Method for assessing spatial orientation and cognitive disorders in experimental animals
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to animal's behavioural physiology. The orientational-exploratory and locomotor behaviour in rats is rated with an underlying developing acquisition of a food-producing skill by differentiating an animal's motion path in a batwing-shaped labyrinth. The rating procedure is based on the following forms of motor actions: movement to the labyrinth loci without a food reward; purposive movement to the locus with the food reward; exploratory travelling through all the labyrinth landings; movements to the locus contra lateral with the food reward; multiple movements between the two labyrinth loci; freezing behaviour in the start position.
EFFECT: method enables increasing the investigation reliability that is ensured by a multiple assessment of the central nervous system functions.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the field of biology and can be applied to assess spatial orientation, memory and motor-search activity in laboratory animals on the background of develop feeding skills. The method allows the use of various forms of motor-search actions for the evaluation of motor activity and its role in spatial memory formation in rats in norm and at a pathology.
The study of locomotor exploratory activity and spatial memory in rats in the process of developing a food-procuring skill carried out under conditions of free choice in the test system W-shaped maze".
The invention allows to differentiate the moving behavior of the various forms of movement (motor acts), to create cognitive maps through a graphical visualization of the trajectory in the unit "W-shaped labyrinth", to estimate motor-search activity and the dynamics of spatial memory formation in laboratory animals and can be used in experimental pharmacology and psychology.
The level of technology
A large part of behavioral research with animals is conducted for the purpose of studying functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, because it is the main part of the brain responsible for the formation of short-term memory. If the hippocampus is removed�n surgery or damaged, for example, when the genetic modification, then such animals in terms of simple behavioral test systems can generally deal with cognitive tasks that do not include an assessment of the spatial component and do not differ in their behavioral characteristics from control.
In this regard, the development of new methodological approaches for the study of cognitive processes in normal, in disease and during treatment can be considered as an important direction of modern biomedical research.
The known method of spatial learning in the Morris water test [Morris, R. G. M. Spatial Localization Does Not Require the Presence of Local Cues. Learning and Motivation - 1981. - V. 12. - No. 2. - P. 239-260.; Dorokhov V. B., Kozhedub R. G., Arseniev, G. N., Koshechkin S. N., Ukraintsev, Y. V., Kulikov M. A., Manolov A. I., Coulson V. M. the Effect of sleep deprivation on consolidation of spatial memory in rats after one-day of training in the Morris water test. Journal of higher nervous activity. - 2011 - Vol. 61. - No. 3. - pp. 322-331]. The experiment is carried out in a few days to study the cognitive abilities, the formation of short and long term spatial memory, characterizing the state of the hippocampus of laboratory rodents. The study was conducted with the use of the unit "the Morris Water maze" (Morris Water Maze). The Morris water maze is a circular tank (b�scan) with water. Rats typically use a tank with a diameter of 1.8-2 m, depth 0.6 m, filled with water to 0.3 m For mice - the diameter of the tank is 1.5-1.8 m, depth 0.6 m Laboratory rodents, in particular rats are trained to avoid forced swim by finding a hidden underwater platform, which is located in one of four quadrants. The water temperature in rats is 26°C±2°.
Training is carried out within a few days of testing playback memory 1 day after the last treatment. The production of spatial skill lasts 5 days, during which animals do 5 navigations of 2 minutes. If the system fails to find the platform to help the rat comes experimenter pushing it to the platform. On the platform, the rat is left in for 10-15 seconds, then the experimenter it pulls from the tank to dry. Register the following indicators: 1) the voyage of the rats to find the platform, 2)
the length of a path from the start to the platform, 3) the ratio of residence time of rats in the target quadrant by the time spent in the other three quadrants.
The aggregation is often used univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), the criterion Dannetta, t student test, the criterion of "Newman-Keuls' criterion of ranks Mann-Whitney test.
Main n�prosperity described method is what animal testing is conducted in a coercive environment and increased stress due to being in unusual for rodents the aquatic environment that can affect learning efficiency. On the basis of the recorded test in Morris indicators, it is impossible to undertake a comprehensive assessment of motor behaviour and its role in the formation of spatial memory.
The known method of the study of cognitive functioning of the offspring of rats on a model of the formation of food-procuring skill [Robert M. J., J. Deacon, Nicholas P. R., T-maze alternation in the rodent, Nature protocols - 2006 - V. 1. - No. 1; O. B. Schroeder, A. Solomin C., Zorin I. B., Trofimov S. S., Durnev A. D., Seredenin S. B. Effect of afobazole on the cognitive behavior of the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. - 2011. - T. 151. - No. 1 - pp. 48 - 54]. The study was conducted using the test system "T-maze" (T-maze test). T-maze - it is a horizontal T-shaped installation. Develop food-procuring skill is 5 days under conditions of free choice, animals do daily 5 pobiak duration of 5 minutes (300 sec). The duration of food deprivation before the experiment is 24 h. Cognitive task consists in achieving targeted food reinforcement (learning outcome), finding�of egasa in the trough of one of the arms of the maze, within a fixed time of the experiment (the speed of achieving the goal) with the minimum number of erroneous actions (spontaneous approaches to the empty feeders). Animals are placed on a launch pad installation at which they are free to move in the direction of one of the two sleeve adjacent the other end of the corridor T-maze. On the second pace rodents, as a rule, choose sleeve
who have not visited before, which indicates the ability to remember the location of the sleeves of the labyrinth at his first visit. The motivation of animals to reinforce the method of food deprivation and rewarding food, located in the target arm of the maze. Register indicators: 1) the time to reach the food reward, 2) the number of spontaneous approaches to the empty feeders (Error), 3) the number of takes food reinforcement. In General, the method based on the detection of spontaneous or food motivated reinforcement interleave (alternativ) choice of arms of the maze. The aggregation method used, based on the iconic ranks Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test with respect to multiple comparisons.
The main drawback of the described method is that the structure of the T-maze is limited to only two directions of movement, and in the process of testing does not always understand the motivation et�support animal behavior when choosing one or the other sleeves in the maze. Evaluation of the erroneous actions of the animal, that is, its movements erratic arm of the maze is based on the subjective vision of the experimenter. Another significant disadvantage of the described method lies in the fact that in the conditions of the T-maze is impossible to explore the spatial-orientation capabilities of animal that underlie the motor-search activity while performing cognitive tasks.
The aim of the invention is to eliminate these drawbacks. The task is achieved due to the fact that the evaluation orientation / exploratory behavior of the animal during performance of cognitive tasks analyze how individual motor acts, and the totality of the past. This approach allows us to detect the approximate reduction reactions associated with impaired spatial memory formation in rodents in the process of developing a food-procuring skill.
Unlike the above-described methods and test systems installation W-shaped maze (R-maze) has a more complex structure with a geometrical point of view, which complicates the solution of cognitive tasks animals and allows us to consider spatial orientation as one of the important components
locomotor-exploratory behavior of rodents for developing their feeding�about skill. Functionality short-term memory in the process of developing a food-procuring skill in terms of W-maze evaluated according to the sustainability memorable track and its playback rats at the initial stage of training (1-2 day). The transition engrams in long-term memory is considered held in purposeful play rats cognitive tasks from the 2nd to 5th day of training. The complex structure of the W-maze allows simultaneously with the process of developing a food-procuring skill to explore various forms of motor-and-search actions, characterizing the features of spatial orientation in experimental animals and create cognitive maps describing the spatial skill of rats.
Disclosure of the invention
The invention relates to the field of biology and is intended for the study of various types of locomotor-exploratory behavior, creating cognitive maps, based on the graphical analysis of the trajectory, the combined assessment of motor and search activity and the dynamics of spatial memory formation in the animals in the process of developing a food-procuring skill and can be applied in experimental psychology and experimental pharmacology.
Used installation W-shaped maze (R-maze) consists of starting the WA�s with two loci (F, (E) joined by a corridor, and two T-shaped branching left and right sides of the loci marked with the letters a, B, C, D (Fig. 1).
The production of food-procuring skill is carried out for 5 days, animals do 5 pobiak duration of 5 minutes (300 sec). The duration of food deprivation before the experiment is 24 hours. Testing is conducted under conditions of free choice behaviors of animals in the test system W-maze to solve cognitive tasks. Cognitive task consists in achieving targeted in
the trough of one of the arms of the maze of food reinforcement (learning outcomes), within a fixed time of the experiment (the speed of achieving the goal), with a minimum number of erroneous actions (spontaneous approaches to the empty feeders).
The functionality of short-term memory test animals appreciate the evolution and reproduction of locomotor and feeding behavior, characterizing the stability of memorable track on the initial stage of training (1-2 day). The transition engrams in long-term memory is considered held in purposeful play rats cognitive tasks from the 2nd to 5th days of training.
Various forms of motor-search actions (acts), together composing�x motor activity (activity) in terms of W-shaped maze determined by the nature of the movements of animals.
Register the following forms of motor actions (acts):
1) movement to the loci of the maze without food reward,
2) targeted traffic to the locus with food reinforcement
3) research the rounds of all areas of the maze,
4) motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement
5) repetitive movement between the two loci of the maze,
6) fading on the launch pad.
Cognitive maps created using the graphical visualization of the trajectory of rats on the platform of the maze. When assessing cognitive maps describing the spatial skill of rats, take into account all visits loci of the maze for 5 pobiak in the 1st test day.
Typing of cognitive maps is carried out by the level of physical activity. The formation of a broad cognitive maps recorded in rats that are within 5 pobiak in day 1 of training have time to visit more than 4 different loci of the maze. Average define cognitive maps in animals within a specified period not attend more than 3 loci. Narrow
cognitive maps recorded in rats that do not come out of the starting zones (fading on the launch pad) or visit not more than 1 locus of the maze.
Forming�of spatial memory assessed by the targeted playback path of movement, padded rats at day 1 of testing, and targeted modifications associated with the solution of cognitive tasks from the 2nd to 5th day of the experiment.
Registration and processing of instrumental conditioned reflex of learning indicators and visiting the loci of the labyrinth is carried out using software RealTimer (procedural timer). Scientific-production Company "Open Science" (SIC "Open Science" (Russia)).
Statistical processing of data is carried out by methods of nonparametric statistics, using the method of multiple comparisons based on the iconic ranks, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney test.
The proposed method allows to solve simultaneously several experimental tasks in one test system, in particular, to assess approximately research, mobility and feeding behavior of animals.
The essence of the invention consists in the registration and evaluation of various forms of movement, which are the components of a trajectory of movement of rats, the compilation on the basis of cognitive maps and identify the relationship between orientational capabilities in rats and the ability of the latter to learn.
Application of the proposed method in studies of behavioral reactions orientation allows you to explore the possibilities of animals and the role of active motor�STI in the formation of spatial and feeding skill. In the field of teratology studies, this method makes it possible to study functional disorders of the Central nervous system in the offspring of rats, in particular, to identify mental disorders caused by impaired fetal brain development.
Brief description of figures
Figure 1. Photograph and diagram of the unit "W-shaped maze".
Figure 2. Dynamics of motor behavior of rats in the W-maze: A - females, B - males. Groups: I - Control; II - Model himicheskoi hypoxia.
1 - Motion to the loci of the maze without food reinforcement; 2 - Targeted traffic to the locus with food reinforcement; 3 Research crawls all sites of the labyrinth; 4 - Motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement; 5 - repetitive motion between two loci of the labyrinth; 6 - Sinking on the launch pad.
Figure 3. Registered form of motor actions of the rats in "W-shaped maze": 3A - Motion to the loci of the maze without food reinforcement; 3b - Targeted traffic to the locus with food reinforcement; 3b - Research crawls all sites of the labyrinth; 3A-Motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement; 3D - repetitive motion between two loci of the labyrinth; 3E - Fading starts on�nd site.
Figure 4. Visualization cognitive maps in rats sweep their movement in the maze: 4A. Dynamics of formation of broad cognitive maps; 4B. Dynamics of average cognitive maps; 4B. Dynamics of formation of narrow cognitive maps.
At the top of the chart in the form of letter designations specify the order of loci of the maze.
▲F is the Starting point of the movement of the rat through the maze; ■ - Locus with food reinforcement; F, E, A, B, C, D is the designation of the loci W-shaped maze.
5. The implementation of the invention
The method is carried out as follows. Test animals should be conducted in an isolated noise from the room in natural light.
Use complex geometric point of view the installation of the W-maze, consisting of the starting zones with two loci (F, E), joined by a corridor,
and two T-shaped branching left and right sides of the loci marked with the letters a, B, C, D (Fig. 1).
The duration of food deprivation before the experiment is 24 hours. Testing is carried out at 5 days, animals do daily 5 pobiak duration of 5 minutes (300 seconds).
Registration and processing of instrumental conditioned reflex of learning indicators and visiting the loci of the labyrinth is carried out using software RealTimer (procedural timer) Scientific-Production�umstvennoi Company "Open Science" (Russia).
The procedure includes the following steps:
1. 1 Day. The preparation of animals for the testing process: getting used to the touch of the experimenter and familiarization with the environment of the maze.
1.1. The experimenter puts his hands in the cage and teaches the animals to touch without removing them for 5 minutes, slow and smooth stroking movements, wraps her arms around animals, raises and puts back into the cage. This procedure is repeated several times.
1.2. To familiarize with the environment W-maze animals alternately placed in the start chamber (F) installations for 5 minutes. Previously in one of the four loci (A, B, C, D) of the maze put food reinforcement (bread roll). For example, for the 1st animal food reinforcement is placed in a locus, for the 2nd - locus, for 3rd - locus With, for 4th - locus D, for 5th - locus And etc. during the entire testing time of food reinforcement placed in the same locus, in which it was when first familiarizing the animal with the maze.
2. 2-6 Day. The test procedure, the registration parameters.
2.1. The animal testing carried out for 5 days. Exploring the dynamics of the formation of spatial and food skills. Assess learning ability and orientation ability of rats focused on the feeding behavior within a fixed in�Emini the experiment, and motor acts committed by animals in the process of solving cognitive tasks.
2.2. The animal is placed in the start chamber (F) of the labyrinth and at the same time include procedural timer (RealTimer) pressing the Enter key located on your computer keyboard. Then by pressing the appropriate keys register indicators: 1) visited the loci (A, B, C, D) of the maze, (2) the order of loci, 3) a freeze on the launch pad, 4) the time to reach the food reward, 5) taking food reinforcement. The maximum duration 1 pace animal is 5 minutes. When finding and capture of food reinforcement in animals less than 5 minutes treatment timer is stopped by pressing Esc. The procedure was repeated 5 times a day.
3. Analysis of the data.
3.1. Assessment of the dynamics of change in locomotor-exploratory behavior of animals during the formation of their feeding skills carried out in two stages:
- take into account the absolute value of the analyzed indices recorded in each of 5 pobiak carried out in each of the five days of testing (from the 1st to the 5th pace),
- take into account averaged over 5 mobicam the value of the analyzed indices recorded in each of 5 days (from the 1st to the 5th day of testing).
1) the time to reach the food reward (sec), 2) the number of captures food by�mounts, 3) cancellations (fading in starting the camera). Exploring the dynamics of lowering speed reach the food reward from the 1st to the 5th day of testing. Functionality short-term memory during the testing process evaluate for the targeted reproduction of feeding behavior in rats for 5 pobiak at the initial stage of testing (1-2 day). The transition engrams in long-term memory is considered held in purposeful play rats cognitive tasks from the 2nd to 5th day of training.
3.2. The formation of spatial skill evaluated on the trajectory of the animal and the different forms of motion-search actions. Functionality short-term spatial memory is assessed by targeted modification of the trajectory of the movement for 5 pobiak at the initial stage of training (1-2 day). The functionality of long-term spatial memory and consolidation of spatial skill in the tested animals appreciate their commitment to change the trajectory of motion associated with the performance of the cognitive tasks from the 2nd to 5th day of training.
3.3. A graphical visualization of the path of movement of animals is carried out on the basis of indicators that are automatically registered in the testing process and shall be issued in the form of a report of programs� RealTimer (procedural timer) SPC "Open Science" (Russia). Cognitive maps created using the graphical visualization of the trajectory of rats on the platform of the maze. When assessing cognitive maps describing the spatial skill of rats, take into account the number of visits to the loci of the maze for 5 pobiak in the 1st test day. Typing of cognitive maps is carried out by the level of locomotor activity (Fig. 4). The formation of a broad cognitive maps recorded in rats, 5 pobiak in day 1 of training have time to visit more than 4 different loci of the maze. The average cognitive map set with animals for a specified period not attend more than 3 loci. Narrow define cognitive maps in rats that do not come out of the starting zones (fading on the launch pad) or visit not more than 1 locus of the maze.
3.4. Various forms of motor-and-search actions, the combination of components of motor activity in the installation of the W-shaped maze, determined by the nature of the movements of animals (Fig 3):
1) Movement to the loci of the maze without food reinforcement;
2) Targeted traffic to the locus with food reinforcement;
3) Research the rounds of all areas of the labyrinth;
4) Motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement;
5) repetitive motion �between the two loci of the maze;
6) Fading on the launch pad.
Statistical processing of data is carried out by methods of nonparametric statistics. Using the method of multiple comparisons based on the iconic ranks, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney test. When evaluating relationships indicators search and motor activity and cognitive abilities of rats using the coefficient of the Spearman rank correlation.
Examples of application of the invention
The method is confirmed by the following examples.
Example 1. A study of the search activity and to develop food-procuring skill in control and experimental rats exposed to hypoxia in utero.
Control males and females in the 1st day of testing was carried out by local familiarity with the environment of the maze without showing stress reactions and took food reinforcement in the feeders when first detected. Significant decrease in the time to reach the food reward was observed in animals of both sexes from the 2nd day of testing. By the end of the training time to reach the food reward in males totaled 20.4 sec, and females of 19.2 h. The targeted performance of the cognitive tasks was observed from the 1st day of testing. The maximum number of occurrences of food was observed in females at 1, and males from the 2nd day of training.
In animals, �overgroth effects of hypoxia in utero (model group), in the 1st test day observed pronounced passive-stress response to the novelty of the situation, which was accompanied by motor inhibition in the form of standing still on the launch pad of the maze. With 2-day dynamics of the formation of food-procuring skill in males and females of this group differed in character and
the time to reach the food reward. In females throughout the study period was observed motor block, alternating spontaneous mobikama by the loci of the maze. Males to the increase in food motivation from the 2nd to 5th day of the test motor block were followed by active manifestations in the form of targeted pobiak. Significant decrease in the time to reach the food reward males were recorded from the 2nd, and in females only at the 3rd and 5th days of testing. Minimum time to reach the food was set on the 5th day of training and was 27.5 h in males and 46.2 h in females. The task on the maximum number of location of the food reward was registered only in males on day 5 of training.
Thus, the animal model group was characterized by increased retardation and prolongation of the latent period of study. More pronounced stress response to the novelty of the situation and the slow development of Posidonia�individual skill observed in females of this group.
The biggest difference in the time to reach food, characterizing the formation of short-term memory, control males and females observed between 1-mi 2nd day of training. From the 2nd to 5th days decreased the time to reach the reinforcement and targeted playback rats cognitive tasks, indicating the transition of memorable trace in long-term memory from the 2nd day of testing.
Females model group, showing the passive stress response during the entire testing time, the time difference and the performance of the cognitive tasks registered only on the 3rd and the 5th day of training, which indicates the spontaneous nature of eating behavior and violation of the regulatory mechanisms of memory associated with unstable emotional status. In males, the greatest difference in time achieve food was observed between the 1st and 2nd day of training (was 147.6 sec). From the 2nd to 5th day, there was an increase in the speed of performance of cognitive tasks and increase the number of successful attempts. Significantly increased compared with control time attain reinforcements to the 1st and 2nd days, and not a complete solution to the problem
of finding food from the 1st to the 4th day of training indicate the lengthening of the latent period of study in males of this group, which may be related to the disruption of the formation of short-term�Oh memory.
Along with differences on the parameters describing the production of food-procuring skill, in particular, it concerns the speed of achieving goals and successful finding food in the offspring of rats studied groups were established differences in orientational capabilities and speed of formation of spatial skill. It made a reasonable assessment of motor-search activity and its role in the formation of spatial skills that underlie feeding behavior of rats (Fig 2).
In control females and males for the whole period of testing had identified four forms of movement that characterize their motor-search activity. In the 1st test day was observed spontaneous approaches to targeted loci targeted traffic to the locus with food reinforcement and successive treatment of all areas of the maze in animals of both sexes. From the 2nd day of testing found a significant reduction in the number of spontaneous approaches to nontarget loci of the labyrinth and the increase in the number of targeted movements to food reinforcement, which indicates that the consolidation of spatial memory in 1 day and the ability to reproduce orientated research reactions in the subsequent days of training. It was reported the appearance of a form of motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food�you backup, ... characterizing the process of remembering the location of food reward in males from the 1st to 5th day, and in females from the 2nd to the 4th day of training.
In animals subjected to prenatal exposure himicheskoi hypoxia, observed sex differences in the nature of physical activity. In males, the number of spontaneous approaches to nontarget loci registered in the maze 5 times more compared to the similar index in females. The amount of fading on the launch pad characterizing increased anxiety, was similar in animals of both sexes. Females throughout the period of testing was observed chaotic motor
arousal, characterized by the alternation of goal-directed movements to food reinforcement with targeted approaches to targeted sites of the maze, indicating that the decrease in orientational capabilities and violation of the mechanisms of spatial memory formation. Detected in females of this group repeated movement between two loci of the maze to the 1st day of testing can be viewed as a sign of nervousness and be an additional measure reduction efficiency of search activity on the background of emotional instability.
Thus, the males of the model group in the 1st day of training there was a decrease read more�operating research reactions and slowing the formation of spatial skill on the background of increased anxiety. Females observed partial reproduction of purposeful movements to food reinforcement, a pronounced decrease of the orientational capabilities and impaired spatial memory formation in the background of chaotic motor excitation.
The above forms of movement can be seen as indicators of the formation of spatial skill (figure 2).
Analysis of the trajectory of rats showed that the control animals spatial memory in conditions unfamiliar environment is formed in the 1st test day 5 pobiak. Consolidation of spatial skill in rats occurs in the Wake of increased food motivation and purposeful modification of a trajectory of movement from the 2nd to 5th day associated with the solution of cognitive tasks. This suggested that cognitive maps the control animals are formed within the first 5 pobiak through the maze and are virtual trajectory of the movement, therefore, related to the level of their motor-search activity. The emergence of a form of motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement in rats may indicate the consolidation of spatial skill and can be considered as one of the mechanisms of spatial memory formation in the process of performing cognitive tasks n�walking food reinforcement.
The result is a graphical visualization of the trajectory, it was found that the model of males and females on the background of high levels of fear and reduction of motor activity was impaired formation of spatial representations of the environment of the maze, which may be seen as defective formation of cognitive maps (Fig. 4B).
Thus, females have a model group, a reduction in search activity, the lack of form of motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement, and the inability of the playback of purposeful movement in solving cognitive tasks, indicating impaired spatial memory formation.
Was carried out the mathematical processing of data sets describing motor-exploratory behavior, and results that characterize the formation of a food-procuring skill in the control and model rats.
Established a clear relationship between indicators of locomotor exploratory activity of the animals and the successful performance of the cognitive tasks (table. 1).
Thus, in rats, when exposed himicheskoi hypoxia, due to lowering of orientation-prostranstwennyh opportunities is a breach of develop feeding skills, indicating a reduced ability of obuchenie and can regarded as a deterioration of cognitive functions of the brain.
1. Method of estimating spatial orientation and cognitive impairment in experimental animals, including a standard outline for the study of eating behavior in rats, in which the indicators of their learning are the number of takes food reinforcement, the time to reach food and the number of erroneous actions, characterized in that the evaluation orientation / exploratory and locomotor behavior of rats is carried out on the background of develop feeding skills through differentiation path of movement of animals in the W-shaped maze in the following forms of motor actions: movement to the loci of the maze without food reinforcement; the purposeful movement of the locus with food reinforcement; research crawls all sites of the labyrinth; the motion to the locus, mirror opposite the locus with food reinforcement; repetitive movement between the two loci of the maze; a freeze on the launch pad.
2. Application of the method according to claim 1 in biological research.
SUBSTANCE: method includes sampling bone blocks with a porous wire material to be analysed, fixation of the bone tissue with the porous wire material, decalcination, degreasing, dehydration, pouring the said tissue, preparation of cuts, staining and histomorphometry. Before or after the fixation of the bone tissue with the analysed porous wire material and before or after decalcination search and fixation of an edge wire element of the porous wire material in the bone block is carried out. Untwisting of the porous wire material from the bone block is performed by the method of pulling out the edge wire element. An analysis of macropreparations is carried out when pore spaces of the porous wire material are emptied. After that, the tissues are sampled from the emptying pore spaces, including the sampling and analysis of intra-pore fragments.
EFFECT: possibility of the qualitative and quantitative estimation of histomorphometric parameters of intra-pore tissues in the entire volume of an implant.
3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: general anaesthesia is performed. A skin incision 1.5-2 cm long is made with incising the skin, subcutaneous fat and fascia. The muscles attached to an infraspinous fossa of shoulder bone are skeletonised towards a spine; a caudal surface of a scapular spine is skeletonised; a blind bone bed is formed within the scapular spine at an angle of 45° to the surface of infraspinous fossa of shoulder bone. An implant of the analysed material is implanted into the bone bed to achieve primary stability. The wound is closed.
EFFECT: method provides minimum injuries accompanying the wound formation, reduces a risk of the incision wound damage by an animal, makes it possible to perform the surgery on opposite shoulder blade simultaneously, ensures the adequate volume and quality of the bone tissue in the surgical site, prevents the disordered muscular integrity throughout and loss of no more than 1 point of the muscular attachment.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of the express-modelling wear of a polyethylene insert of a metal cup or a polyethylene cup under dynamic conditions at different angles of horizontal inclination in an experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis consists in carrying out long-term and multiple cyclic movements in the hip joint endoprosthesis module under experiment conditions. The experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis, which has a leg, a polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup and a head, consisting of ceramics, metal, metal alloys and other materials with a rough surface, is used in the method. The experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis is fixed in the device in such a way that the head is located in the polyethylene cup or in the polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the endoprosthesis module, after which the device with the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 10-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup. After that dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out. Then, the worn polyethylene cup or the polyethylene insert and the head with the rough surface are replaced with new ones. The device with the new polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 20-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup, after which dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out, after which the worn polyethylene cup or the polyethylene insert and the head with the rough surface are replaced with new ones. Then the device with the new polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 30-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup, after which dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out, after which the wear of the polyethylene insert of the cup or the polyethylene cup of the experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis is analysed.
EFFECT: efficiency under dynamic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to systems for training the medical stuff and population to get skills of the first aid to an individual suffering from the upper airway obstruction with a foreign matter. An interactive training system comprises a full-size model of the human body including a head unit with the oral cavity and an open mouth provided with a foreign matter simulator, the neck unit with anelastic deformation front surface connected to the head unit through the neck unit, and a device for the foreign matter extraction from the upper airway. The model is made of an inflexible plastic material and provided with an electronic assembly, an upper airway obstruction simulator, a sensor of forward and backward flexion of the head, a sensor of a paramedic's hands position on the chest surface when giving a closed-chest cardiac massage, a sensor of the paramedic's hands position on the abdominal surface, a sensor of back strokes, a sensor of forward inclination of the body connected to the electronic assembly which is also connected to a control unit, dynamic speakers and an internal battery.
EFFECT: training system enables simulating pathological conditions occurred in the choking individual, extending the range of trained rescuing measures, improving the ease of use and enabling the self-assisted training of the rescue skills.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: general anaesthesia is performed. A skin incision 1.5-2 cm long in a projection of the shoulder bone is performed; the skin, subcutaneous fat and fascias are excised; muscles are skeletonised within the scapular spine. An examined material is implanted into the bone bed, and the wound is closed. The muscles of the scapular spine are skeletonised in the ventral direction towards the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The neck of the scapula is skeletonised; a bone bed is formed within the neck of the scapula at 30°-45° to the surface of the neck of the scapula at a depth stop short of the wall of the glenoid cavity. The examined material is implanted into the bone bed of the neck of the scapula until primarily stabilised.
EFFECT: method provides the minimum injuries accompanying the wound formation, reduces the risk of a postoperative wound damage by animals, makes it possible to perform surgical interventions on both scapulas simultaneously, provides an adequate volume and quality of the bone tissue in the incision area for the purpose of studying osteointegration processes, and ensures the adequate fixation of the implant.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves general anaesthesia, tissue dissection, lower jaw skeletisation, defect creation, and wound closure. The skin is incised in a projection of a lower edge of the lower jaw within the vascular segment at 5 mm from the edge of the lower jaw. The incision extends by blunt dissection towards the lower edge of the lower jaw with the facial vein and artery towards the mandibular angle; the lower edge of the lower jaw is skeletonised within the vascular segment. A blind vascular bed is formed within the vascular segment or at 1-5 mm anteriad from the vascular segment at an angle of 40-75° to the lower edge of the lower jaw in parallel with the mandibular canal; an implant made of the investigated material is placed into the bone bed until primarily stabilised.
EFFECT: method provides the minimum injuries accompanying creating the wound, reduces the risk of the incision wound damage by animals, enables performing the operation on both sides of the skeleton simultaneously, provides an adequate amount and quality of the bone tissue in the surgical area, reduces a risk of involving vital anatomical regions, and preserves the functional and anatomical integrity of the mastication muscles.
2 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: stellaria grass infusion is introduced to laboratory animals in a dose of 5 ml/kg of weight 20 minutes before irradiation in an ultraviolet chamber for 14 days daily.
EFFECT: stable pharmacological effect under conditions of reduction of the phytocorrection course duration.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to experimental medicine and concerns simulating a bite wound. That is ensured by forming an experimental animal's skin wound by an instrument similar to a bite with small mammal's upper and lower jaws. Fresh saliva with oral microflora taken from some mammalian donors is introduced into each wound. The saliva is taken in an equal volume in each donor, and the saliva mixture is introduced into the bite wound in an equal dose to the animals of all experimental groups.
EFFECT: method provides higher reliability of the comparative analysis of the experimental study results by the more accurate creation of the simulated bite wound of the same length, depth and microfloral contamination in the various experimental groups in the animals.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: mobile computer simulator for public civil defence training includes a vehicle, a mobile power generating unit with an electric wire unit, a built-in room with training places for public training, simulators, simulator robots and means for accommodating trainees. The vehicle has three compact training places. The first is a lecture hall for theoretical classes and testing based on a self-contained pneumatic-frame Emergencies Ministry tent. The second training place is a simulator for processing practical skills of the public during emergency situations, with a simulator robot for processing first aid exercises during emergency situations. The third training place is a simulator with a set of different equipment of protecting respiratory organs. Practical skills on offering first aid and transporting victims are processed using equipment and video materials for practical training.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the public training system and high moral and psychological state of the public in times of danger.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for designing a bioengineered rat's lung frame involves lung perfusion by detergent-enzymatic method with controlling the frame quality by histological method. The lung perfusion is accompanied by continuous atmospheric air pulmonary ventilation according to physiological parameters, through a trachea for 24 hours by means of successive exposure to decellularising solutions. That is ensured by using phosphate buffer, 1% aqueous sodium deoxycholate, swine pancreatic DNAase I, purified water at an equal exposure length. To ensure the quality of the following re-cellularisation, a colorimetric method is used to prove the designed lung frame biocompatible, viable and having its architechtonics unchanged by determining its biomechanical tensile and compression strength, by fixing pulmonary compliance.
EFFECT: maintaining the lung matrix structure and its quality, eliminating the risk of contamination.
SUBSTANCE: psychoemotional state in children and adolescents is assessed by a projective test of fairy-tale characters by presenting pictures of the fairy-tale characters to the persons being tested. The presented pictures contain a number of images of the fairy-tale characters grouped according to their archetypes. The person being tested is suggested to choose the first mini set of the characters having the most subjectively positive characteristics, as well as to choose the second mini set of the characters with the most subjectively negative characteristics from the rest. The number of the characters of the both mini sets is less than the total number of the characters. The characters chosen from both sets first are assigned with the highest point; the characters chosen next are assigned with descending points according to the degree of priority. A procedure of mathematical processing represents summing the points assigned to the characters of the same archetype, and the derived total point of the characters of the same archetype is used to conclude the personality.
EFFECT: method enables increasing the effectiveness and objectivity of the integral assessment of the personal psychological profile in the adolescents and children by using the projective method.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 10 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: individuals with different known psychic types are filtered. Examined individual's and filtered individual's external parameters are selected and measured. The examined individual's selected and measured external parameters are compared to the same filtered individual's external parameters, and the examined individual's psychics is referred to the filtered individual's psychic type having the maximum similarity of the external parameters. The filtration procedure can also cover the individuals with various known psychics typed on the basis of the characteristics of ethics-logic, intuition-sensory, extroversion-introversion, rationality-irrationality or a type of temperament.
EFFECT: method enables providing the higher reliability of the obtained results when typing the individual's psychics by determining the significant similarity of the individual's external parameters to the close individual's psychic structure.
4 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes, on a horizontal area using an optical method, forming strips of light with an arbitrary shape and width, which randomly move on the area while passing through its centre; placing the test subject at the centre of the area, evaluating movement of the strips of light and jumping over said strips such that take-off points and landing points are as close as possible to corresponding boundaries of the jumped over strips of light; recording movements of the strips of light and the test subject; determining distance from the take-off points and landing points of the test subject to corresponding boundaries of the jumped over strips of light; calculating arithmetic mean values and mean-square deviation of the distance from the take-off points and landing points of the test subject to corresponding boundaries of the jumped over strips of light; based on the calculated arithmetic mean values and mean-square deviation, determining motor capabilities of the test subject and accuracy thereof.
EFFECT: method enables to evaluate human motor capabilities using instrumental examination.
SUBSTANCE: method involves detecting a pain tolerance threshold, individual's psychoemotional response to the first episode of alcohol consumption or the inexperience of consumption, as well as parent family's attitude to alcohol consumption. The derived values of a combination of the complex detection of the psychophysiological and psychosocial status enables determining a degree of individual's predisposition to alcohol consumption, such as: an evident risk of alcoholisation, a moderate risk or no risk.
EFFECT: method enables increasing the accuracy of the degree of the risk of individual's predisposition to alcohol consumption by the complex detection of the psychophysiological and psychosocial status and the combination thereof.
4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: mark and a point object moving at a preset speed circularly are displayed on a monitor and presented to a person being tested. The person being tested watches the point object moving and presses Stop button to stop the circular motion of the point object at the moment of an anticipated match of the moving point object and the mark. That is followed by determining a matching error of the point object and mark that is a delay error time with a positive sign or an advance error time with a negative sign; the circular motion of the point object is continued over time. The person being tested performs the described procedure certain number of times; that is followed by determining maximum absolute Tp max of the matching error of the point object and mark. A variation series of the matching errors of the point object and mark is constructed. A series range, a higher quartile of maximum absolute Tp max of the matching error of the point object and mark, a percentage P of the absolute matching errors of the point object and mark found in the higher quartile of maximum absolute Tp max of the matching error of the point object and mark are derived. A rating R is calculated as a reciprocal of arithmetic mean maximum absolute Tp max of the matching error of the point object and mark, series range R and percentage P of the absolute matching errors of the point object and mark found in the higher quartile of maximum absolute Tp max of the matching error of the point object and mark multiplied by 100 by formula P=100×1/(Tp max+R+P)/3=300/(Tp max+R+P).
EFFECT: method enables providing higher reliability of rating a sportsman playing sports games by taking instrumental measurements.
11 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to medical equipment. A device for false recognition and lie exposure comprises a measuring chamber insulating from the environment and accommodating an emitter having two light emitting diodes one of which emits visible-spectrum waves, while the other one emits infrared waves and is configured to generate a penetrating emission on a body placed into the above insulating measuring chamber; what is also provided is a photosensitive device connected to a computer assembly recording and amplifying incoming signal with control signal outputs, with additional remote actuating elements, and wireless remote data transfer unit.
EFFECT: instant reliable false recognition and lie exposure in order to vary an optical tissue density in response to verbal effect on the person being tested.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assessing the clinical presentation of the disease according to Oswestry Questionnaire and Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire filled by the patient; magnetic resonant imaging is used to measure the lumbar spinal canal parameters at the level of spines L1-L5; 6 linear values are measured on the produced axial sections at the level of the middle of the intervertebral disk and facet joints in the examined segment or segments: an anteroposterior diameter of a dural sac, a lateral diameter of the dural sac, an intrafacet distance, a depth of left and right lateral canals, a measured level of the spinal canal; a stenosis coefficient is calculated for the analysed segment, and if the derived stenosis coefficient is 0.19 and less accompanied by the assessment scales data of more than 61% and more than 80% respectively, a degree of restriction is considered to be pronounced and accompanied by the pronounced pain syndrome and disability; if the stenosis coefficient falls within the range of 0.20 to 0.24 with the assessment scale data of 41-60% and 61-79% respectively, a degree of restriction is stated to be clinically significant with pronounced pain syndrome and significant disability, whereas the coefficient of 0.25-0.29 and the assessment scales data of 21-40% and 40-60% respectively show probable restriction of the spinal canal with moderate pain syndrome and moderate disability; the coefficient of 0.30 and more with no clinical presentations testifies to the absence of restriction of the spinal canal.
EFFECT: method possesses high accuracy, information value and objectivity and enables determining the degree of restriction of the spinal canal taking into consideration the severity of the clinical presentations, and developing the further individual therapeutic approach.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a motion frequency sensor, a pulse counter, a time rating unit, an indicator unit and a recording analyser. An output of the motion frequency sensor is connected to the first input of the first logical circuit, first outputs of which are connected to count-up inputs of the first, second and third pulse counters. The time rating unit comprises a pulse generator, a counter trigger and an actuate button, an output of which is connected to a counter input of the counter trigger; inputs of the recording analyser are connected to outputs of the first, second and third pulse counters, and outputs - to the indicator unit. A synchronic input and a start input of a pulse distributor are connected to outputs of the pulse generator and counter trigger respectively, and inputs - to secondary inputs of the first logical circuit, second outputs of which are connected to countdown inputs of the first, second and third pulse counters. The first input of the second logical circuit is connected to an output of the generator; second outputs - to outputs of the distributor; first outputs - to reset inputs of the counter trigger and the first, second and third pulse counters respectively, while the second outputs - to the recording inputs of the first, second and third pulse counters respectively; information inputs and outputs of the first counter are connected to the information outputs of the third counter and the information outputs of the second counter, while transfer and borrow outputs of the first counter - to the outputs of the analyser. A control output of the second logical circuit is connected to an input of a setline of the device.
EFFECT: using the invention enables increasing the accuracy and decreasing the labour input of the procedure of assessing the individual's central nervous system.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: similar by characteristics stimuli are shown to an operator in a random order and the time of the sensomotor reaction is registered by pressing the button. Shown are different by colour and duration of glowing visual stimuli in the form of colour spots, moved by discrete positions on a screen with a neutral background with stops, and simultaneously on the current discrete position only one spot, the colour of which differs from the colour of the spot on the previous and following positions, is presented, and the duration of the spot glowing is characterised by the first and the second, increased relative to the first one, duration. The time of reaction only at the presentation of the spot with the increased duration is registered by pressing the button, corresponding to the colour of the current spot, the number of mistakes is determined, the mean arithmetic time of reaction to signals for the entire test, by which the operator work efficiency is evaluated, is registered.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase the reliability of determining deviations in the condition of the operator work efficiency by the reduction of the level of attention indices due to instrumental examination.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: work environment criteria and classifications in accordance with P.2.2.2006-05 are used to rate the work environment, which provides a basis to determine parameters of nature of workload, including mental, sensory, emotional, monotonic, and working conditions. The level of each nature of workload, including mental, sensory, emotional, monotonic, and working conditions is determined by formula. That is followed by determining shift duration, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, performance motivation according to WAM scales. The obtained data are used to determine the individual's functional stress, a percentage of the value at the start of shift with mental and nervous-emotional loads by mathematical expression. The derived value of the individual's load in mental and nervous-emotional loads is used to determine the stage of the individual's functional stress: as optimum load, as accessible load, as degree I overload, as degree II overload or degree III overload.
EFFECT: method enables the quantitative staging of a successive transition from load to overload of various degrees of manifestations, as well as reducing a labour intensity of determining the functional stress in the individuals exposed to working process load factors in any working conditions by determining and calculating the work environment and nature of workloads, as well as individual's psychological qualities.
4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming signals as tests requiring solution. The tests are shown with frequency changed proportionally to the frequency they are solved. The number of tests is set to be the same in the cases of recovered and tired state. General amount of time spent for finding solution for given number of tests and the number of tests having right solutions are determined in each state. Mental fatigue degree is evaluated from relative change of mean time needed for finding the right test solution using a relationship like (Tm.r- Tm.t)100%/Tm.t, where Tm.t = Tsum.t/Kr.t, Tm.r = Tsum.r/Kr.r, Tm.t is the time spent for finding the right answer in tired state, Tm.r is the time spent for finding the right answer in recovery state, Tsum.t is the total time spent to solve given number of tests in tired state, Tsum.r is the total time spent to solve given number of tests in recovered state, Kr.t is the number of right answers to the tests in tired state, Kr.r is the number of right answers to the tests in recovered state.
EFFECT: reliable estimation of fatigue degree.