Injector of charged dust particles
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: injector of charged dust particles contains a casing, charging chamber, external composite electrode of charging chamber, silo electrode, silo chamber and piezo emitter. The charging electrode has elliptical shape, on it two sets of carbon threads are installed, they are directed in horizontal and vertical directions, the external composite electrode contains two output holes directed in horizontal and vertical plane, metal meshes are installed in output holes of the injector.
EFFECT: increased output of charged dust particles and assurance of two directions of flow movement of the charged dust particles, ie vertical and horizontal.
The invention relates to the field of accelerator technology and can be used as an injector to create horizontal and vertical low-speed streams of charged particles in a test vacuum chamber.
Known injector of charged dust particles, consisting of a hopper chamber formed the stimulating electrode and the inner side of the charging electrode, the charging chamber formed by the outer side of the charging electrode and the housing, the needle (Akishin A. I., Novikov L. S. equipment and Technique of simulation testing of materials of spacecraft. - M.: Izd-vo Mosk. University press, 1990, 90 p.).
The closest analogue is the injector of charged dust particles consisting of a body, a charging electrode, the charging chamber, the outer composite electrode of the charging chamber, the needle (or needles), bunker electrode, hopper camera and microplates (N. D. Semkin, A. V. Pekov, K. E. Voronov, S. M. Shepelev, N. L. Epiphany. The injector of charged dust particles //Instruments and experimental techniques, No. 3, 2006. Page: 154-159).
However, it has several drawbacks: a small stream of particles at the output, can create a thread in only one horizontal plane.
The task: to develop an injector of charged dust particles with increased yield of charged dust particles and two su�the tion of movement of the stream of charged dust particles - the vertical and horizontal.
The task is achieved in that in the injector of charged dust particles, comprising a housing, charger, battery, camera, external composite electrode of the charging chamber, hopper electrode, hopper chamber and microsocial, according to the invention, the charging electrode has an elliptical shape that has two set of carbon filaments directed in horizontal and in vertical directions, the outer composite electrode comprises two output ports directed in a horizontal and vertical plane at the outlet of the injector is equipped with metal mesh.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows the main view of the injector and Fig.2 shows a longitudinal section of the injector.
The device includes a housing 1 in which is located the charging chamber 2, formed by a charging electrode 3 and the outer composite electrode of the charging chamber 4, in which the 5 horizontal and 6 vertical holes, in the holes of the metal mesh 7, 8 horizontal and 9 vertical set of carbon filaments that are installed on the charging electrode 3 coaxial and 5 horizontal and 6 vertical outlet hole of the injector, respectively, hopper chamber 10 is connected to the charging chamber 2 through the connecting sleeve 11, in b�nkernel the camera 10 is installed bunker electrode 12 and the piezoelectric radiator 13, in bunker chamber 10 filled micropowder 14.
The device operates as follows: when the high voltage supply bunker electrode 12 and the alternating voltage of the resonant frequency of the piezo oscillator 13 micron particles 14 are set in motion under the action of electric field and mechanical vibrations of the piezo oscillator, as a result of random motion of particles in the hopper chamber 10 through the connecting sleeve 11 is the release of particles into the cavity of the charging chamber 2, in the charging chamber, the particles of the micropowder continue their chaotic motion until you can touch the tip of the needle 8 horizontal or vertical 9 set of carbon filaments upon contact of the particles with the tip of the needle she reported the charge, and under the influence of an electric field the particle leaves the charging chamber 2 through 5 horizontal or vertical 6 holes have a metal grid 7, the elliptical shape of the charging electrode provides the highest probability of the particle motion along two paths - horizontal and vertical.
Thus, increasing the flow of charged particles at the exit of the injector and is supplied charged dust particles simultaneously in two directions - horizontal and vertical.
The injector of charged dust particles, comprising a housing,�adnow camera, external composite electrode of the charging chamber, hopper electrode, hopper chamber and a piezo oscillator, characterized in that the charging electrode has an elliptical shape that has two set of carbon threads directed in horizontal and in vertical directions, the outer composite electrode comprises two output ports directed in a horizontal and vertical plane at the outlet of the injector is equipped with metal mesh.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering in the nanosecond range and is intended to generate high-power electron beams used in microwave devices, radiation technologies and scientific research. A high-current nanosecond electron beam accelerator comprises, in one cylindrical housing (1) and connected in series, a double generating line (2) with coaxial electrodes (7, 8), a main spark gap (3) and an intensifying spark gap (4), a diode tube (5) and a pulsed charge generator (6) with a ferromagnetic core (14) and a high-voltage electrode (19), which is connected to a disc electrode (9) of the main spark gap (3) and the coaxial electrode (7) of the double generating line (2). Volumes occupied by the charge generator (6) and the double generating line (2) are separated by the housing of the main spark gap (3). The capacitive storage of the charge generator (6) is made of parallel-connected and coaxially arranged cylindrical capacitors (12). The secondary winding of a pulsed transformer is made of four sector windings (18), radially arranged around the ferromagnetic core (14).
EFFECT: high reliability and service life of the accelerator.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the disclosed neutron radiator unit, a neutron tube (8) with a metal housing (9) is hermetically attached to the end of the housing of a power circuit unit and has thermal and electrical contact therewith, while allowing replacement of the neutron tube. The neutron tube is placed with spacing between a high-voltage insulator (16) of the neutron tube and the insulator of the power circuit unit (17), filled with a gaseous dielectric (18). A ceramic ring with electrical resistance equal to the bias resistance is placed between the housing of the neutron tube and the target. The power circuit unit and the neutron tube are electrically connected to each other by floating contacts.
EFFECT: longer service life, high radiation intensity owing to removal of insulating materials from the region around the accelerating electrode, and high stability.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering and can be used to simulate micrometeorites and manmade particles. The high-speed solid particle accelerator comprises an injector, induction sensors, amplifiers, a linear accelerator, a fixed high voltage source, cylindrical electrodes, a velocity selector, a specific charge selector, a high-pressure chamber, a frequency deviation generating unit, a high-frequency converter, a step-up pulse transformer and a target.
EFFECT: high particle velocity and reliability of the accelerator.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of registration of abnormal dispersion of inhomogeneous extended plasma column and can be used in spectroscopy in inhomogeneous gas and plasma media, in laser spectroscopy and in spectral analysis of gaseous substances. Method of determining abnormal dispersion consists in the following: on the basis of transverse nanosecond plasma beam discharge with slot cathode created is double-layered plasma medium with double-layered distribution of optical refractive index, through which wide-band laser radiation with spectrum close to spectral lines of plasma absorption is passed in inclined way, and after decomposition of laser spectrum, which passed plasma layer, by spectrograph, abnormal dispersion close to spectral lines of plasma absorption is determined on spectrograph outlet.
EFFECT: possibility to observe abnormal dispersion in different gases close to narrow spectral lines of absorption in plasma-beam discharges.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering and can be used as a charged dust particle injector for the next acceleration system. A charged dust particle injector having a housing, a charging electrode, a charging chamber, an external composite electrode of the charging chamber, a needle (or a set of needles) and a storage chamber. To prevent agglomeration of the micropowder in the storage chamber, the storage chamber is made in the form of a "sandglass" in the external composite electrode of the charging chamber, a stepper motor is mounted on the external surface of the storage chamber, said motor providing rotation of the storage chamber, and two Faraday cylinders are placed on the axis of the injector, said cylinders being connected to a stepper motor control unit.
EFFECT: design of a dust particle injector for the next acceleration system.
SUBSTANCE: cascade pulse accelerator of solid particles includes injector, induction sensors, amplifiers, cylindrical electrodes, resistors of divider, isolating resistance columns, high-voltage capacitors, uncontrolled dischargers, controlled dischargers, control system, current sensor, high voltage source, data bus, target, aligning device, electronic computation device.
EFFECT: increased particle speed, simplified design allowing for stage add-on to achieve required speed, improved reliability of system.
SUBSTANCE: device contains a sealed case with a cylindrical cathode and a target applied on its surface, which are placed inside the case coaxially, and an anode covered symmetrically by the cathode. At that the anode in the claimed device is made as two butt-placed symmetrical rods with diameter a, at which butt ends there are caps made of deuterated metal and shifted in regard to each other per distance d along the tube axis of symmetry, the cathode diameter b meets inequality 0.2<a/b<0.3 while the anode diameter meets inequality 0.2<a/d<1.0.
EFFECT: improving energetic efficiency of neutron generation.
SUBSTANCE: polyester-cotton fabric is used as multi-layer fabric base for belt conveyor; layers of the fabric are interconnected by glue with high adhesion while cladding layers for fabric are made of rubber mix based on butadiene-acrylo-nitric rubber including chalk stone and kaolin. Dibutyl phthalate is used as plasticiser.
EFFECT: increasing service life for belt conveyor, reducing degree of tear and wear for operating surface and degree of its water absorbency, improving strength of interlayer links which ultimately leads to improvement of operational characteristics of the suggested device as a whole.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device contains injector, flux-gate detectors, amplifiers, linear accelerator, source of fixed high voltage, cylindrical electrodes, velocity selector, specific charge selector, generator of frequency- and width-variable pulse groups, interface block, electronic computer, amplifier for pulse group with variable width, cascade generator, conductor lines, target, calibration sections consisting of three cylindrical electrodes and conducting lines made in the form of quadruple. All cylindrical electrodes and flux-gate detectors are made of foil and installed at external surface of dielectric tube.
EFFECT: optimisation of settings and cleaning without need of accelerator disassembly, provision of alignment for layout of the device structural components.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: in a neutron generator, between a metal bottom and a body, there is a heat conductive insulator installed with circular bores, having a thermal contact with it. Parts of layers of a row-to-row insulation protruding beyond limits of the rows at one side, are bent into bores of the heat conductive insulator, and at the other side are notched layerwise evenly along the diameter, besides, notches in the next layer are arranged between notches in the previous layer, the cut part of insulation is folded to the external surface of the transformer and fixed.
EFFECT: generator reliability improvement and service life extension, reduced dimensions.
FIELD: high-voltage charged particles accelerators.
SUBSTANCE: device has high-voltage rectifier transformer, including high-voltage transformer, consisting of magnetic duct, rods with primary winding of which are encased in electrostatic screens, sectioned secondary winding, rectifier elements, inserted between sections of secondary winding, accelerator pipe with charged particles source, safety screen, inside safety screen compensation coil is mounted with possible presence of axial component of magnetic field in counter-phase to field vector, moving charged particles beam from accelerator pipe axis. Correction method includes forming by high-voltage rectifier transformer of high-voltage accelerator potential, initiation of charged particles flow in charged particles source, acceleration of charged particles flow in sectioned accelerator pipe, forming of beam of charged particles, while additional magnetic field is formed using compensating coils, mounted on external surface of safety screen.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher reliability, simplified construction, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment engineering, possible use for generating high voltage impulses, generating electronic or ionic beams of microsecond duration with high repetition frequency.
SUBSTANCE: generator of high voltage linearly increasing impulses contains a high voltage impulse transformer in form of a set of ferromagnetic inducers, circled by magnetization coils. On both sides of inducers, clamps of magnetization coils are electrically combined and connected to clamps of last compression links of two or more magnetic impulse generators, installed in parallel. Magnetic impulse generators represent a series of at least two compression links, consisting of capacitors and saturation throttles. Generation of high voltage output impulse of microsecond duration is realized due to serial discharge of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators through windings of saturation throttles onto the primary winding of high voltage impulse transformer. Impulse feeding delay from various magnetic impulse generators is achieved by selection of interlinking values of saturation throttles of last compression links. To create a linearly increasing impulse of output voltage, capacities of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators are compliant with expression: C1N<kC2N<...<kCmN, where k=1,1-2 and following condition is fulfilled: C1N·L1N≈ C2N·L2N≈...≈CmN·LmN, where C1N, C2N,..., CmN - capacities of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators, L1N, L2N,..., LmN - inductances of windings of saturation throttles of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators.
EFFECT: realization of serial discharge of capacitors of different capacity through windings of saturation throttles of last compression links of several magnetic impulse generators onto the primary winding of a high voltage impulse transformer.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of high-speed solid particles contains high-voltage power supply, toroid deflectors, high-voltage amplifier and tunable oscillator. In gaps between toroid deflectors there are attached induction sensors and paired cylindrical electrodes connected to outputs of high-voltage amplifier inputs of which are connected to output of PC controlled generator with time-dependent frequency and duration of packed pulses. PC is connected through interface block which accepts signals of output amplifier of induction sensors signals and velocity selector.
EFFECT: extended range of accelerated particles and extended range of accelerated particle materials.
SUBSTANCE: electron accelerator outlet is design to let out wide-aperture, intensive, radially converging beams of accelerated electrons into atmosphere or high-pressure gas, and can be used for gas laser electron beam pump. The outlet represents a cylinder and is made up of several sections. A cylindrical carcass makes an integrating element of the structure and has rectangular through openings, each closed with a rectangular foil pieces with sizes exceeding those of the opening. The foil is fitted tightly onto the carcass using a rubber or indium sealer laid into the slot along the carcass rectangular opening edges. The foil is held down to the sealer with the help of clamping screws through rectangular support grid. The screws are screwed into blunt holes of the carcass.
EFFECT: efficient letting out of radially converging electron beams.
SUBSTANCE: high-speed solid particle accelerator contains an injector, variable inductance transducers, accelerators, linear accelerator, fixed high voltage source, cylindrical electrodes, velocity selector, specific charge selector, generator of time-variable frequency and duration of pulses in a packet, interface unit, computer, amplifier for packet of pulses with varying duration, cascade generator, conductor lines and a target. According to the invention, in the space between the linear accelerator and the variable inductance transducers there are two calibration sectors in line with the accelerator and the transducers, where the calibration sectors consist of three cylindrical electrodes, and are connected to the cascade generator, between the linear accelerator and the first calibration section, between the first and second calibration sections there are additional variable inductance transducers, connected to amplifiers; conductor lines are made in form of a quadrupole and are connected to cylindrical electrodes and the amplifier for packet of pulses with varying duration.
EFFECT: accelerator considerably increases efficiency of the device by reducing particle loss in the acceleration process.
SUBSTANCE: method includes transfer of energy part from generator of pulse voltage into intermediate accumulator and this portion of energy delivery via aggravating discharger, through high-voltage insulator, coaxial vacuum line, to vacuum diode. At a certain distance from the beginning of coaxial vacuum line a geometric non-uniformity is created, by means of this line rotation at a certain angle, and also by increase of line inner electrode radius at the turn section. Wave resistance of line section at the turn is less than before and after it.
EFFECT: simplified method for production of high-current diploid beams of electrons with various amplitude-time characteristics in straight-action accelerators by means of electromagnet pulse energy separation in coaxial vacuum line and simultaneous formation of electron beams, with their discharge along various axes.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of high-speed solid particles contains injector, flux-gate detectors, amplifiers, linear accelerator, source of fixed high voltage, cylindrical electrodes, velocity selector, specific charge selector, generator of frequency- and width-variable pulse groups, interface block, electronic computer, amplifier for pulse group with variable width, cascade generator, conductor lines, target, calibration sections consisting of three cylindrical electrodes and conducting lines made in the form of quadruple. At space between the last pair of flux-gate detectors and target there is a pair of flat electrodes; one electrode is connected to output of electrode control unit, the second is connected to the ground; inputs of electrode control unit are connected to outputs of velocity selector and specific charge selector and target is installed at α angle to common axis of accelerator.
EFFECT: improvement of experimentation quality in result of non-availability of low-speed low-charged particles shooting to target.
SUBSTANCE: high-speed solid particle accelerator has an injector, induction sensors, amplifiers, a linear accelerator, a fixed high voltage source, cylindrical electrodes and a velocity selector. Between the second pair of induction sensors and the first cylindrical electrode there are four parallel electrodes across which potential values calculated by the voltage supply unit are applied. The target is made from glass whose surface is coated with a luminophore film and a CCD matrix is placed on the backside. The CCD matrix is connected to a data processing unit which controls the unit for applying voltage across the electrodes.
EFFECT: disclosed accelerator enables to merge the point of collision of the particles with the target and the central axis of acceleration.
SUBSTANCE: linear induction accelerator injector contains a plasma cathode including a metal (5) and an auxiliary (7) electrodes separated with a dielectric layer (6), an induction system (1) represented by a set of ferromagnetic cores with an axially positioned HV tube electrode (3) one end whereof is grounded to the accelerator body while the other is connected to the plasma cathode metal electrode (5). The cores are enclosed by magnetisation coils to the end parts whereof a magnetic pulse generator is connected consisting of a set of compression links formed by capacitors and saturable core reactors. One of the saturable core reactors of the magnetic pulse generator is enclosed by additional winding (4) with one or multiple coils, the winding terminals passed through the HV electrode (3) and connected to the plasma cathode (5, 7) electrodes. A resistor may be included in the additional winding (4) circuit.
EFFECT: design simplification due to exclusion of external devices from the layout nd performance of rigid pulse synchronisation for generation of plasma o the plasma cathode surface and the HV pulse.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: iron atoms are first included among macroparticles which are pieces of a tungsten wire with a conical head in amount of 3.3% of the number of tungsten atoms; the macroparticles are pre-magnetised along the longitudinal axis and a magnetic dipole is thus obtained. The macroparticles are covered with platinum and passivated with oxygen to create a surface barrier which prevents leakage of electrons from the macroparticles. From the feed magazine, pieces of tungsten wire are aligned in space such that their longitudinal axis coincides with the axis of acceleration and then pre-accelerated. The pieces of wire are irradiated with a beam of electrons. All electrons are absorbed in tungsten. Further, a high-voltage pulse with voltage Uacc=210 kV is applied onto the accelerating tube and the macroparticles are finally accelerated with an electrostatic field to velocity V0=3 km/s. The macroparticles are released into the atmosphere through three buffer cavities, each having its own separate pumping.
EFFECT: increase in charge transferred by a macroparticle, high rate of energy intake, high depth of penetration of the macroparticles into the substance.
1 dwg, 1 tbl