water, known in this field.

As shown in Fig. 1A, after heating time�ary other process streams, the gaseous products of combustion 35 heat exchange with the first feed stream 87 water in the heat exchanger 6. The first feed stream 87 water removes low-grade heat of gaseous products 35 combustion. The first feed stream 87 water can be heated gaseous products 35 of combustion to a temperature in the range from 65°C to 125°C. the Temperature of the first feed water flow can be measured by any appropriate temperature sensor, e.g., thermocouple type J, when the water passes over the sensing end of thermocouple. The gaseous products 35 combustion can be cooled to a temperature in the range from 50°C to 85°C by heating them first supply flow 87 water. The temperature of the gaseous products of combustion can be measured by any appropriate temperature sensor, e.g., thermocouple type J, when the gaseous products of combustion pass over the sensing end of thermocouple.

As shown in Fig. 1A, the gaseous products 35 combustion can heat other process streams. The gaseous products 35 combustion can heat flows in different configurations (OK heat) to heat the first feed stream 87 water. Fig. 1A it is shown that the gaseous products 35 combustion heat source gas mixture 15 of the reforming process, after which superheated steam 125 from the steam drum 120. H�nce superheated steam may be used to form the source gas mixture 15 reformer, and the other part is used to produce steam 150 (i.e., product - exhaust steam). The method may include formation of exhaust steam 150, at least part of the feed stream 123 boiler water discharged from the deaerator 110. Then the gaseous products 35 combustion heated portion of the feed water 127 of the boiler, the exhaust from the steam drum 120, with the formation of two-phase mixture of steam and water at least part of which is returned to the steam drum 120.

The method comprises feeding gaseous products 35 combustion in the capacitor 9 after the gaseous products of combustion have been cooled first feed stream 87 water, cooling the gaseous products of combustion by indirect heat exchange with a coolant, and thereby the condensation of water contained in the gaseous products of combustion, with the formation of liquid water stream 8. The liquid water stream 8 is separated from the stream 14 depleted water gaseous products of combustion, the liquid water stream 8 is withdrawn from the condenser, and the stream 14 depleted water gaseous products of combustion discharged from the capacitor 9. The gaseous products of combustion may be passed through the convection section with a suction fan 140.

One or more products in the form of liquid water include the thread 8 of liquid water discharged from the condenser 9. Part or all of one or more �of Reducto in the form of liquid water can be abstracted for use outside of this process as a stream 111 or used in the process, for example, as make-up water. The first feed stream 87 water can include liquid water stream 8.

The gaseous products 35 combustion contain water vapor, which are the product of combustion. The amount of water in the gaseous products of combustion may be from about 60% to about 90% of the total water, which entered into reaction with the formation of the product of the reforming process in many containing catalyst tubes, depending on the reaction conditions and the production of exhaust steam. Removing water from gaseous products of combustion can significantly reduce the need for water entry into the process of catalytic steam reforming from the outside.

Adjustment of fuel usually contains sulphur, which when burned is converted to SO3present in the gaseous products of combustion. SO3condenses and causes corrosion of the heat recovery equipment, when the temperature of the gaseous products of combustion is less than about 121°C.

In the present process, the sulfur can be removed from corrective fuel, as described above, by setting the 300 hydrodesulfurization and/or installing 310 hydrodesulfurization. Alternatively, it is possible to regularly change heat recovery equipment (e.g., use a sacrifice heat exchangers), and/or the design of teploenergooborudovanie can be used corrosion-resistant materials.

In accordance with this method, the cooling medium for the condensation of water from gaseous combustion products in the condenser may be raw water. Raw water may include at least one of the following: salt water, river water, tap water, lake water, recycled water for municipal supply, recycled water for industrial consumption and groundwater. Cooling medium may be a salt water.

This method involves the heating of the second feed stream 85 water by indirect heat exchange with at least part of the 25 product of the reforming process, the exhaust from the set containing the catalyst tubes of reformer 20, and thereby the cooling of the 25 product of the reforming process. The second supply flow of water may be distilled water, treated water (decalcified, filtered, etc.) or other suitable water, known in this field. As shown in Fig. 1A, after heating the various other process streams and passing through the optional reactor 60 conversion, the product 25 reforming heat exchanged with the second feed stream 85 water in the heat exchanger 80. The second feed stream 85 water removes low-grade heat of the 25 product of the reforming process. The second feed stream 85 water can be heated by the product of 25 to reforming tempera�URS in the range from 65°C to 125°C. The temperature of the second feed stream 85 water can be measured by any appropriate temperature sensor, e.g., thermocouple type J, when the water passes over the sensing end of thermocouple. The 25 product of the reforming process can be cooled to a temperature in the range from 25°C to 150°C by heating them with a second feed stream 85 water. Product temperature 25 reforming process can be measured by any appropriate temperature sensor, e.g., thermocouple type J, when the gaseous products of combustion pass over the sensing end of thermocouple.

The second feed stream 85 includes water stream 8 liquid water from the condenser 9, the gaseous products obtained from 35 of combustion.

As shown in Fig. 1A, the product of the reforming process can exchange heat with a number of threads and can be passed through the reactor 60 conversion containing catalyst 61 conversion. In the exemplary embodiment shown in Fig. 1A, the 25 product of the reforming process, the output from the set containing the catalyst tubes of reformer 20 is fed into the heat exchanger 40 where the product 25 heats the reforming portion of the feed stream 127 boiler water, thus formed two-phase flow of water and steam, which again served in the steam drum 120. Pairs 125 is withdrawn from the steam drum, water is directed into any one of several heat exchangers for additional� heating the feed water of the boiler. The 25 product of the reforming process is directed from the heat exchanger 40 in heat exchanger 50, where the product of 25 heats the reforming feed stream 123 boiler water discharged from the deaerator 110.

In the exemplary embodiment shown in Fig. 1A, the 25 product of the reforming process of the heat exchanger 50 is directed into the reactor 60 conversion. The method may include the implementation of the reaction in the 25 product of the reforming process from heat exchanger 50, in the presence of a catalyst 61 conversion under the reaction conditions, effective from the point of view of education in the 25 product of the reforming process additional quantities of hydrogen. An additional amount of hydrogen gas can be obtained by the catalytic reaction between carbon monoxide and steam. This reaction is exothermic and commonly known as the water gas shift reaction or a conversion reaction: CO+H2Oh→CO2+H2. The reaction is carried out by passing carbon monoxide and water through a bed of a suitable catalyst. The reaction conditions effective for the formation of the 25 product of the reforming process additional quantities of hydrogen can include a second temperature in the range from 190°C to 500°C and a second pressure in the range from 203 kPa to 5066 kPa (absolute).

Can be used any suitable catalyst for the conversion of water vapor. The reactor converse�and may be a so-called high-temperature reactor conversion low-temperature conversion, temperature conversion, or a combination. Since the article "a" (in English) means "one or more", in this way can be used one or more reactors for the conversion.

For high temperature conversion is typical inlet temperature in the range from 310°C to 370°C and outlet temperature in the range from 400°C to 500°C. Typically for high-temperature conversion using the catalyst of iron oxide/chromium oxide.

For low-temperature conversion is typical inlet temperature in the range from 190°C to 230°C and outlet temperature in the range from 220°C to 250°C. Generally, for low-temperature conversion using a catalyst comprising metallic copper, zinc oxide and one or more other refractory oxides such as aluminum oxide or chromium oxide.

For medium temperature conversion is typical inlet temperature in the range from 190°C to 230°C and outlet temperature up to 350°C. For low-temperature conversion can be used properly designed copper catalyst on the substrate. Medium-temperature conversion may be preferable for the approximate method.

The combination may include a sequence of high-temperature conversion, cooling way� indirect heat exchange and low-temperature conversion. If you need any conversion stage can be divided interlayer cooling.

In the exemplary embodiment shown in Fig. 1A, after passing through the reactor 60 the conversion of the 25 product of the reforming process is directed to the heat exchanger 70 where hydrocarbons 75 is heated, and the product 25 reformer is cooled. The product is then 25 reformer is sent to a reboiler 78 where the product of the reforming process heats the raw water to clean the raw water through a process thermoacetica water to produce clean water, which is described in more detail later. Then the product of the reforming process is directed to the heat exchanger 80 where the technological stage of heating of the second feed stream 85 water by indirect heat exchange with at least part of the 25 product of the reaction, taken from the set containing catalyst tubes 20, thereby cooling product 25 reforming process.

After cooling, the product 25 reforming by heat exchange with a second feed stream 85 water product of the reforming process can be directed to a separator 90 and is divided into a stream 97 of liquid water and a depleted water part 95 of the product of the reforming process. One or more products in the form of liquid water can include flow 97 liquid water. At least one thread of the first feed stream 87 and second water feed stream 85 water may include�OK 97 liquid water.

The method further includes the formation of a hydrogen-containing product 105 from the 25 product of the reforming process after the product 25 reformer heated second feed stream 85 water. The hydrogen-containing product 105 may be received, at least part of the 25 product of the reforming process. The hydrogen-containing product 105 can be obtained from the depleted water 95 parts of the product of the reforming process.

Stage of the formation of hydrogen-containing product 105 may be implemented cryogenic method, for example, using a cooling chamber for the purpose of producing synthesis gas with a given molar ratio of N2:WITH.

Stage of the formation of hydrogen-containing product 105 may include separating at least part of the product of the reforming process by the adsorption at a variable pressure with obtaining a hydrogen-containing product 105 and side strip 115. The division of the product of the reforming process by the adsorption at a variable pressure can be carried out in the adsorber 100 variable pressure.

The division of the product of the reforming process of obtaining a hydrogen-containing product (e.g., hydrogen) and gas side by means of adsorption at a variable pressure is a traditional and well known. Appropriate adsorbents and cycles of adsorption at a variable pressure is known and can be selected. Can be selected and used �any proper amount of adsorption of alternating pressure tanks.

Side gas 115 can be heated by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion. Side gas 115 can be heated with hot water from the cycle of circulation of the feed water of the boiler.

The present method is characterized in that one feed water stream is heated with gaseous products 35 combustion, and the other feed water stream is heated by the 25 product of the reforming process. After heating the feed streams of water directed into the tank 110, where they remove dissolved gases.

The method includes the direction of the first feed stream 87 and second water feed stream 85 water into the tank 110. The first feed water stream is directed into the tank 110 after he heated gaseous products 35 combustion. The second feed stream of water is directed into the tank 110 after it is heated by the 25 product of the reforming process. In the deaerator 110 from the first feed stream 87 and second water feed stream 85 water separates dissolved gases. Pairs 11 can be introduced into the tank 110, or pairs can be formed in place by heating or flash evaporation. Vapor promotes the Stripping of dissolved gases. From the deaerator 110 divert the exhaust stream 17. The exhaust stream 17 contains the steam and gases generated from dissolved gases removed from the first feed stream 87 and second water feed stream 85 water. From the deaerator 110 assign PI�ment stream 123 boiler water. The feed stream 123 boiler water contains at least a portion of the first feed stream 87 water and at least part of the second feed stream 85 water. Supply the boiler water flow can be increased by means of a pump to a higher pressure, heated and sent to the steam drum 120.

The process of obtaining the product of the reforming process can be easily combined with the process thermoacetica water, as shown in the figures. The process of obtaining the product of the reforming process shown in Fig. 1A, can be combined with the process multistage flash distillation, is shown in Fig. 1b, and/or process with a multicase distillation shown in Fig. 1C. The connection threads between Fig. 1A and Fig. 1b is shown as a, b, a' and b'. The connection threads between Fig. 1A and Fig. 1C is also shown as a, b, a' and b'.

The method may further include heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the product 25 reformer, thereby heating the raw water with the purpose of cleaning through the process thermoacetica water to produce clean water 42 and, thereby, cooling of the product 25 reforming process. The 25 product of the reformer is cooled by heating the raw water 53 to (as shown) or after (not shown) of the 25 product of the reformer is cooled by heating the second feed stream 85 water.

One or more products in the form of liquid water can turn the eyes�hot water 42. Each thread of the first feed stream 87 and second water feed stream 85 water may include purified water 42.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A, the stage of heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the 25 product of the reforming process may include the use of the working medium, e.g., water and/or steam. In the case of the working medium, the method may include heating the working medium by indirect heat exchange with the product 25 reforming and heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the working environment. In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A, combined with Fig. 1b, the working medium is water, the water 162 is sent to the reboiler 78 where it is heated and vaporized by heat of the 25 product of the reforming process, and is formed by the vapor stream 161. Being heated by the 25 product of the reforming process, 161 pairs can be characterized by a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute). The pressure of the vapor stream 161 may be measured by any appropriate pressure sensor, e.g. pressure gauge production Mensor. Pairs 161 is sent to the process multistage flash distillation, is shown in Fig. 1b. At least a portion of the vapor stream 161 may be condensed by heating the raw water 53.

In a less preferred alternative embodiment, the heat exchange between the product 25 re�of orminge and water may be accomplished by use of a combination heat exchanger/steam drum instead of a boiler.

As shown in Fig. 1b, 161 pairs directed into the heating chamber 27 typical process 2 multistage flash distillation. Although in Fig. 1b shows the 4 stages, there may be used any suitable number of stages. The steam passes over the metal coil 21 of the heat exchanger located within the heating chamber 27, through which raw water 53 runs, heats, and then enters the evaporator 12 of the first stage.

Raw water 53 is supplied to the coil 14 of the heat exchanger chamber 28 of the evaporator. The inside of the coil 14 raw water is heated by heat exchange as the outside coil of the heat exchanger 14 is condensed water vapor. The pressure at each stage is sequentially reduced from the evaporator 12 to the evaporator 28 (i.e., P12>R24>R26>R28where P12means the pressure in the evaporator 12, P24means the pressure in the evaporator 24, P26means the pressure in the evaporator 26, P28means the pressure in the evaporator 28).

The condensed purified water obtained in the condensation process, is collected in the reservoir 18 of the evaporator 28, and output it as a stream of purified water 42. One or more liquid products may contain purified water 42.

The incoming raw water is further heated as it moves through the coils 14 of the evaporators 28, 26, 24 and, then, 2. The heated raw water is withdrawn from the evaporator 12 and is supplied to the coil 21 of the heat exchanger of the heating chamber 27. Pairs 161 is supplied into the heating chamber 27 and comes into contact in the coil 21 of the heat exchanger, resulting in heat transfer and raw water passing inside the coil 21 of the heat exchanger is further heated. Pairs 161 condenses out of the heating chamber 27 as the condensate 23 and again is sent to the reboiler 78.

Water vapor that condenses as a result of contact with the coil 14 forms a condensate 19 of purified water, which drips from the coil 14 to the receiver 18 of each evaporator; it is removed as purified water 42. Evaporation of the raw water is increasing the concentration of impurities in low quality waste water 22 in the cube evaporators. In the case of desalination of salt water low waste water 22 is a brine, the salt concentration in the brine in the cube evaporator is increasingly growing. Low-quality waste water 22 is directed through the evaporator 24, 26 and 28, respectively, where the process thermoacetica water repeat at all lower pressures. Low-quality waste water 77 with a high concentration of impurities is withdrawn from the evaporator 28 and, as a rule, is disposed.

Alternatively (not shown in the figures), part of discocytes�public waste water 77 is separated and combined with raw water 53 as part of the water supplied to the process thermoacetica. Due to this recycling of low-quality waste water increases the degree of transformation of raw water to treated water, also known as the raw water outlet. The more the number of low-quality recycled waste water, the higher the concentration of impurities in the water supplied to the process thermoacetica water. The number of low-quality recycled waste water depends on the acceptable level of impurities in the water supplied to the process thermoacetica.

Alternatively or additionally, the method may also include heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 combustion, thereby heating the raw water with the purpose of cleaning through the process thermoacetica water to produce clean water 42, thereby cooling the gaseous products of combustion. The gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the raw water, before the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the first feed stream 87 water. One or more liquid products may include purified water 42.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A, the stage of heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 of combustion may include the use of the working medium, e.g., water and/and�and steam. In the case of the working medium, the method may include heating the working medium by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 of combustion and the heated raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the working environment. In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A in conjunction with Fig. 1b, 47 water direct from the steam drum 220 to the heat exchanger 46 for heating the gaseous products 35 combustion. Heated water and/or steam is fed back into the steam drum 220, where the instantaneous evaporation. Pairs 221 is withdrawn from the steam drum 220 and sent to the process multistage flash distillation, is shown in Fig. 1b.

Which working medium water can evaporate, forming a vapor stream 221, characterized by a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute), when heated gaseous products 35 combustion. The pressure of the vapor stream 221 can be measured by any appropriate pressure sensor known in this field, for example, pressure gauge production Mensor. At least a portion of the vapor stream 221 may condense when heated raw water 53.

As shown in Fig. 1b, 221 pairs directed into the heating chamber 27 typical process 2 multistage flash distillation. The steam passes over the metal coil 21 of the heat exchanger located inside the heating� camera 27, which raw water 53 runs, heats, and then enters the evaporator 12 of the first stage.

Multistage flash distillation Fig. 1b, as described above, is designed to produce purified water 42 and low-quality waste water 77. Pairs 221 condensed in the heating chamber 27, it is withdrawn from the heating chamber 27 in the form of condensate 23 and returned to the steam drum in the form of a stream 222 condensate.

The process of obtaining the product of the reforming process can also be combined with the process of Multihull distillation, which is further described with reference to Fig. 1A and Fig. 1C.

In the case when the process is used Multihull distillation, can also be used working environment. Working medium heated by the product of the reforming process, can be used for heating raw water in the evaporator 53 50 process Multihull distillation by indirect heat exchange with the working environment. In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A in conjunction with Fig. 1C, the working medium is water, the water 162 is sent to the reboiler 78 where it is heated by the 25 product of the reforming process. Steam heated 161 is sent to the process Multihull distillation shown in Fig. 1C.

Fig. 1C shows an embodiment of a method that uses a typical process 16 Multihull distillation. Although in Fig. 1C shows� evaporator 3, can be used with any appropriate number of evaporators. Fig. 1C shows that pairs 161 is sent to the coil 59 of evaporator 50. In the coil 59 of the heat exchanger 161 pairs condenses due to heat exchange with the raw water 53, driven into contact with the outer surface of the coil 59, typically by spraying the raw water through a nozzle 55. The condensate is withdrawn from the coil 59 and recycled to the reboiler 78.

Raw water that is sprayed through a nozzle 55 on the outer surface of the coil 59 of evaporator 50, steaming water vapor due to heat exchange with a heating coil 59, heated by steam and/or water flowing inside it. Thus obtained water vapor is directed from the evaporator 50 in the coil 57 of the heat exchanger located inside of the second evaporator 54. Raw water 53 is sprayed onto the outer surface of the coil 57 of the heat exchanger through a nozzle 102, and the water vapor inside of the coil 57 condenses, it is collected and discharged from the second evaporator 54 as the water condensate 42. Water vapor formed as a result of heat exchange in the evaporator 54 is fed into the evaporator 56 where the process is repeated again and again in all the vaporizers available in the installation. Can be selected and used with any appropriate number of evaporators. Water vapor exiting the last evaporator in at�m row (56 in Fig. 1C), is condensed in condenser 134 by contact with the coil 136 of the heat exchanger, through which is passed the raw feed water. The thus obtained purified water condensate is combined with that obtained in previous evaporators and discharged. Low-quality waste water 22 is removed from the cube of the first evaporator 50 and combined with poor waste water 22 from other evaporators 54 and 56, in which the process thermoacetica water continues at higher and low operating pressure, and subsequently be disposed of as low-quality waste water 77 with a high concentration of impurities.

Alternatively or additionally, the method may also include heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 combustion, thereby heating the raw water with the purpose of cleaning through a process of multiple distillation to produce clean water 42, thereby cooling the gaseous products of combustion. The gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the raw water, before the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the first feed stream 87 water.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A, the stage of heating the raw water 53 by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 of combustion may include the use of �working environment for example, water and/or steam. In the case of the working medium, the method may include heating the working medium in indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 of combustion and the heated raw water 53 as a result of indirect heat exchange with the working environment. In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1A in conjunction with Fig. 1C, 47 water direct from the steam drum 220 to the heat exchanger 46 for heating the gaseous products 35 combustion. Heated water and/or steam is fed back into the steam drum 220, where the instantaneous evaporation. Pairs 221 is withdrawn from the steam drum 220 and sent to the process Multihull distillation shown in Fig. 1C.

Which working medium water can evaporate, forming a vapor stream 221, characterized by a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute), when heated gaseous products 35 combustion. The pressure of the vapor stream 221 can be measured by any appropriate pressure sensor known in this field, for example, pressure gauge production Mensor. At least a portion of the vapor stream 221 may condense when heated raw water 53.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1C, 221 pairs sent to the coil 59 of evaporator 50 typical process 16 Multihull distillation. Pairs 221 condensed in Zmeevo�e 59 of the heat exchanger as a result of heat exchange with the raw water 53, driven into contact with the outer surface of the coil 59, typically by spraying the raw water through a nozzle 55. The condensate 23 is withdrawn from the coil 59 and returned to the steam drum 220 in the form of the condensate stream 222.

The operation shown in Fig. 1C process of multiple distillation is described above, but for heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the formation of purified water 42 and low-quality waste water 77 the gaseous products of combustion.

Fig. 2A and Fig. 2b shows the process of producing a product of the reforming process multistage flash distillation, where the stage of heating the raw water does not include intermediate heating of the working environment. Embodiments of the invention that do not use intermediate working environment, have the advantage in that it eliminates the need for steam boiler low pressure and/or medium pressure. The exception of one stage of heat exchange between the product of the reforming process and raw water, in addition, leads to an increase of the temperature gradient in the rest of the heat exchangers, thus providing advantages in terms of capital costs and increase thermal efficiency.

The following explains the difference between this embodiment of the invention described previously, POSCO�ECU specialists in the field of the technological scheme, shown in Fig. 2A and Fig. 2b, will be clear on the basis of diagrams and descriptions of Fig. 1A and Fig. 1b. In these drawings, the same item numbers indicate similar components.

Fig. 2b of the heating chamber 27 is excluded, the raw water is directed into the process of obtaining the product of the reforming process for heating by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 combustion and/or product of the reforming process without the use of the working environment.

In the case where the raw water 53 is heated with gaseous products of combustion, raw water 53 serves in the heat exchanger 49 (Fig. 2A) to implement indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products 35 burning in the convective section of the furnace 45 10 reformer.

In the case where the raw water 53 is heated by the product of the reforming process, raw water 53 fed into the heat exchanger 71 (Fig. 2A) to carry out indirect heat exchange with the 25 product of the reforming process.

Fig. 3A and Fig. 3b shows an alternative method of combining the process of obtaining the product of the reforming process multistage flash distillation, in which the stage of heating the raw water by heat exchange with the product of the reforming process does not include heating the intermediate operating environment.

The following explains the difference between this embodiment of the invention described previously, since the experts in the field of the technological scheme, p�zestawienie in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3b, will be clear on the basis of diagrams and descriptions of Fig. 1A and Fig. 1b. In these drawings, the same item numbers indicate similar components.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3b, the 25 product of the reforming process is directed into the heating chamber 27 (instead of vaporous working medium) for heating by indirect heat exchange raw water 53, passed through the coil 21 of the heat exchanger. Then cooled in the heating chamber 27, the 25 product of the reforming process is directed to the heat exchanger 80.

Fig. 3A and Fig. 3C shows an alternative method of combining the process of obtaining the product of the reforming process with a multicase distillation, in which the stage of heating the raw water by heat exchange with the product of the reforming process does not include heating the intermediate operating environment.

The following explains the difference between this embodiment of the invention from the previously described, because those skilled in the field of technological scheme shown in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3C, will be clear on the basis of diagrams and descriptions of Fig. 1A and Fig. 1C. In these drawings, the same item numbers indicate similar components.

In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 3A and Fig. 3C, the 25 product of the reforming process is sent to the coil 59 of the heat exchanger (instead of the vaporous working medium for heat n�the indirect heat exchange of raw water 53, driven into contact with the outer surface of the coil 59 of the heat exchanger. Then chilled in the evaporator 50 25 product of the reforming process is directed to the heat exchanger 80.

When it is desirable significant formation of exhaust steam for heating parts make-up water and increase the efficiency of the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons may be used in low-grade physical warmth of gaseous products 35 combustion. "The ratio of steam/hydrogen" can be defined as the ratio of mass flow of exhaust steam of 150 msteamto the mass flow of hydrogen-containing product 105 mH2while the hydrogen-containing product is at least 95 mol%. hydrogen. Significant education of exhaust steam in the present context is defined as.

In the traditional process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons all the feed water is heated through heat exchange with the product of the reforming process. The feed water is heated from room temperature to a temperature suitable for the makeup water to the deaerator (for example, from 66°C to 121°C). In case of significant education of the exhaust steam of the low-potential heat of the product of the reforming process is not sufficient for heating make-up water required for deaeration temperature. With�we will now define, in the traditional process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons thermal efficiency when the relationship vapour/hydrogen over 13 decreases, it takes more energy to heat make-up water required for deaeration temperature.

In the case of secondary education the exhaust steam (in the present context defined as7msteammH213), low-grade heat to the reformer product is enough to heat the entire make-up water; consequently, the heating of feed water with the use of gaseous combustion products no longer increases the efficiency of hydrogen production. However, with continued low-grade heat product of the reforming process, which can be used as a heat source for thermoacetica water. As the heat source for the reformer product is better than the gaseous products of combustion, because it has a higher pressure, can be easily filed through the pipeline at any place and can be directly used for heating raw water.

In the case of small education the exhaust steam (in the present context, ODA�teleimage as 0msteammH27), not all low-grade physical heat of the gaseous combustion products can be removed by heating the feed water. Additional heat is used as heat source for the process thermoacetica water. This is done either by working medium (water/steam) or by feeding raw water into the convection section, where it is heated gaseous products of combustion. For values relationships vapour/hydrogen from 0 to 7 the number of discharged heat of the gaseous combustion products and/or product of the reforming process, in General, sufficient for the operation of thermoacetica water on an industrial scale or for industrial needs make-up water, the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons.

In the case of combining at least one process thermoacetica water, the method may further include the formation of exhaust steam 150, at least part of the feed stream 123 boiler water discharged from the deaerator 110, or lack of education pair 150, 150 pairs output from the process is characterized by mass flow msteamwhere msteam=0, �then pairs is formed. Stage of the formation of hydrogen-containing product 105 may include separating at least part of the 25 product of the reforming process by adsorption at a variable pressure (for example, in the variable pressure adsorber 100) with a hydrogen-containing product 105 and side strip 115, wherein the hydrogen-containing gas contains at least 95 mol%. hydrogen and hydrogen-containing product 105 is characterized by a mass flow mH2. This method varies the fact that the mass flow rate of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the mass flow rate of the first feed water flow, the mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, mass consumption and mass flow rate of a gas-oxidizing agent is chosen so that0msteammH27.

Examples

The following examples are used to illustrate advantages of the present method. Aspen Plus® from Aspen Technology, Inc. used for modeling the processes described in the examples. Were applied typical conditions of industrial catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, that is, the raw material is in the form of natural gas, the ratio of steam/carbon, equal to 2.8, and the temperature of the product of the reforming process to the output� containing catalyst tubes, equal to 870°C. In each example, there is a high temperature reactor conversion and there is no stage of pre-reforming process.

Example 1

This method is modeled in example 1. In example 1, the formation of exhaust steam is significant, the ratio of steam/hydrogen equal to 17.3. Example 1 corresponds to the process scheme shown in Fig. 1A, without combining with the process thermoacetica water. In example 1 there is no heat exchanger 78, the heat exchanger 46 or steam drum 220.

In example 1, a heat exchanger 40 to generate steam, the heat exchanger 50 to heat boiler feed water coming from the deaerator, reactor 60 high-temperature conversion, the heat exchanger 70 for heating hydrocarbon material 75 and the heat exchanger 80 to heat flow 85 make-up water.

The heat exchanger 80 is used for heating 59% make-up water required in the process. In the heat exchanger 80 the make-up water is heated from 16 to 97°C, whereas the product of the reformer is cooled to 38°C.

In example 1 also includes a heat exchanger 36, intended for heating the source gas mixture 15 reformer, a heat exchanger 37 for the heating steam supplied from the steam drum 120, the heat exchanger 38 for generating steam and a heat exchanger 6 for heating the stream 87 make-up water.

The heat exchanger 6 is used for heating 41%�picocell water required in the process. In the heat exchanger 6 make-up water is heated from 16 to 97°C, whereas the gaseous products of combustion are cooled to 58°C. All heat discharged into the heat exchanger 6, returns to the process of catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons, thereby saving fuel required for combustion with the combustion chamber of the reformer furnace. Due to this, power consumption is reduced by about 2%. The energy savings pays for the capital costs associated with heat exchanger 6. In this example, the flue gas supplied to the condenser 9, is cooled to a low temperature (58°C) without the use of special heat exchanger and cooling system for discharge of sensible heat into the atmosphere. Consequently, the extraction of water from the flue gas can be realized at a much lower cost.

Example 2 - Comparative

Comparative variant modeled in example 2. In example 2, the formation of exhaust steam is average, the ratio of steam/hydrogen 12.5. Example 2 corresponds to the process scheme shown in Fig. 1A, without combining with the process thermoacetica water. In example 2 there is no heat exchanger 78, the heat exchanger 46, the steam drum 220 or the heat exchanger 6 for heating make-up water.

In example 2, a heat exchanger 40 to generate steam, the heat exchanger 50 for napr�of feedwater of the boiler, coming from the deaerator, reactor 60 high-temperature conversion, the heat exchanger 70 for heating hydrocarbon material 75 and the heat exchanger 80 to heat flow 85 make-up water.

The heat exchanger 80 is used for heating 100% make-up water required in the process. In the heat exchanger 80 the make-up water is heated from 16 to 97°C, whereas the product of the reformer is cooled to 38°C, which indicates that low-grade heat is fully utilized to heat the entire make-up water. In the product of the reforming process essentially remains the discharged heat that could be used for thermoacetica water.

Example 2 also includes a heat exchanger 36, intended for heating the source gas mixture 15 reformer, a heat exchanger 37 for the heating steam supplied from the steam drum 120, the heat exchanger 38 for receiving a pair.

The gaseous products of combustion are cooled to the ordinary temperature of the chimney is about 127°C.

Example 3

Method according to the present invention, simulated in example 3. In example 3, the formation of exhaust steam is average, the ratio of steam/hydrogen 12.5 is the same as in example 2. Example 3 corresponds to the process scheme shown in Fig. 1A, without combining with the process thermoacetica water. In example 3 there is no heat exchanger 78, the wall with ange�ennik 46 or steam drum 220.

In example 3, a heat exchanger 40 to generate steam, the heat exchanger 50 to heat boiler feed water coming from the deaerator, reactor 60 high-temperature conversion, the heat exchanger 70 for heating hydrocarbon material 75 and the heat exchanger 80 to heat flow 85 make-up water.

The heat exchanger 80 is used for heating 34% of makeup water required in the process. In the heat exchanger 80 the make-up water is heated from 16 to 97°C, whereas the product of the reformer is cooled to 102°C.

In example 3 also includes a heat exchanger 36, intended for heating the source gas mixture 15 reformer, a heat exchanger 37 for the heating steam supplied from the steam drum 120, the heat exchanger 38 for generating steam and a heat exchanger 6 for heating the stream 87 make-up water.

The heat exchanger 6 is used for heating 66% of makeup water required in the process. In the heat exchanger 6 make-up water is heated from 16 to 97°C, whereas the gaseous products of combustion are cooled to 54°C. For a given amount of exhaust steam is the heat dissipation does not affect thermal efficiency of the process. However, the heated part of the feed water using the heat exchanger 6 can increase the temperature of the reformer product at the outlet of the heat exchanger 80 with 38°C, as in example 2 to 102°C in example 3. Razoobrazny�e the products of combustion in example 3, cooled to 54°C 127°C in example 2. This low-grade heat transfer from combustion gas to the reformer product enables the use of heat discharged product of the reforming process for thermoacetica water.

In addition, the size of the heat exchanger 80 by 80%, so as to heat only 34% of the makeup water. It is estimated that the total cost of the heat exchanger 6 and the heat exchanger 80 in example 3 is approximately equal to the cost of the heat exchanger 80 in example 2.

Examples 2 and 3 show that this method not only facilitates removal of water from gaseous products of combustion by cooling the gaseous products of combustion in the heat exchanger 6, but also compensates for the cost of the heat exchanger 6 by reducing the size of the heat exchanger 80, where makeup water is heated by the product of the reforming process. The present method provides an additional advantage in the availability of low-grade heat flux product of the reforming process thermoacetica water.

1. The method of producing hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water, including:
(a) the feed gas mixture in reforming many containing catalyst of the reformer tubes in a reformer furnace, the implementation of the reforming reaction involving the initial reforming gas mixture under the reaction conditions, effective�s for the formation of the product of the reforming process, containing H2, CO, CH4and H2Oh, and disposal of the product of the reforming process from the set containing the catalyst tubes of reformer;
(b) combustion gas-oxidizer in the combustion chamber of the reformer furnace outside, many containing catalyst tubes of reformer under conditions effective for the combustion of fuel with the formation of gaseous products of combustion and the heat, which is the energy source for the reaction of the source gas mixture of the reforming process within the set containing catalyst of the reformer tubes, and discharge of gaseous products of combustion from the combustion chamber;
(C) heating the first feed water stream by indirect heat exchange with the combustion gases, thereby cooling the gaseous combustion products;
(d) heating the second feed water stream by indirect heat exchange with the product of the reforming process, the exhaust from the set containing the catalyst tubes of reformer, and thereby cooling of the product of the reforming process;
(e) the direction of the first feed stream and second water supply flow of water in the deaerator, the first feed water stream is directed into the tank after it was heated gaseous products of combustion, and a second feed stream of water is fed into the deaerator after heating the product of the reforming process, the separation of dissolved gases �t first feed water stream and the second feed flow of water in the deaerator, discharge from the deaerator exhaust stream, the exhaust stream contains steam and gases generated from dissolved gases, separated from the first feed water stream and the second feed water flow, and discharge from the deaerator feed water flow to the boiler, the feed water flow to the boiler contains at least a portion of the first feed water stream and at least part of the second feed water stream;
(f) the supply of combustion gas into the condenser after the gaseous products of combustion have been cooled first feed stream of water, the cooling of the combustion gas in the condenser by indirect heat exchange with a coolant, and thereby the condensation of water contained in the gaseous products of combustion, with the formation of a stream of liquid water, the separation of the flow of liquid water from the stream depleted in water gaseous products of combustion discharge flow of liquid water from the condenser and the discharge from the condenser stream depleted in water gaseous combustion products; and
(g) the formation of a hydrogen-containing product from the product of the reforming process after the product reformer heated second feed water stream;
(h) where one or several products in the form of liquid water containing stream of liquid water reserved from the condenser.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein, for men�her least one thread of the first feed water stream and the second feed water stream contains at least part of the flow of liquid water.

3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the product of the reforming process is separated into a second stream of liquid water and a depleted water part of the product reformer after reformer product was cooled second feed stream of water, where one or several products in the form of liquid water additionally contain a second stream of liquid water.

4. A method according to claim 3, wherein at least one thread of the first feed water stream and the second feed water stream contains at least a portion of the second stream of liquid water.

5. A method according to claim 1, in which stage of the formation of hydrogen-containing product comprises the separation of at least part of the product of the reforming process by adsorption at a variable pressure with obtaining a hydrogen-containing product and side gas.

6. A method according to claim 5, in which the fuel contains a side gas and additional fuel.

7. A method according to claim 6, further comprising introducing a hydrocarbon feedstock into the plant hydrodesulfurization to remove sulfur from this oil and added fuel, at least part of the hydrocarbons obtained by the installation of hydrodesulfurization.

8. A method according to claim 1, further comprising:
heating �has ever got the water by indirect heat exchange with the product of the reforming process stage (a), thus, the heating of raw water for its purification through the process thermoacetica water to produce clean water and thereby cooling of the product of the reforming process, and the product of the reformer is cooled by heating the raw water, before or after the product of the reformer is cooled by heating the second feed water stream;
where one or several products in the form of liquid water include treated water.

9. A method according to claim 8, in which raw water includes at least one of the following: salt water, river water, tap water, lake water, recycled water for municipal supply, recycled water for industrial consumption and groundwater.

10. A method according to claim 8, in which the process thermoacetica water represents one of the following: the process of multiple distillation and process multistage flash distillation.

11. A method according to claim 8, in which stage of heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the reformer product includes:
the heating of the working medium by indirect heat exchange with the product of the reforming process stage (a) and heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the working environment.

12. A method according to claim 11, in which the working medium is water, where water working medium is evaporated forming vapor stream having a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (a�solutely) by heating the product of the reforming process stage (a), and where at least a portion of the vapor stream is condensed by heating the raw water.

13. A method according to claim 8, further comprising:
the formation of steam, at least part of the feeding the boiler water flow discharged from the deaerator, or lack of vapor;
where the stage of formation of the hydrogen-containing product comprises the separation of at least part of the product of the reforming process using adsorption at a variable pressure to obtain a hydrogen product and a gas side;
where the hydrogen-containing product is characterized by mass flow mH2output from the process vapor is characterized by mass flow msteamwhere msteam=0, when no steam is formed, the source gas mixture of the reforming process is characterized by mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the first supply flow of water characterized by a mass flow rate of the first feed stream of water, the second feed water stream is characterized by a mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, the fuel is characterized by a mass flow rate of fuel gas, an oxidizer is characterized by mass flow of a gas-oxidizing agent; and
where the mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the mass flow rate of the first feed water flow, the mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, mass consumption and mass flow rate of a gas-oxidizing agent in�branes, what.
thus the hydrogen-containing product is at least 95 mol%. of hydrogen.

14. A method according to claim 1, further comprising:
heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion stage (b), thereby heating the raw water with the purpose of cleaning through the process thermoacetica water to produce clean water, thereby cooling the gaseous products of combustion and the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the raw water, before the gaseous products of combustion are cooled by heating the first feed water stream;
in this case one or more products in the form of liquid water additionally contain purified water.

15. A method according to claim 14, in which raw water includes at least one of the following: salt water, river water, tap water, lake water, recycled water for municipal supply, recycled water for industrial consumption and groundwater.

16. A method according to claim 14, in which the process thermoacetica water represents one of the following: the process of multiple distillation and process multistage flash distillation.

17. A method according to claim 14, in which stage of heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion include:
the heating of the working medium�s by indirect heat exchange with the gaseous products of combustion stages (b) and heating the raw water by indirect heat exchange with the working environment.

18. A method according to claim 17, in which the working medium is water, where water working medium is evaporated forming vapor stream having a pressure in the range of 15.2 kPa to 304 kPa (absolute) when heated gaseous products of combustion stage (b), and where at least a portion of the vapor stream is condensed by heating the raw water.

19. A method according to claim 14, further comprising:
the formation of steam, at least part of the feeding the boiler water flow discharged from the deaerator, or lack of vapor;
where the stage of formation of the hydrogen-containing product comprises the separation of at least part of the product of the reforming process by adsorption at a variable pressure to obtain a hydrogen product and a gas side;
where the hydrogen-containing product is characterized by mass flow mH2output from the process vapor is characterized by mass flow msteamwhere msteam=0, when no steam is formed, the source gas mixture of the reforming process is characterized by mass flow of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the first supply flow of water characterized by a mass flow rate of the first feed stream of water, the second feed water stream is characterized by a mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, the fuel is characterized by a mass flow rate of fuel gas, an oxidizer is characterized by m�sovim fuel-oxidizer; and
where in this case the mass flow rate of the source gas mixture of the reforming process, the mass flow rate of the first feed water flow, the mass flow rate of the second feed water flow, mass consumption and mass flow rate of a gas-oxidizing agent is chosen so that.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining aromatic compounds from ligroin as a raw material. The method includes: supply of the raw material flow into a fractioning installation and with obtaining the first flow, which contains light hydrocarbons, and the second flow, which contains heavy hydrocarbons; supply of the first flow into the first reforming installation, which works under the first set of reaction conditions, with obtaining the first product flow, with the first reforming installation having an input for the catalyst and an output for the catalyst; supply of the second flow into the second reforming installation, which works under the second set of the reaction conditions, with obtaining the second product flow, with the second reforming installation having an input for the catalyst and an output for the catalyst, in which the first set of the reaction conditions includes the first reaction temperature, and the second set of the reaction conditions includes the second reaction temperature, and the first temperature of the reaction is higher than the second reaction temperature, and in which the second pressure is lower than 580 kPa; supply of the second product flow into the first reforming installation and obtaining the first product flow; supply of the catalyst from the regenerator into the second reforming installation; supply of the catalyst from the second reforming installation into the first reforming installation; and supply of the first product flow into the installation for the separation of aromatic compounds, with the claimed catalyst containing a noble metal of VIII group on a carrier.

EFFECT: obtaining aromatic compounds from ligroin.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing aromatic compounds from a hydrocarbon feed stream. The method includes steps of: directing the hydrocarbon feed stream into a separation apparatus to obtain a light process stream having low concentration of endothermic hydrocarbon components, and a heavy process stream having a higher concentration of endothermic components; directing the light process stream into a first reforming apparatus, having a first operating temperature higher than 540°C, to obtain an output stream from the first reforming apparatus; directing the heavy process stream into a second reforming apparatus, having a second operating temperature lower than 540°C, to obtain an output stream from the second reforming apparatus; and directing the output stream from the first reforming apparatus and the output stream from the second reforming apparatus into an apparatus for separating aromatic hydrocarbons to obtain a stream of the purified product - aromatic hydrocarbons and an aromatic hydrocarbon-impoverished raffinate stream; wherein the first reforming apparatus and the second reforming apparatus contain the same catalyst.

EFFECT: use of the present method increases output of aromatic hydrocarbons.

8 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: oily wastes are heated and subjected to primary separation with the extraction of oil-contaminated water and mechanical impurities. The received partially dewatered oily wastes are mixed up with a diluter and subjected to repeated separation with the production of an oil concentrate and additional quantity of oil-contaminated water and mechanical impurities. The oil concentrate is subjected to fractioning together with vapours of gasoline and diesel fraction stabilisation as well as with vapours of thermal conversion, in result a sulphurous hydrocarbon gas, an unstable gasoline fraction, the diluter, an unstable diesel fraction and bottom fractions are obtained. The sulphurous hydrocarbon gas is treated from hydrogen sulphide with the receipt of a fuel gas and commercial sulphur. The unstable gasoline fraction is stabilised with the receipt of commercial gasoline and stabilisation vapours. The unstable diesel fraction is subjected to catalytic stabilisation by hydrogenation and stabilised with the receipt of commercial marine fuels and stabilisation vapours. The bottom fractions are subjected to thermal conversion with the receipt of vapours and heavy residue used as a power-generating fuel. Oil-contaminated water is treated with the receipt of partially clean water and oily wastes, which are sent for mixing up with a raw material, as well as oil-contaminated mechanical impurities, which are processed in the mixture with the oil-contaminated mechanical impurities received at previous stages into road-building materials.

EFFECT: method allows continuous treatment excluding the output of a non-commercial product, improvement of the quality of the commercial product, improvement of industrial and environmental safety, improved labour conditions; the method may be used in the oil refining industry for non-waste processing of emulsion and emulsion suspended oily wastes.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises passing starting stream into a reforming reactor to obtain a reformate stream; passing the reformate into a first fractionation unit to form a light upper stream and a lower stream; passing the lower stream into a reformate separation column to obtain an upper reformate stream containing C6-C7-aromatic compounds and a lower reformate stream containing C8+-aromatic compounds; passing the upper reformate stream into an aromatic compound extraction unit to form a purified aromatic compound stream containing C6 and C7-aromatic compounds, as well as a raffinate stream; and passing the raffinate stream into the reforming reactor.

EFFECT: use of the present method increases the amount of aromatic compounds produced from a starting hydrocarbon stream.

10 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention deals with two-stage method of obtaining high-octane base gasoline with application of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon raw material in presence of catalyst, and circulation of nonconverted raw material and hydrocarbon gases. As liquid hydrocarbon raw material used is oil or gas condensate, or their mixture; as gaseous hydrocarbon raw material used is C1-C4 fraction and/or C3-C4 fraction and circulating hydrocarbon gases; liquid hydrocarbon raw material is subjected to fractioning in fractionation column with removal of straight-run fractions with limits of evaporation within the temperature interval C5-75°C, benzene fraction with limits of evaporation within the temperature interval 75-85°C, fraction 85-(160-220)°C and circulating hydrocarbon gases; fraction with limits of evaporation within temperature interval C5-75°C and 85-(160-220)°C are supplied to first stage of contact with zeolite-containing catalyst or system of catalysts, promoted with metals of I-VIII group of Periodic table, benzene fraction with limits of evaporation within the temperature interval 75-85°C is removed from fractionation products. Gaseous hydrocarbon raw material is supplied to second stage of contact; it contacts with zeolite-containing catalyst or system of catalysts, promoted with metals of I-VIII group of Periodic table, and contact in first and second stages takes place with the course of main reactions - isomerisation, aromatisation and hydration, products of contact of first and second stages together undergo stabilisation and fractionation with separation of target product - high-octane base gasoline, evaporating within temperature interval C5-(160-220°C), residue higher than (160-220°C), non-converted raw material, which circulates in first stage raw material, and hydrocarbon gases, which circulate in second stage raw material.

EFFECT: obtaining high-octane base gasoline with improved ecological characteristics.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing naphthenic process oil, having ratio of content of carbon atoms of aromatic hydrocarbons CA to content of napthenic carbon atoms CN to content of carbon atoms of paraffin hydrocarbons CP, determined in accordance with ASTM D 2140, of 0-30 wt % to 20-65 wt % to 20-55 wt %, and content of polycyclic aromatic compounds, in accordance with IP 346, of less than 3 wt %, characterised by that a process oil educt having content of polycyclic aromatic compounds, determined in accordance with IP 346, of at least 3 wt %, and content of naphthenic carbon atoms CN≤25 wt %, is hydrogenated with hydrogen using a metal catalyst at temperature of 200-400°C and pressure of 80-250 bar. The invention also relates to use of naphthenic process oil.

EFFECT: obtaining high-quality naphthenic process oil with high content of naphthenic hydrocarbon compounds.

10 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preliminary passivation for continuous reforming plant before reaction or after passivation during initial reaction. Proposed method comprises loading reforming catalyst in continuous reforming plant, starting gas circulation to increase reactor temperature, adding sulphide to gas at reactor temperature of 100-650°C, and adjusting sulfur content in circulating gas at the level of 3-20×10-6 l/l.

EFFECT: deceleration of metal catalytic activity on walls, reduced risks of emergent operation.

22 cl, 4 dwg, 4 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant comprises major catalytic reactor 1 with fluid feed main line 2, extra catalytic reactor 3, main line 4 to keep processed fluid at pressure, circulation main line 5, first and second mixers 6, 7, pump, and first and second crude fluid feed main lines 9, 10. Note here that every catalytic reactor 1, 3 represents a hollow tank with nozzle 11 fitted at its inlet. Inlets of major reactor nozzle 11 and extra reactor nozzle 11 are connected in parallel to pressure line 12 of pump 8. Inlet of said pump is connected to outlet of second mixer 7. Inlet of the latter is connected to outlet of first mixer 6 with its inlet connected to extra reactor outlet and crude fluid feed main line 9. Catalytic additive feed main line 13 is connected to extra reactor tank. Outlet of the latter is arranged at distance L from outlet section of nozzle 2. Said distance makes 0.5 to 0.8 of extra reactor nozzle outlet section diameter d. Vacuum gages 14 are connected to nozzle flow sections of every catalytic reactor 1, 3. Inlet of circulation line 5 is connected to major reactor outlet 1 while its outlet is connected to inlet of second mixer 7. Said major reactor 1 represents a plasma reactor equipped with high-voltage 10-100 mA-current source. Said extra reactor 3 doubles as a supersonic jet mixer. Additionally, proposed plant comprises degasser 16, cooler 17, second pump 18, steam-gas mix discharge line 20, low-molecular component condensate return line 21, and degassed fluid feed line 22. Second crude fluid feed line 10 is connected via second pump 18 to inlet of degasser 16. One outlet of said degasser is connected via line 20 to cooler 17 while another outlet is connected via line 22 to inlet of second mixer 7. Outlet of cooler 17 is connected via line 21 to line 22.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality, expanded range of products.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of carrying out a catalytic endothermic reaction of gaseous material, in which heat energy is supplied to the zone of a fixed-bed catalyst by convection from parts of the reactor housing, which are heated by high-frequency currents, wherein the reactor housing is heat-insulating and during the heat supply process, supply on the length of the catalyst bed is controlled, thereby ensuring uniform heating of the bed on the cross-section of the catalyst due to metal structures, heated by high-frequency currents, which are built into the reactor housing.

EFFECT: high conversion of gaseous hydrocarbon material.

7 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: catalytic reforming system described below includes the following: raw material stream including naphtha and at least one compound containing manganese, which is chosen from the group consisting of manganese cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese methylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese dimethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese trimethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese tetramethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese pentamethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese ethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese diethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese propylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese isopropylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese tert- butylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese octylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese dodecyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl, manganese ethylmethylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl and manganese indenyl tricarbonyl; and catalyst; at that, catalyst of reforming plant includes the following: substrate; precious metal on substrate; and deposit of free particles of manganese on catalyst, which are formed during decomposition at least of one manganese containing compound which is described above. Method for increasing octane number of mixture of reforming product produced with catalytic reforming plant at oil refinery having the stream of raw product of reforming plant is described; the above method includes the following: addition of catalyst to raw product stream of reforming plant; the above catalyst contains oxidised manganese; as a result, octane number of mixture of the produced reforming product increases relative to octane number of mixture of produced reforming product obtained at oil refinery without any addition of catalyst containing the oxidised manganese; at that, oxidised manganese catalyst is obtained from group of manganese tricarbonyls which are specified above.

EFFECT: increasing catalyst service life or increasing octane number of reforming product stream.

19 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water from hexavalent chromium compounds includes reaction thereof with an iron-containing dispersant with simultaneous exposure to a magnetic field generated by an electromagnet to obtain an insoluble precipitate. The iron-containing dispersant used is ground iron or steel chips. Exposure is carried out using a controlled magnetic field, the direction of the intensity vector of which is varied by periodically changing the polarity of current in the electromagnet windings, and the intensity value is controlled by varying the value of current in the windings. A chromium hydroxide Cr(OH)3 precipitate is obtained by neutralising the unreacted mixture with an alkali.

EFFECT: high degree of purity of waste water while cutting the duration of the process, easy implementation and high efficiency of the method.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Treatment of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises the fed of water flow portion to aerator, to distiller and /or evaporator and therefrom to said aerator again. Note here that process gas is fed to said aerator to produce gaseous flow to be fed to the plant for production of synthesis gas.

EFFECT: possibility to use at least a portion of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor as a process water for production of synthesis gas.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic water activation installation comprises a chamber filled with water and equipped by electrodes, a cover with a channel for water supply. The chamber is limited by a recess in the piston bottom, cylinder walls and the cover with a channel for water supply, a plug with an insulated positive electrode is screwed into the cover, a cylindrical electrically insulated spring-damper is installed between the bottom part of the cylinder additionally serving as a negative electrode and the piston, the lateral part of the cylinder is fitted by a hole to discharge water after electrohydraulic impact in the water-filled chamber from a corona discharge between the electrodes at switching on of a high-frequency generator of primary pulses.

EFFECT: improvement of electrohydraulic water activation efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.

2 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in gas and oil production industry for associated crude iodine production from iodine-lean confined groundwater. The method is implemented by a sequence of electrochemical iodide ion oxidation, molecular iodine sorption on carbon, electrochemical reduction of iodine to iodides, and desorption. All stages are performed in the same chemical reactor represented by a sorption column. Activated carbon with minimum iodine adsorption capacity of 1,000 mg/g is used as a sorbent. Graphite electrode at the column bottom is used as an anode, copper cathode in the form of plate at the column top is used as cathode. After the carbon is saturated with iodine, electrode polarity is reversed to desorb iodine from carbon in the form of iodide ions. Confined groundwater, including one with low iodine content, is used as iodine source.

EFFECT: enhanced iodine production efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for protection against contaminants introduced by gravity draining at steam pumping and/or those peculiar thereto. This system is used at the plant based on gravity draining at steam pumping for production of heavy oil. This control system allows the simultaneous control over silicon dioxide, hardness and oil contamination existing in evaporator feed water.

EFFECT: ruled out heat exchange surface fouling, higher reliability.

9 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in industry at the stage of fine or additional purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions, in the purification of vapour condensate in boiler houses and TPP plants in the creation of closed technological water circulation. To realise the method of ion-exchange water purification sewage waters and technological solutions are passed through a sorbent, containing hydrazide groups. as the sorbent used is activated carbon, preliminarily processed with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in volume ratios of 1:2-2.5, at a temperature of 350-450°C. The method provides the removal of ions of metals with a variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, as well as ions of metals: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+ from water, with the preservation by the sorbent of the sorption activity in a wide range of the water solution pH values.

EFFECT: purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water purification by crystallisation and can be used in everyday life, food industry and medicine. The water purification apparatus includes a temperature-controlled heat-exchange vessel 1, means of feeding source water for purification and means 2 of draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants, means 3 of cooling and freezing water and means 5 of melting ice with cooling 4 and heating elements 6, a control unit 7 connected to the means of feeding source water for purification and draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants 2 from the heat-exchange vessel 1 and means of cooling and freezing water 3 and melting ice 5. The heat-exchange vessel 1 has a flat slit-type internal cavity or an annular slit-type cavity 15, and one of the walls of the heat-exchange vessel 1, which is free from the cooling 4 and heating elements 6, is made of transparent material and has one or more internal air cavities 17.

EFFECT: invention improves the quality of water purification and enables to monitor the purification process.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in mixing cyano-containing solutions and pulps with hydrogen peroxide and a gas ozone-oxygen mixture with the ozone concentration of more than 160 g/m3, in the ozone/hydrogen peroxide ratio of 1.5:1, pH 11-12, temperature of 45-50°C in the presence of copper ions. The cyano-containing solutions and pulps are deactivated in the copper ion concentration of not less than 1:8 to the cyanide and rhodanide concentration.

EFFECT: higher rate and effectiveness of deactivating the cyano-containing solutions and pulps, lower consumption of agents and power costs, improved economical efficiency of the process.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: biohybrid composite material for sorption and degradation of crude oil and petroleum products is proposed. The material is a thermoplastic polymer with fibre-forming properties - acrylonitrile copolymer with methyl acrylate. It comprises incorporated phosphorus-containing cationites and/or nitrogen-containing anionites, the cell walls of aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (Lemnaceae) and immobilized cells of bacteria-oil destructors.

EFFECT: composite material has high adsorption capacity and a higher degree of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed is a catalyst of a gaseous hydrocarbon raw material reforming ( by version 1), which contains, wt %: nickel oxide (45-60), lanthanum oxide (1-5), zircon dioxide (3-15), cerium dioxide (1-4), alumomagnesium oxide compound (15-30) (composition of which includes (30-70) aluminium oxide, (30-70) magnesium oxide), silicon dioxide (5-15), carbon (1-3). Also claimed is the catalyst of the gaseous hydrocarbon raw material reforming (by version 2), which contains, wt %: nickel oxide (50-65), lanthanum oxide (3-10), cerium dioxide (1-8), alumomagnesium oxide compound (15-30) (composition of which contains (30-70) of aluminium oxide, (30-70) magnesium oxide), silicon dioxide (5-15), carbon (1-3).

EFFECT: high thermal stability of the catalyst, possessing high activity both in the process of high-temperature and low-temperature reforming of gaseous hydrocarbons, high mechanical compression strength, stability to thermal shock, high heat conductivity, low hydraulic resistance.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

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