Round timber drying method

FIELD: woodworking industry.

SUBSTANCE: drying method of round timber involves convective chamber drying, with that, prior to drying, the timber is subject to autoclave soaking with a 16-18% water solution of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and carbamide or ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate, which are taken in the ratio of 1:1, and drying is performed before the timber reaches equilibrium humidity considering future operating conditions.

EFFECT: method allows eliminating the formation of shrinkage cracks, improving the appearance, providing stable timber dimensions during operation, thus increasing the service life of round timber materials.

2 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to woodworking industry, namely to wooden house construction, and can be used in the manufacture of houses from round, including round, timber.

Wood is a hygroscopic material. The humidity always tends to equilibrium with the surrounding air. Currently building a house from raw logs. After that, they endure throughout the year to ensure that the moisture content decreased and reached a stable value, i.e., the wood is purchased in equilibrium with the surrounding air humidity. This ensures dimensional stability and shape. Only after that start to fine finish. Pre-dried round assortments to an equilibrium moisture content, which they acquire during operation, eliminates long exposures and allows you to immediately after construction to begin finishing operations.

The known method of drying of roundwood, based on wave microwave (RU # 2250428 C2 F26B 3/347. Drying method microwave energy of roundwood, ed. Gareev F. H., published 20.04.20050). Drying is done in a special chamber. The drying process is fast enough.

The disadvantages of this method is that when drying this way in round timber necessarily cracks, in addition, the drying process requires large W�expenses of electrical energy, the high cost and limited lifetime of the microwave equipment, high qualification requirements for maintenance personnel.

Closest to the claimed method is the convective drying method of roundwood (Artemenkov A. M., Cerenkov S. I. Analysis of the drying of roundwood // Technology and equipment of woodworking production: interuniversity collection of scientific works (anniversary edition). - SPb.: Spbgma, 2003. Pp. 170-174.) - the prototype. Drying is performed in special chambers, equipped with heat exchangers, fans and air conditioning pipes. During the drying process, depending on the breed, size assortments, the required temperature and humidity in the chamber.

The disadvantage of this method of drying of roundwood is that the drying process be sure to appear exterior radial shrinkage cracks. As a rule, formed a deep (to the core) and a few small cracks. This is due to the anisotropic shrinkage of wood. Shrinkage in the tangential direction in 1,5...2 times higher than in the radial (Ugolev B. N., Wood science with the basics of forest commodity. - M: MSFU 20001, p. 89, PL.15). In other words, annual layers of wood around the perimeter shrink in 1,5...2 times greater than the thickness. The emergence of crack compensates for various�e usushechnye deformations (I. V. Krechetov, Drying of wood. - M.: Lesn. prom th, 1980, p. 107, Fig.39K). The size of the cracks depends on the final moisture content of the wood. The lower the humidity, the more usushechnye deformation and therefore more cracks. Due to the operating parameters of the drying process can only prevent the appearance of fine cracks, as they are due to moisture stress due to uneven distribution of moisture in the cross section of the assortment in the process of drying. To eliminate the appearance of deep radial cracks is impossible, since it is predetermined by the properties of the wood. This occurs regardless of the drying method. Cracks reduce the service life of buildings and structures, because they absorbs moisture in the form of rain, snow, leading to rotting. In addition, deteriorating the appearance and increase heat loss.

The object of this invention is to eliminate the occurrence of cracks in round timber during drying and to further ensure the stable dimensions of wood in the process of operation.

The technical result is to increase the magnitude of the equilibrium moisture content of wood by 8-10% from an initial moisture content of natural wood, which eliminates the formation of shrinkage cracks in round forest products, thereby increasing the lifetime of roundwood and improved appearance.

Said technical result in the implementation of Fig�plants is achieved by before convective drying chamber of roundwood them are subjected to autoclave impregnation 16-18% aqueous solution of a mixture of substances ammonium nitrate and urea or ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate, taken in the ratio 1:1, and drying is carried out until the wood is the desired equilibrium moisture content is subject to the conditions of future operation.

Impregnation of round timber before drying autoclave method aqueous solutions of a mixture of two substances that enhance the absorption, allows for 8...10% increase in the value of the equilibrium moisture content of wood, which results in the elimination of cracks in the wood.

Substances that increase the hygroscopicity of the wood, quite a lot. In particular, these include some drugs used to impregnate the wood with the purpose of increasing its biostability and reducing Flammability (Maximenko N. And. The equilibrium moisture content of wood depending on the nature and content of protective equipment // Nauch.-tech. Ref. sat Mechanical processing of wood. - M.: Was, 1979. - vol.1. Pp. 4 - 5). But the equilibrium moisture content when using these drugs increases within 4%. It is not enough to prevent cracking of round timber. Effect provide only solutions consisting of a mixture of components taken in the ratio 1:1:

NH4NO3(nitrate am�onium) + CO(NH 2)2(urea);

NH4NO3(ammonium nitrate) + Ca(NO3)2×4H2O (calcium nitrate).

The proposed method is characterized in that the substances that are injected into the wood during impregnation, decreases the value of the partial pressure of steam, so the equilibrium with the surrounding air occurs at higher moisture content of the wood. Treated timber does not need to be dried to a low moisture content, because during operation it attains a higher value of humidity. And the humidity value will be stable and will not fall. Thus, the impregnated wood are provided with constant size and shape in the process of operation, but with a higher humidity than the untreated. The higher the humidity the wood to which it is necessary to dry, the less shrinkage deformation. This eliminates the appearance of cracks in round forest products. In this case, provided a dimensionally stable wood in the process of operation, which is one of the main tasks of drying. If drying is not impregnated wood to a higher humidity, cracking will not occur. But in the process of exploitation of this wood will acquire a lower equilibrium moisture content and in any case will crack, but only in the finished products.

Fig.1 shows a cross section of the round assortment, misuse�tion by a known method; Fig 2 - the claimed method.

Method of drying of roundwood is as follows. Roundwood placed in an autoclave is carried out impregnation 16-18% aqueous solution of drugs that increase water absorption (NH4NO3(ammonium nitrate) + CO(NH2)2(urea) or preparations NH4NO3(ammonium nitrate) + Ca(NO3)2×4H2O (calcium nitrate), taken in the ratio 1:1. The mode of impregnation, pressure 0.4 MPa, the duration of 120 min, the solution temperature of 20°C. thereafter, they are placed in an oven where they are dried at 60°C and a relative humidity of 40% within 120-130 hours. The drying process is done until the wood equilibrium moisture content.

Examples of specific applications.

Example 1. (according to the method of the prototype). From round timber (breed - larch) cut out the pattern with a diameter of 120 mm, length 300 mm, initial moisture content of 45%. Then the sample was placed in an oven where it was dried at 60°C and a relative humidity of 40%. In the process of drying was recorded the current weight samples. The drying process is ended upon stabilization of the mass of the samples, indicating the achievement of a wood equilibrium moisture content. The drying duration was 118 h. then the sample was inherited from the kilns�, produced cooling and determining the final moisture content by the gravimetric method in accordance with GOST 16483.7-71. As a result, the final moisture content of the sample was 8%. The sample had a deep crack to the core (Fig.1).

Examples 2-5 is similar to example 1.

In table 1 the data of examples 2-5 (prototype), timber - larch, initial moisture level of 45%.

Example 6. (the proposed method).

From roundwood (breed - larch, humidity - 45%) cut out the pattern with a diameter of 120 mm, a length of 300 mm. then the sample was placed in an autoclave, where it was used for the impregnation of a 16% aqueous solution of a mixture of products of NH4NO3(ammonium nitrate) + CO(NH2)2(urea), taken in the ratio 1:1. The mode of impregnation, pressure 0.4 MPa, the duration of 120 min, the solution temperature of 20°C. the absorbance, calculated on the dry residue amounted to 30 kg/m3. Then the sample was placed in an oven where it was dried at 60°C and a relative humidity of 40%. In the process of drying was recorded, the current mass of the sample. The drying process is ended in the stabilization of the mass of the sample, indicating the achievement of a wood equilibrium moisture content. The drying duration was 123 h. then the sample was inherited from the drying chamber was made of chilled�e and the determination of the final moisture content by the gravimetric method in accordance with GOST 16483.7-71. As a result, the final moisture content of the sample was 18%. Cracks in the sample does not appear (Fig.2).

Examples 7 to 9 is similar to example 6. In examples 7-9 were used timber - larch, initial moisture level of 45%, the sample length of 300 mm. as a solution for impregnation was used an aqueous solution of a mixture of products of ammonium nitrate and urea, taken in the ratio 1:1, the concentration of the solution of 16-18%. The mode of impregnation, pressure 0.4 MPa, the duration of 120 min, temperature 20°C. the drying Mode: temperature 60°C, relative humidity 40%. The results are shown in table 2.

Examples 10-12 analogously to example 6, the timber - larch, initial moisture level of 45%, as a solution for impregnation of an aqueous solution of a mixture of products of NH4NO3(ammonium nitrate) + Ca(NO3)2×4H2O (calcium nitrate), taken in the ratio 1:1, the concentration of the solution of 16-18%. The mode of impregnation, pressure 0.4 MPa, the duration of 120 min, temperature 20°C. the drying Mode: temperature 60°C, relative humidity 40%. The results are shown in table 3.

The method allows to eliminate the occurrence of shrinkage cracks, to improve appearance, provide a dimensionally stable wood in the process of operation, thereby increasing the lifetime of roundwood way� increasing equilibrium moisture content of wood by 8-10% compared to natural wood.

Method of drying of roundwood, including convective drying chamber, characterized in that before drying the wood is subjected to autoclave impregnation 16-18% aqueous solution of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and urea or ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate, taken in the ratio 1:1, and drying is carried out until the wood equilibrium moisture content with the circumstances of future exploitation.



 

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