Air wrench

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: air wrench comprises a rotor with cams, two coaxial bushes coupled by blades, and air feeding and outlet ports, and a striker with cams which embraces the rotor bushes and is mounted so that to able of reciprocating rotary movement and interaction of its cams with the rotor cams, an air distributor with air feeding and outlet ports coaxial to the rotor ports respectively. The striker is fitted by blades forming working chambers together with rotor blades. The air distributor is mounted in the axial hole of the rotor, herewith periodic communication of working chambers with the air feeding line and the atmosphere as well as interaction of its lever with the striker are provided. A wrench head and an overrunning clutch for kinematic connection of the rotor to the casing are provided. A starting slide valve is installed in the air distributor coaxially and can rotate together with it, the valve is pressed by a spring in axial direction. Air feeding and outlet ports of the starting slide valve are coaxial to the said ports of the air distributor respectively. Additional air feeding and outlet ports are provided in the air distributor, rotor and starting slide valve, the said additional ports of the air distributor and the rotor can be matched with the said additional ports of the starting slide valve respectively.

EFFECT: improved air distribution system to provide for reliable restart and simplified reversing.

2 cl, 13 dwg

 

The technical solution relates to mechanical engineering, namely to mechanized tools. shock-rotational operation, and can be used in various industries in a wide range of technological operations on the Assembly and disassembly of threaded connections.

Known pneumatic wrench on and.with. The USSR №1481050 B25B 21/02, publ. 23.05.1989, bull. No. 19, containing a hollow body, coaxially mounted therein for rotation a hollow drummer working with radial Cam and the spindle-anvil also working with Cams placed between the jaws of a drummer with the formation of the working chambers, the air distribution device with aerating and exhaust channels, periodically connecting the working chambers with aerating line and atmosphere, Cams, part of which is fixed to the spindle-anvil, and one drummer, the head turnkey, of the overrunning clutch for connecting the spindle-anvil to the body and stops installed on the drummer with the possibility of periodic changes in the circumferential direction. Aerating and exhaust pipes are made in the housing wall and in the wall of a drummer for each working chamber with displacement relative to each other along the axis of the wrench, and the air distribution device made in the form installed on the level who�uropodidae and exhaust channels drummer and covering him with the ability to move around its axis inertial rings the number of which is equal to the number of working chambers and each having on its external surface with an annular groove, two radial channel made in the bottom of the groove, and one of its ends an axial ledge abutments are in the form of covering the rings with drummer recess on the end face, facing the ledge of a nearby inertial ring. The inertia ring is provided with plate springs-catchers for their periodic fixation in the circumferential direction with respect to the rings.

A significant disadvantage of the known pneumatic wrench is that it cannot be run again, as after the termination of the supply of compressed air (turn off the wrench) the firing pin under the action of the remaining air performs damped oscillations, and together with the drummer and the inertial ring oscillate with decreasing amplitude relative to the striker and in the end of the inertia ring stop in the neutral position, when all air distribution and exhaust channels are blocked. When you run the impact wrench compressed air cannot flow into the working chamber, it is necessary to manually rotate the spindle-anvil for output of the inertial ring distribution systems from the neutral position, i.e. for opening aerating and exhaust channels that the compressed air could postupat� in the working chamber and vykladyvatsya from adjacent chambers to the atmosphere. A disadvantage of the pneumatic wrench is also the complexity of distribution systems in the form of individual inertial rings with channels and grooves for supplying compressed air into each working chamber and the exhaust air into the atmosphere and, consequently, low efficiency and unreliability of the device.

The closest in technical essence and essential features is the pneumatic tools RF patent for the invention №2018433, B25B 21/02, publ. 13.08.1994, bull. No. 16, comprising a housing, placed in it the rotor with blades mounted coaxially with the rotor rotatably drummer with blades forming with the rotor blades working chambers, the anvil head of the tool and the air distribution device for the periodic reports of the working chambers with aerating line and atmosphere. The rotor is constructed in the form of two coaxial sleeves with aerating and exhaust Windows, United diametrically spaced blades, and the air distribution device is disposed in the sleeve between the blades.

The main disadvantage of pneumatic tools is the unreliability of the device when you run it again, as after the termination of the supply of compressed air (lockout pneumatic tools) the firing pin under the action of the remaining who�ear performs damped oscillations, and together with the drummer and the air distribution device oscillate with decreasing amplitude and eventually it stops in the neutral position, when all air distribution and exhaust Windows are closed. When you run the impact wrench compressed air cannot flow into the working chamber, it is necessary to manually rotate the rotor to output the diffuser from the neutral position, i.e. for opening aerating and exhaust channels that the compressed air can flow into the working chamber and out of the adjacent working chambers to the atmosphere. The disadvantages of the described pneumatic tools should also include the complexity of the reversal, consisting of partial disassembly and re-Assembly with the rotation of the sprocket freewheel and the inertia ring, the Manager of the diffuser, through 180° about a diametrical axis. These shortcomings lead to low efficiency and unreliability of pneumatic tools.

The technical objective of the proposed solution is to increase the efficiency and reliability of its work by improving distribution systems to ensure reliable re-start and facilitate the reversing device.

The task is achieved due to the fact that in the pneumatic Gai�the overt act, comprising a housing with end cap located at the rotor tip, two coaxial sleeves, the United blades, and air distribution and exhaust Windows, drummer with Cams covering of the rotor hub and mounted with the possibility of reciprocating and rotational motion and interaction of Cams with the Cams of the rotor, wherein the firing pin is provided with blades forming with the rotor blades working chambers, a diffuser with air distribution and exhaust Windows coaxially specified Windows of the rotor, respectively, mounted in the axial hole of the rotor with the possibility of periodic messages working chambers with air distribution line and the atmosphere and interaction of the lever with the drummer, the head and the freewheel to provide the kinematic connection of the rotor with the housing, according to the technical solution in the diffuser coaxially mounted spool start with the possibility of joint rotation with him, preloaded by a spring in the axial direction, while it made aerating and exhaust Windows are located along the axis of the air distribution and exhaust Windows of the diffuser, respectively, and provide additional air distribution and exhaust of the window, and in the diffuser and rotor also provides additional air�advogada and exhaust Windows, is capable of combining with additional air distribution and exhaust Windows spool spins respectively.

The described set of features, making the distribution system more perfect, provides training device to its reliable re-starting and stable mode of operation, resulting in increased efficiency and reliability when performing technological operations on the Assembly and disassembly of threaded connections.

It helps if the inside of the spool run coaxially positioning the spindle rigidly to tie its one end to the rotor, and the other to install the axle in the bearings mounted on the front cover, and the head to perform at the end of the spindle associated with the rotor and at the other end thereof to perform additional head. This simplifies the reversal, without violating the nature of the work of the kinematic pairs of pneumatic wrench and, consequently, increases the efficiency and reliability of its work.

The essence of the technical solution is illustrated by examples of specific performance of a pneumatic wrench and drawings, Fig.1-13. Fig.1 shows a pneumatic wrench in the initial position - longitudinal section a-A in Fig.2; Fig.2 - cross section b-B in Fig.1; Fig.3 - cross section b-b In Fig.1; Fig.4 - cross section G-G n� Fig.1; Fig.5 - section d-D in Fig.1; Fig.6 - section E-E in Fig.1; Fig.7 shows the pneumatic wrench in position - longitudinal section f-F in Fig.8; Fig.8 is a sectional view 3-3 of Fig.7 and Fig.9 - section And in Fig.7, when the firing pin is rotated clockwise to the end position; Fig.10 - a section K-K in Fig.7; Fig.11 - cross section l-L of Fig.7; Fig.12 - cross section m-M in Fig.7; Fig.13 - cross section b-b in Fig.7. Fig.10-13 drummer rotated in the clockwise direction to the end position.

Pneumatic wrench comprises a housing 1 (Fig.1) with end caps 2 and 3, having an axial hole 4 and 5, respectively, arranged therein a rotor 6 with the Cam 7 (Fig.4) and two coaxial bushings 8 and 9 connected by blades 10 (Fig.2, 3). The rotor 6 has an axial hole 11 (Fig.1) and communicated with him aerating the Windows 12, 13 and exhaust Windows 14, 15 located between the sleeves 8, 9. Drummer with Cams 16 17 covers sleeves 8 and 9 of the rotor 6 and is mounted for reciprocating rotational motion and interaction of Cams with Cams 17 7 of the rotor 6 (Fig.4). The firing pin 16 is provided with blades 18 (Fig.2, 3) forming the blades 10 of the rotor 6 working chambers 19 and 20.

Pneumatic wrench contains also mounted in the axial hole 11 of the rotor 6, the diffuser 21 (Fig.1) with aerating Windows 22 Windows and exhaust 23 (Fig.7, 8, 9) located�military along the axis of the aerating Windows 12, 13 and exhaust Windows 14, 15 of the rotor 6, respectively. The diffuser 21 is installed with the possibility of periodic messages working chambers 19 and 20 (Fig.2, 3) with the aerating line and the atmosphere and interaction of the lever 24 with the firing pin 16 in its circular groove 25 (Fig.5). In the Central opening 26 (Fig.1, 3) diffuser 21 with the possibility of joint rotation coaxially mounted spool 27 run (Fig.1, 7), preloaded in the axial direction by a spring 28 and its associated ledge 29 in the circumferential and axial directions through the longitudinal groove 30 of the diffuser 21. The spool 27 of the launch, there are additional air distribution box 31, aerating the window 32 and the exhaust window 33 (Fig.1, 2, 7, 8, 9), made along the axis of the additional aerating the Windows 34, aerating the Windows 22 and exhaust Windows 23 of the diffuser 21, respectively. There is a sleeve 35 (Fig.6) freewheel with rollers 36, spring-loaded pre-loaded pushers 37, the sprocket which is integrally formed with the rotor 6 to ensure its kinematic connection with the housing 1.

Inside the spool 27 run (Fig.1) coaxially to him is the spindle 38, one end of which is rigidly connected with the rotor 6, and the other is mounted by a pin 39 in a support 40 fixed to the front cover 3 of the housing 1. At that the head 41 turnkey executed on consecintele 38, associated with the rotor 6, and at the other end made additional head 42 of the key. On the inner surface of the spool 27 of the launch provided an annular flange 43, which covers the spindle 38 and forms a chamber 44 for supplying compressed air and the cavity 45 of the exhaust.

In the rotor 6 are additional aerating window 46 (Fig.1, 2) for communication of the working chambers 19 before starting pneumatic impact wrench with aerating line through the auxiliary air distribution box 34, 31, the camera 44 compressed air, the axial hole 5, an annular channel 47 and aerating the pipe 48. For the message of the working chambers 20 with the atmosphere in the rotor 6 are additional exhaust window 49 (Fig.1, 3), in the diffuser 21 has additional exhaust window 50, an annular rotor 6 hole 51, the exhaust channel 52, and the housing 1 has exhaust openings 53. On the head 41 of the spindle 38 is mounted the key 54 to perform the operation by screwing, for example nuts.

Pneumatic wrench works as follows.

To activate a pneumatic wrench for aerating conduit 48 (Fig.1) supply compressed air which enters the annular channel 47, the axial hole 5, the camera 44 for supplying compressed air, and then through the auxiliary air distribution box 31, 34, 46 - in robotically 19 (Fig.2) and, acting on the working surfaces of the blades 18 of the firing pin 16, rotates it clockwise to its original position before knocking Cams with Cams 17 7 of the rotor 6 (Fig.4). The drummer 16, working in a circular groove 25 (Fig.5) with the lever 24 of the diffuser 21, throws it clockwise to the end position. From the working chambers 20 (Fig.3) the air is released into the atmosphere through the auxiliary exhaust window 49, 50, the Central hole 26 of the diffuser 21, the axial hole 11 of the rotor 6, the annular bore 51, the exhaust channel 52 of the rotor 6 and the exhaust port 53 of the housing 1. Simultaneously, the compressed air in the chamber 44 of the compressed air acting on the upper end of the annular flange 43 of the spool 27 run, moves it down to the stop protrusion 29 in the edge of a longitudinal groove 30 of the diffuser 21, compressing the spring 28 (Fig.7). Additional aerating box 46, 34 and additional exhaust window 49, 50 overlap, and aerating the window 32 and the exhaust window 33 of the valve 27 run combined with aerating Windows 22 (Fig.7, 8) and exhaust Windows 23 (Fig.7, 9) of the diffuser 21, respectively. Compressed air from the chamber 44 for supplying compressed air through the air distribution box 32, 22, 13 (Fig.7, 8) is supplied to the working chamber 20, and from the working chambers 19 exhaust compressed air through in�hlebnye Windows 14, 23, 33 (Fig.7, 9), the cavity 45 of the exhaust, the ring bore 51, the exhaust channel 52 and the exhaust openings 53 are released to the atmosphere. The compressed air in the working chambers 20, acting on the working surfaces of the blades 18 and 10, stops the firing pin 16 and then rotates it counterclockwise and the rotor 6, if the resistance on the spindle 38 with the key 54 is less than the driving forces, will rotate in a clockwise direction and screw up the nut, otherwise the rotor 6 will remain stationary. Drummer 16, moving counterclockwise and interacting in a circular groove 25 of the lever 24 of the diffuser 21 (Fig.5), rotate it (Fig.8, 9). Thus, the diffuser 21 will first take a neutral position, i.e. outweighed by aerating the window 13 and the exhaust box 14, and then begin to open aerating the window 12 and the exhaust box 15. The air from the working chambers 20 through the opened exhaust box 15, 23, 33, the cavity 45 of the exhaust, the ring bore 51, the exhaust channel 52 and the exhaust openings 53 are released to the atmosphere. At the same time through the opened air distribution box 12, 22, 32, the compressed air from the chamber 44 for supplying compressed air enters the working chambers 19 and acting on the working surfaces of the blades 10, 18, stops the rotor 6 with the spindle 38 and the key 54 (if they rotate clockwise). When this occurs Sz wrote special magical spells�ivanie rollers 36 (Fig.6), preloaded spring-loaded pushers 37, the coupling 35 freewheel between the sprocket and the housing 1, which prevents reverse unscrewing the nut, and the firing pin 16 decelerates. At this point, the firing pin 16 with the diffuser 21 is accelerated by compressed air counterclockwise acquire amount of kinetic energy. Drummer 16 under the action of compressed air entering the working chamber 19, stops, and then begins to turn clockwise while the air is 21 due to the free movement of its lever 24 in a circular groove 25 of the firing pin 16 (Fig.12) continues to move by inertia counterclockwise, overcoming the force of friction acting on it. Completely open air distribution box 12, 22, 32 (Fig.10) and the exhaust box 15, 23, 33 (Fig.11). I.e. at the first stage of acceleration of the firing pin 16 in a clockwise direction is ensured by the smooth flow of compressed air in the working chamber 19 and the free exhaust of air from the working chambers 20, which contributes to a significant accumulation of the kinetic energy of the firing pin 16.

Upon further rotation of the projectile 16 clockwise it is in the circular groove 25 cooperates with the lever 24 (Fig.12) and rotates the diffuser 21 in a clockwise direction, gradually blocking the air distribution box 12 and 22 (Fig.10), and exhaust OK�and 15 and 23 (Fig.11). When this fails, the diffuser 21 to neutral position, a collision occurs Cams Cams 17 and 7 respectively of the firing pin 16 and the rotor 6 (Fig.4). The latest from shock pulse starts to rotate clockwise together with the spindle 38 and the key 54 and screw, and then tighten the screw connection. The lever 24 together with the diffuser 21 after the collision Cams 17 of the firing pin 16 and the Cams 7 of the rotor 6, overcoming the force of friction, continues to rotate by inertia clockwise, choosing free running in a circular groove 25 of the firing pin 16 (Fig.5 - occurs aerating opening the Windows 13 and 22 (Fig.8), and exhaust Windows 14 and 23 (Fig.9).

Compressed air from the chamber 44 for supplying compressed air through the air distribution box 32, 22, 13 flows into the working chamber 20 (Fig.7, 8), and from the working chambers 19 exhaust compressed air through the exhaust window 14, 23, 33, the cavity 45 of the exhaust (Fig.7, 9), an annular bore 51, the exhaust channel 52 and the exhaust openings 53 are released to the atmosphere.

Before fully tightening threaded connections, the working cycle of the pneumatic wrench is repeated.

When you turn off the compressed air supply valve 27 run the elastic forces of the spring 28 returns to its initial position (Fig.1) and the diffuser 21 after stopping the firing pin 16 is any angular position, NRA�emer, as shown in Fig.2, 3, does not affect subsequent activation of the actuator of the pneumatic wrench.

For reversing the drive of the pneumatic wrench, i.e. unscrewing the nut, the key 54 should be removed from the head 41 and install it on additional head 42.

The realization of the shock of the moment on Cams 7 of the rotor 6 when tightening or procrastination nuts, i.e. at the end of the forward stroke of the striker 16 rotating in a clockwise direction (Fig.4), and the lack of shock torque on the rotor 6 at the end of the return stroke of the firing pin 16 (Fig.13) is performed with respect to the ratio of values of the angle α more β lever 24 of the diffuser 21 (Fig.5), oriented, for example, about the axis of symmetry aerating his window 22 (Fig.5). At this ratio, the angles α and β in the pneumatic wrench is implemented asymmetric mode of operation, namely at the end of the forward stroke of the firing pin 16 (going clockwise) all of its accumulated kinetic energy goes to shock the rotation of the rotor 6 together with the spindle 38 and the key 54 and, consequently, the screwing and tightening the nut. At the end of the return stroke of the firing pin 16 (counterclockwise) compressed air is admitted to the working chamber 19 acting on the working surfaces of the blades 18, slowly stops, and then begins to accelerate in a clockwise direction, accumulating the following then�Oia kinetic energy used for screwing the nut. The compressed air in the working chambers 19 also acts on the blade 10, which leads to the stop of the rotor 6 and the wedging of the rollers 36 (Fig.6) between the sprocket clutch 35 freewheel and the housing 1 and the transfer smooth (bumpless) reluctance torque.

The magnitude of the angles α and β can speed to adjust the amount of screwing torque on the spindle 38, and continuously variable adjustment of the screwing torque is a smooth change in the volume or pressure of compressed air supplied in the pneumatic wrench.

1. Pneumatic wrench, comprising a housing with end cap located at the rotor tip, two coaxial sleeves, the United blades, and air distribution and exhaust Windows, drummer with Cams covering of the rotor hub and mounted with the possibility of reciprocating and rotational motion and interaction of Cams with the Cams of the rotor, wherein the firing pin is provided with blades forming with the rotor blades working chambers, a diffuser with air distribution and exhaust Windows, coaxially specified Windows of the rotor, respectively, mounted in the axial hole of the rotor with the possibility of periodic messages working chambers with air distribution line and the atmosphere and interaction of the lever with the drummer, th�ovcu turnkey and freewheel to provide the kinematic connection of the rotor with the housing, characterized in that the diffuser coaxially mounted spool start with the possibility of joint rotation with him, preloaded by a spring in the axial direction, in which the air distribution and exhaust Windows are located along the axis of the air distribution and exhaust Windows of the diffuser, respectively, and further aerating and exhaust Windows, and in the diffuser and the rotor are additional aerating and exhaust Windows, made with the possibility of combining with additional air distribution and exhaust Windows spool spins respectively.

2. Pneumatic wrench according to claim 1, characterized in that inside the spindle start spindle coaxially located, one end of which is rigidly connected with the rotor and the other set by means of the trunnions in the bearings mounted on the front cover of the wrench, and the head formed on the end of the spindle associated with the rotor and at the other end thereof is made extra head.



 

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: air-hydraulic pulsed wrench contains casing with handle, located in it air actuator output shaft of which is connected to hydraulic pulsing booster implemented in the form of bushing with eccentricity, inside which it is located rotor with blade, rigidly connected to spindle of wrench. Internal surface of bushing allows compacting grips, forming with rotor and blade of high-pressure chamber and low-pressure chamber with openings for overflow of working liquid from high-pressure chamber into low-pressure chamber, constant magnet. Mentioned magnet is installed in bushing and creates effort pressing blade to internal surface of bushing at rotation of bushing relative to spindle.

EFFECT: reliability growth of wrenches.

2 dwg

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