Jet turbine engine

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to air-engine building, namely to air turbojets. The air turbojet is designed as double-circuit, two-shaft one. The engine is tested according to multi-cycle program. When performing the test steps, alteration of the modes, which exceed as to duration the configured flight time, is performed. Typical flight cycles are formed, based on which damageability of the most loaded parts is determined as per the programme. The required number of loading cycles during the test is determined based on the named above. Full scope of tests is formed, including a quick change of cycles in the complete register from quick selection of maximum or full augmented power mode till complete stop of the engine, and then, representative cycle of continuous operation with multiple alteration of modes in the whole working spectrum with various span of range of the mode change, which exceeds the flight time at least 5 times. Quick selection of maximum or augmented power mode in some part of the test cycle is performed at the rate of acceleration and discharge.

EFFECT: improvement of reliability of tests results and expansion of a representativeness of resource assessment and reliability of operation of the jet turbine engine in the wide range of regional and seasonal conditions of the subsequent flight operation of engines.

7 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of aircraft engines, namely, to aircraft turbojet engines.

Known dual-circuit, two-shaft turbojet engine (turbojet), including turbo-complexes, one of which contains mounted on the same shaft as the compressor and the turbine low pressure and the other contains a similar joint on the other shaft, coaxial with the first compressor and high pressure turbine, an intermediate separator housing between said compressors, the outer and inner contours, main and afterburner combustion chamber, the mixing chamber of air flows of the working fluid and adjustable nozzle (N. N. Sirotin, etc. design principles of production and operation of aircraft gas turbine engines and power plants in the system of CALS technologies. Book 1. Moscow, ed. "Science", 2011, pp. 41-46, Fig.1.24).

Known turbofan engine, which is made of double-circuit, comprises a housing supported on the compressor and turbine, cooled combustion chamber, the fuel-pump group, jet nozzles and control system command and Executive bodies (Shulgin V. A., Haisyn S. Y. turbojet engines low-noise aircraft. M., ed. Engineering, 1984, pp. 17-120).

A method of testing turbojet�about engine on resource definition and reliability, consisting in the alternation of modes for carrying out the steps with a duration that exceeds the time of flight. Engine experience step by step. The duration of non-stop work on the stand and the alternation of modes are set depending on the purpose of the engine (HP, Skubachevskii. Testing of jet engines. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1972, pp. 13-15).

The known method of testing aircraft engine type turbojet, including the testing of a given mode, the control parameters and the assessment of resource and reliability of the engine. To reduce the test time while fine-tuning engines for 10-20% of the tests carried out with the gas temperature before the turbine exceeding the maximum operating temperature 45-65°C (SU 1151075 A1, publ. 10.08.2004).

Common disadvantages of these known technical solutions are increased labor and energy consumption testing and insufficient assessment of the resource and reliability of the engine in a wide range of flight regimes and conditions of use, due to neurobalance program to bring together the relevant test results to results classified under standard operating conditions of the engine known methods that do not account with sufficient correctness the change of parameters and modes of operation of the engine. This complicates the possibility given�ija experimental test parameters to the parameters as close as possible to the real structure and the ratio of specific modes of engine operation.

The task of the invention consists in the development of aviation turbojet engine with improved performance and increased reliability experimentally proven capability and reliability of the engine in conditions as close as possible to the real structure and the ratio of specific modes of engine operation.

The problem is solved in that the turbojet engine according to the invention, made of double-circuit, double-shaft and contains at least eight modules, mounted, preferably, on a modular hub system, including the compressor low pressure (CLP) with a stator having inlet guide vanes (BHA), no more than three intermediate rails and the output of the rectifying devices, and with the rotor having a shaft and a system endowed with the blades, preferably, four working wheels; interim housing; a gas generator comprising an Assembly unit - high pressure compressor (HPC) having a stator, as well as the rotor shaft and the system is equipped with blades of impellers, the number of which is not less than two times the number mentioned working wheels KND; a main combustion chamber and the turbine high �of Alenia (TVD); for gas generator sequentially coaxially mounted low pressure turbine (LPT), mixer, front-line device, afterburner combustion chamber and connected to the last variable jet nozzle and around the body of the main combustion chamber in the external circuit is fitted with air-to-air exchanger, collected not less than sixty tubular block-modules; in addition, the engine includes a box of drives motor units; wherein the stators KND and KVD each made in the form of longitudinally-segment units in an amount of not less than two, United, mainly for releasable connection with the possibility of disassembly for repair or replacement of parts of the corresponding module or Assembly unit, in addition, in the form of similar longitudinally-segmented blocks are made and combined for releasable connection nozzle Assembly turbine LPT and HPT; wherein the engine is tested under high-cycle program that includes alternation of modes when performing the test phases with a duration of jet engine, exceeding program flight program to test the generated typical flight cycles and identified the most damaging loaded details, this statement set the required number of loading cycles during the test, and then formed and produced�Yong full scope of tests, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full forced mode, quick reset the mode of "small gas", stop and cycle long lasting performance with repeated alternation of modes over the whole operating range with different scale range changes of modes of operation of the turbojet engine, in the aggregate, in excess of flight time in 5-6 times, with different proportions of the range of variation of the operating conditions of the engine implemented by a change in the level of differential gas in specific test modes from beginner to the highest or maximum full the forced operation of the engine by transferring initial point of reference when executing the corresponding mode, taking the latter in one of the modes in a position corresponding to the level of "small gas", and in another mode, in the intermediate or end positions, corresponding to different percentages or total value of the maximum gas level or full accelerated mode, and quick access to the maximum or forced modes of the test cycle implemented in Tempe pickup with a subsequent reset.

When the turbojet engine may include electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic fuel and oil systems, as well as sensors, lines of command�e blocks actuators and cabling systems for diagnostics and automatic motor control, combining these subassemblies and modules.

Each TRD module is made technologically Autonomous elements with split flange connections with adjacent modules, subassemblies and elements of constructive intra-module mounting parts, providing the possibility of geometric and functional installation and/or repair of interchangeability of modules and at least partially repair the substitutability of intra-module units and parts.

The stator of the high pressure compressor includes inlet guide vanes, not more than eight intermediate and output guides vane units.

Inlet guide vanes of the low pressure compressor may be provided consisting of a fixed and controlled rolling elements radial racks evenly spaced in the plane of the inlet section with an angular frequency in the range (3,0÷4,0) units/happy.

Part of the test cycles can be performed without warming up on the "small gas" after startup.

A test cycle can be formed on the basis of flight cycles for combat and training applications turbojet engine.

The technical result provided by the given set of p�of Isakov, is to develop an aviation turbojet engine with improved performance and increased reliability experimentally proven capability and reliability of the engine in conditions as close as possible to the real structure and the ratio of specific modes of engine operation. Improving the reliability of the test results is achieved due to the developed invention of alternating modes when performing the test phases, which exceed in duration the software during the flight. In this pre-form a typical flight cycles on the basis of which the program determine the damageability of the most loaded parts, and on this basis determine the required number of loading cycles during the test. Form a complete scope of tests, including a rapid change cycles in the full register from a quick exit to the maximum or full forced mode to a full stop and then form a representative cycle for a long period of working with multiple alternating modes over the whole operating range with different scale range change modes. This allows to improve the robustness and to extend the representativeness of resource assessment and the reliability of the engine at all stages of creating, debugging, serial industrial�steering production and flight operation TRD and provides increased engine life in terms characteristic for subsequent real multimode operation turbojet in flight conditions on the highly maneuverable aircraft.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows a turbojet engine, a longitudinal section.

The turbojet engine is made of double-circuit, double-shaft. Turbojet engine comprises at least eight modules, mounted, preferably, on a modular hub system, including the compressor 1 low pressure, the intermediate casing 2 and the gas generator.

KND 1 is formed with a stator having inlet guide vanes 3, no more than three intermediate guide vane 4 and the output of the rectifying apparatus 5, and a rotor having a shaft 6 and system, preferably, four working wheels 7, endowed with the blades 8.

The gas generator Assembly unit includes a compressor 9 high pressure with the stator main combustion chamber 10 and the turbine 11 high pressure.

KVD 9 includes a stator and a rotor with the shaft 12 and the system is equipped with blades 13 of the impeller 14. The number of impellers 14 KVD 9 not less than two times the number of impellers 7 KND 1.

For gas generator sequentially coaxially installed turbine 15 low pressure, the mixer 16, the front-line device 17, the afterburner combustion chamber on 18 and United with afterburner chamber 18 shoran�I fully variable jet nozzle 19.

Around the body of the main combustion chamber 10 in the external circuit 20 mounted air-to-air heat exchanger 21, collected not less than sixty tubular block modules.

In addition, the engine includes a box of drives motor units (not shown).

Stators KND 1 and KVD 9 each made in the form of longitudinally-segment units in an amount of not less than two, United, mainly for releasable connection with the possibility of disassembly for repair or replacement of parts of the corresponding module or Assembly. In a similar longitudinally-segmented blocks are made and combined for releasable connection nozzle Assembly 22 of the turbines 11 and 15, respectively, high and low pressure.

The turbojet engine is tested under high-cycle program. The program includes alternating modes when performing the test phases with a duration of engine operation exceeding software flight time. Program to test the generated typical flight cycles and identified the most damaging loaded parts. This statement set the required number of loading cycles during the test. Then formed and produced a full range of tests, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full fornirow�nny mode, quick reset the mode of "small gas", stop and cycle long lasting performance with repeated alternation of modes over the whole operating range with different scale range changes of modes of operation of the turbojet engine, in the aggregate, are greater than the flight time of 5-6 times. The different scale of the range of variation of the operating conditions of the engine implemented by a change in the level of differential gas in specific test modes from beginner to the highest or maximum full the forced operation of the engine by transferring initial point of reference when executing the appropriate mode, taking the latter in one of the modes in a position corresponding to the level of "small gas". In another mode, in the intermediate or end positions, corresponding to different percentages or total value of the maximum gas level or full accelerated mode. Quick access to the maximum or forced modes of the test cycle implemented in Tempe pickup with a subsequent reset.

The turbojet engine includes electric, pneumatic, hydraulic fuel and oil systems, as well as sensors, command blocks, actuators and cables systems diagnostics and automatic motor control, combining these subassemblies and modules (h�Rajah not shown).

Each TRD module is made technologically Autonomous elements with split flange connections with adjacent modules, subassemblies and elements of constructive intra-module mounting parts, providing the possibility of geometric and functional installation and/or repair of interchangeability of modules and at least partially repair the substitutability of intra-module units and parts.

The HPC stator 9 includes inlet guide vanes 23, not more than eight intermediate guide vane 24 and the output of the rectifying device 25.

Inlet guide vanes 3 KND 1 is provided consisting of a fixed and controlled rolling elements of the radial struts (not shown), equally spaced in the plane of the inlet section with an angular frequency in the range (3,0÷4,0) units/happy.

Part of test cycles performed without warming up on the "small gas" after startup.

A test cycle is generated on the basis of flight cycles for combat and training applications turbojet engine.

An example of the method of testing of turbojet engine.

Test applies TRD with project resource 500 hours total time to first overhaul. In the specified resource set operating time 20 h at maximum capacity, of which 5 hours on bolnavicioase mode. Form typical flight cycles (TPC) and sets a predetermined engine operating time 1 h, equivalent to a flight time of the aircraft (LA) according to PFT. On the basis of TPZ by calculation, determine the damageability of the most loaded parts. On this basis determine the required equivalent damage to the number of cycles during the test. In this embodiment, take the next load test cycles - performance 700 (400+300) starts with the release of respectively the maximum and the forced modes, and 400 of pickups from the regime of "small gas" (MG) and maximal (Max) and 300 with a mode of 0.8 Max is forced to (Fort) mode.

Set the safety factor for the required number of test load cycles and operating time K=1,2.

Form a complete volume of endurance tests and developing a program to test:

1. The total operation time of when conducting endurance tests take 500·1,2=600 h, of which the mean time to maximum mode are (20-5) 1,2=18 h, and at an accelerated rate 5·1,2=6 hours

2. Take the duration of the test phase 5 h and determine the number of five-hour stages 600:5=120.

3. Set the number of spins taking into account the factor of 700·1,2=840, and from MG to Max 400·1,2=480 and from 0.8 Max up to HUF 300·1,2=360.

4. Each �techsavvy stage includes 840:120=7, of pickups from idle to Max 480:120=4 and pickups with a mode of 0.8 Max up to HUF 360:120=3, and also the time between the maximum and forced modes 18*60:120=9 min, 360:120=3 min.

5. Establish the sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full forced mode, quick reset to idle and stop. Then provide a long cycle of working with multiple alternating stress cycles with amplitude of variation ranges from MG to Max 0.8 Max up to Fort within the established higher volume testing stages.

Perform tests TRD under the programme. Then, a fault detection engine and analysis of test results, which take the decision on the recognition engine has stood the test.

The above sequence of tests TRD used at all stages from development and debugging to production, operation and overhaul of aircraft engines.

1. Turbojet engine, characterized in that it is made of double-circuit, double-shaft and contains at least eight modules mounted on modular hub system, including the compressor low pressure (CLP) with a stator having inlet guide vanes (BHA), no more than three intermediate rails and the output of the rectifying devices, as well as �oterom, having a shaft and a system endowed with the four blades of impellers; interim housing; a gas generator comprising an Assembly unit - high pressure compressor (HPC) having a stator and a rotor with a shaft and a system equipped with blades of impellers, the number of which is not less than two times the number mentioned working wheels KND; a main combustion chamber and high pressure turbine (HPT); gas generator for sequentially coaxially mounted low pressure turbine (LPT), mixer, front-line device, afterburner combustion chamber and connected to the last variable jet nozzle; and around the body of the main combustion chamber in the external circuit is fitted with air-to-air exchanger, collected not less than sixty tubular block-modules; in addition, the engine includes a box of drives motor units; wherein the stators KND and KVD each made in the form of longitudinally-segment units in an amount of not less than two, United in releasable connection with the possibility of disassembly for repair or replacement of parts of the corresponding module or Assembly unit, in addition, in the form of similar longitudinally-segmented blocks are made and combined for releasable connection nozzle Assembly turbine LPT and HPT; moreover, the engine is tested under high-cycle program, including �Eredivisie modes when performing the test phases with a duration of jet engine, exceeding program flight program to test the generated typical flight cycles and identified the most damaging loaded details, this statement set the required number of loading cycles during the test, and then formed and produced a full range of tests, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full forced mode, quick reset the mode of "small gas", stop and cycle long lasting performance with repeated alternation of modes over the whole operating range with different scale range changes of modes of operation of the turbojet engine, in the aggregate, in excess of flight time in 5-6 times, the different scale of the range of variation of the operating conditions of the engine implemented by a change in the level of differential gas in specific test modes from beginner to the highest or maximum full the forced operation of the engine by transferring initial point of reference when executing the appropriate mode, taking the latter in one of the modes in a position corresponding to the level of "small gas", and in another mode, in the intermediate or end positions, corresponding to different percentages or total value of the maximum gas level or full accelerated mode, pricebusters maximum or forced modes of the test cycle implemented in Tempe pickup with a subsequent reset as part of test cycles performed without warming up on the "small gas" after startup.

2. Turbojet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises an electric, pneumatic, hydraulic fuel and oil systems, as well as sensors, command blocks, actuators and cables systems diagnostics and automatic motor control, combining these subassemblies and modules.

3. Turbojet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that each module TRD made technologically Autonomous elements with split flange connections with adjacent modules, subassemblies and elements of constructive intra-module mounting parts, providing the possibility of geometric and functional installation and/or repair of interchangeability of modules and partially repair the substitutability of intra-module units and parts.

4. Turbojet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the stator of the high pressure compressor includes inlet guide vanes, not more than eight intermediate and output guides vane units.

5. Turbojet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the inlet guide vanes of the low pressure compressor is provided comprising a fixed and controlled rolling elements radial racks�, evenly spaced in the plane of the inlet section with an angular frequency in the range (3,0÷4,0) units/happy.

6. Turbojet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that a test cycle is generated on the basis of flight cycles for combat and training application of the turbojet engine.



 

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FIELD: engine and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engine production, particularly to design of turbojet engine nozzles. Proposed flat nozzle comprises two fixed lateral walls, moving upper and lower flaps arranged there between. Every aforesaid moving flap has a rod fitted therein. Rod ends accommodate rollers in contact with outer surfaces of lateral walls in the area of their outlet end faces.

EFFECT: ruling out deformation of lateral walls, longer life.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes linearly accelerated rotating accumulation of hollow motion rotor of working body attached weights combined with pulse electric current passing through stator winding and pulse-frequency converter adjustment so that pulse current frequency changes upwards in proportion to rotor revolution frequency growth until preset revolution frequency including working body weight compression is provided and formation of continuous vortex tube. Pulse jet flow is generated through transfer of external generating excitation to stator winding of accumulation unit or to stator winding of amplifier block. In method discovered is device design in which accumulation unit is connected to amplifier unit designs of which are similar, through compression unit body shaped as truncated cone. Thus accumulation unit represents power unit of hollow wiped rotor and stator forming uniform cylindrical surface with diameter equal to target diameter of compression unit body.

EFFECT: simplicity of method and device of jet pulse flow generating.

2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method to reduce harmful exhaust of internal combustion engine is as follows: fuel delivered from engine fuel system by pump 1 into mixer 2 is heated owing to heat exchange with heated heat carrier delivered to said mixer 2 by means of pump 4. After mixer 2, mixture of fuel and heat carrier is settled and directed into separator 3, for instance, filter-separator where components of mixture are separated. Fuel from separator 3 is directed into combustion chamber, and heat carrier, into circulation circuit for reuse. Mixture of fuel and heat carrier can be heated in external heat exchanger 5 or heat carrier, after separator, can be heated in heat exchanger 5 and directed for repeated mixing with fuel. Heating of heat carrier or mixture of fuel and heat carrier in external heat exchanger is done by heat removed from engine systems which require cooling.

EFFECT: increased economy of engine and reduced harmful exhausts even when low-grade fuel is used owing to higher quality of combustion and more complete utilization of fuel heat energy.

2 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid-propellant thrusters designed to control spacecraft and organization of mixing and combustion of liquid self-ignition components of propellant in low thrust engines (less than 3 N). Proposed chamber of thruster consists of mixing head body with channels to deliver components of propellant, coaxial two-component member installed in body and communicating with said channels, and combustion chamber. According to invention, two-component mixing member is made in form of two coaxial capillary tubes, at least one of tubes being made of plastically deformable material. End face part of outer tube can project into combustion chamber axially relative to inner tube, and outlet section of outer tube can be made narrowing. End pieces with holes of required section coaxial to tubes can be installed in outlet sections of capillary tubes.

EFFECT: provision of higher degree of liquid-phase mixing of oxidizer and propellant and uniform distribution of ratio of fuel components over section of combustion chamber, increased economy of engine.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: liquid-propellant rocket engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed liquid-propellant rocket engine contains wall carrying load with great number of cooling channels to pass coolant. Each cooling channel is provided with surface to direct coolant flow arranged at angle to its axis which creates in additional velocity component in flow of coolant passing through cooling channel in axial direction. Method of manufacture of such member is described.

EFFECT: reduced lamination of coolant in cooling channels.

10 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for rotating propellers of different application. Proposed centrifugal ramjet engine contains combustion chamber 4 with reaction nozzle 5 to which compressed air is fed through inlet hole 3 and inlet air duct 2 with preliminary compression in compression chamber 6 owing to velocity head at movement of engine over circumference together with propeller blade 1 secured on engine shaft to end of which it is connected. Compressed air from compression chamber moves along radial air duct 7 into combustion chamber with acceleration under action of centrifugal force appearing at rotation of propeller. Air flow getting in specified order provides dynamic pressure onto wall of combustion chamber, thus ensuring additional compression of air, and fuel is combusted in said area of increased compression of air. Gaseous combustion products move at acceleration from combustion chamber through reaction nozzle, thus creating reactive thrust. Combined use of ramjet and centrifugal capabilities provides considerable compression of air which increases efficiency of engine in operation.

EFFECT: provision of effective engine of simple design and low weight.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: thermodynamics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of conversion of energy formed at combustion of organic fuel into rotary motion includes preliminary heating of air, fuel and water with preparation and forming of optimum working mixture, subsequent delivery of mixture under pressure through system of pneumatic and hydraulic pipelines into inner part of combustion chambers forming unified operating burners or constant burning nozzles installed on main shaft-line providing use of power effect of reaction thrust of jet of ejected fuel combustion products and additional takeoff of exhaust gas energy by means of multiblade gas turbine rotating opposite to direction of rotation of operating burners of nozzles or by means of two and more gas turbines with separation of flows. Device for implementing the method has detachable unified burners or reaction thrust nozzles fitted on working necks of drive shaft in main shaft-line and turned through optimum setting angles in number of at least two or more pieces in which torch-jet combustion of organic fuel delivered by pump from fuel or gas reservoir through system of filters, pipelines and fluid-and-pneumocoupling mounted inside main shaft-line takes place.

EFFECT: enlarged possibility of conversion of energy and improved efficiency of conversion.

14 cl, 8 dwg

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