Method for quality assessment of layer-by-layer compaction of erected earth fills of highways, railways and dams of hydraulic engineering structures
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and reclamation, road and other types of construction where it is necessary to evaluate the quality of embankments and artificial grounds.
Known (SU, copyright certificate 1134669, publ. 1985) a device for the continuous monitoring of the degree of compaction of the soil containing the movable die and the measuring device includes a sensor size of sediments compacted soil associated with a movable stamp, and a signal element, and measuring a photovoltaic device is provided by an electronic device with external photoelectric effect and a recording apparatus, the sensor sizes deposits of non-cohesive soil in the form of two transparent tubes, connected by a flexible hose and filled with a working fluid, and one tube is fixed on the axis of the stamp, while the other is fitted in the area of photovoltaic electronic device connected to the signal element and a recording apparatus.
The known device operates as follows.
In the process of compaction movable stamp, transferring the load to the ground, produces a draught of it by some value Δh, wherein the sensor by the working fluid automatically shows on the scale measuring the amount of precipitation of non-cohesive soil. Pre-scale measurements of precipitation to seal�aemula ground install photovoltaic electronic device to the desired value of precipitation Δh Trfunctionally linked to required degree of compaction and is determined according to the calibration graphs and nomograms is the density of the soil skeleton. The coincidence of the magnitude of precipitation sealing of the soil with the required value of precipitation photovoltaic electronic device responds to illumination of the working fluid meniscus in the tube of the sensor automatically closes the electric circuit includes a recording apparatus and a signal element, wherein the recording apparatus records a recorder to tape the degree of compaction of soil for building Executive schedules by the compaction of embankments.
The disadvantage of the resulting measurement, and also the device as a whole should recognize the impossibility of obtaining absolute values of the quantities characterizing soil compaction, in particular the coefficient of consolidation of soil, which is the ratio of the required soil density to the maximum standard density of the soil.
Also known (SU, a patent 1823887, publ. 1993) method of monitoring the degree of compaction of earthworks. When implementing the known method in the process of a hinged pneumatic or hydraulic hammer stamped (rammer) is as follows.
On the surface of the (sealed) earthworks stamp set with pneumatic or g�gremolata, hung instead of a bucket excavator to compact soil in confined spaces. Clicking boom stick of an excavator at the hammer run it, and under the action of compressed air from a compressor or a hydraulic fluid from the excavator (hydraulic hammer), he rises up and puts on a stamp periodic strikes. When the first strikes on unconsolidated ground impact frequency of the hammer will be below the nameplate. With increasing soil density, the frequency of attacks will increase proportionally to the increase of soil density and reaches a maximum (nameplate) values at maximum density ToI=10. The increasing frequency of strokes attributable to the increase in the densification process of the elastic properties of the soil. The frequency of the strokes of a hammer fixed arrow appliance - frequency meter with a scale once ottariano known in units of relative density, expressed by the coefficient of consolidation ForI.
A disadvantage of the known technical solution is possible to recognize the need for sophisticated equipment, preferably of the known technical solution can be implemented in the process of creating the mound.
The closest technical solution can be recognized (RU, patent 2010083, publ. 1994) method of quality control of compaction of clay soil heterogeneity, including sandy-graynamore detritus fractions, including definition of density ραand the degree of compaction R for soil or fine-grained deposits, and pre-determine the lower limit of plasticity WPthe particle density of soil ρsestablish the correlation between the degree of compaction R and relative humidity of the soil (Kwand calculate the relative humidity of the soil by the formula
then find the degree of compaction R for correlations between R and Kw.
A disadvantage of the known technical solutions should recognize his lack of accuracy, due to the approximate value used to calculate the defined characteristics of the data.
The technical problem solved by the developed method consists in the evaluation of quality by the compaction by determining the coefficient of consolidation in horizontal and vertical otsypnoy the mound in the absence or unreliability of conduct geotechnical monitoring during the construction of these embankments.
The technical result achieved when implementing the developed ability�and, is to increase the accuracy of determining and identifying areas nedouplotneniya soil for subsequent local dopolneniya.
To achieve the specified technical result is proposed to use a method is developed for assessing the quality of layer-by-layer compaction of embankments of roads, Railways and dams hydraulic structures. According to the method developed previously performed static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 m of the top of the mound, at the same time take samples of undisturbed compacted soil structure to determine the moisture content and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several wells drilled at points at a distance of not more than 1 m in plan from the points held static, dynamic or vibration sensing (p. 52.7 JV 11-105-97. Engineering-geological surveys for construction. M., 2001, part II) to determine the mechanism of compaction on soil samples selected from the body of compacted embankments carried out laboratory tests with standard seals determination of coefficient of consolidation, depending on the density of the soil skeleton and builds the correlation between the specified values of the coefficient of consolidation and the values of penetration resistance�Oia standard cone into the ground at static, dynamic or vibration sensing based on the previously performed in the laboratory of definitions, followed by assessment of the quality of the seal made earthen mounds.
Conduct static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 meter on top of the mound, and sinking wells with sampling of soil and determination of their physico-mechanical properties allows you to define the heterogeneity of the composition and state otsypnoy the mound.
Determination of moisture and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several drilled wells allows to determine the maximum density of the soil, and to build the correlation coefficients between the seal and the values of the resistance to penetration of a standard cone under the sensing.
For more precise definition of quality by the compaction of earthen mounds, built of any kind of clay or sandy soils, it is possible to additionally determine the distribution coefficient of consolidation with the identification of areas nedouplotneniya soil volume specified by earthen mounds. To do this, hold the distribution plot of KI- coefficient of consolidation, defined by the correlation between the resistance to penetration of a standard cone and ratio, low gas consumpti�ntom seal with the allocation of local areas nedouplotneniya soil and recommendations for their dopolnenie.
According to tests on standard seal determine the maximum dry density of soil ρdthat matches the bulk factor of KIequal to 1. Depending on the constructive element of the specified subgrade and, for example, the solidity of the road determine the required density of dry soil earthen mounds ρdaccording to the formula:
In addition, to improve the accuracy of determination further carried the static, dynamic or vibrational sounding in places located at different points and at different depths were constructed earthen mounds with the standard mathematical treatment of the results.
In the future, the nature and advantages of the developed method is discussed using the example of the developed method.
The developed method was implemented in assessing the quality of aggregates built of earthen embankments on the approaches to the object "reconstruction of the overpass over the railway at km 127+Ali road M-6 "Caspian" from Moscow (from Kashira) through Tambov, Volgograd to Astrakhan. Moscow region".
This work showed the possibility of realization of the tasks set by the developed method.
The purpose of work performed was the evaluation of the quality of construction of embankments on the approaches to the overpass over the railway on the above the highway.
In accordance with the purpose of buildings under construction in the production studies were performed the following works:
- drilling with sampling
- field study of soils (static sounding),
- laboratory work,
- laboratory work.
The first phase involved a self-propelled drilling rig UGB-2A2 (on the basis of the car "Ural" kolinsky way up to diameter 160 mm. (13 wells with depths ranging from 3 to 27 m.)
Drilling was carried out, as mentioned above, core way with the removal, in case of his presence, asphalt pavement and surface of the underlying layer, which was present almost everywhere made on the approach road embankments. The specified thickness of the samples ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 m were Simultaneously performed sampling of soil from the embankment of the approach and its Foundation in natural and disturbed patterns.
Upon completion of drilling, sampling of soil passed generation Tampa�was miravalles source material (quarry sand with layer-by-layer seal).
The location of the workings, the static probe points and lines of engineering-geological sections was shown on the scheme plan backfilled embankment approaches.
On selected samples (28 samples) were cited laboratory studies of physical properties and determination of bulk factor of the material of embankments using standard seal.
In the second phase of work to assess the quality of layer-by-layer filling of embankments approaches are implemented on the basis of the same installation static sounding every 20 meters in 53 points by height of stacked mounds from PC 0 to PC 3+60 and from PC 4+40 to PC 11. Between PC 3+60 to 4 PC+40 overpass was built over the railway.
Static sensing probe was carried out by type II on the instrument LLC Geotest" (Set TEST-4). The static test data acquisition was conducted to clarify the parameters of the frontal and lateral resistance of soil to penetration of a standard cone, that is, to determine the degree of compaction at the height of the earth embankment and the boundaries of her soles. The point of holding static probe was located almost at a distance of about 1 meter from the drilling, which provided a fairly reliable correlation of the results of drilling and cone penetration testing.
The third stage of the work (Desk) was to build a �orelational based on the results of laboratory works on standard compaction of the fill material and field work on static sensing.
Were established correlation between coefficient of consolidation of fine sand fill material and frontal resistance of soil to penetration of the specified cone, made on the basis of field and laboratory studies of bulk soils.
Based on these correlations, the zones of nedouplotneniya soil and recommendations for their deep dopolnenie vibration settings with doubleganger.
During the implementation of the developed method improves the accuracy of determining the quality of layer-by-layer seal otsypnoy embankments 17% with simultaneous detection zones nedouplotneniya soil for subsequent local dopolneniya.
1. Method of quality assessment by the compaction otsypnoy embankments of roads, Railways and dams, hydraulic structures, characterized by the fact that previously conducted static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 m of the top of the mound, at the same time take samples of undisturbed compacted soil structure to determine the moisture content and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several wells drilled at points at a distance of not more than 1 meter in terms of sensing points, on selected soil samples from the body of compacted embankment �avodat laboratory studies standard seals with the determination of coefficient of consolidation, depending on the density of the soil skeleton and builds the correlation between the specified values coefficient of consolidation and the values of the resistance to penetration of a standard cone into the soil under static, dynamic or vibration sensing based on the previously performed in the laboratory of definitions, followed by assessment of the quality of the seal made earthen mounds.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further determine the distribution of coefficient of consolidation with the identification of areas nedouplotneniya soil volume specified by earthen mounds.
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further carry out static, dynamic or vibrational sounding in places located at different points and at different depths were constructed earthen mounds.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the preparation of smear from peripheral blood with preliminary fixation with methyl alcohol, drying, washing with distilled water. After that, the smears are placed in a potassium chloride solution in a ratio of 0.57 g of potassium chloride per 100 ml of distilled water for 20 min and washed with distilled water. Additionally prepared is a mixture of solutions, prepared ex tempore, containing a solution "A" and "B". The solution "A" includes a 50% silver nitrate solution in an amount of 5 g of silver nitrate + 5 ml of distilled water. The solution "B" includes a 2% solution of gelatin on a 1% formic acid solution in an amount of 15.8 ml of distilled water + 0.2 ml of 100% formic acid + 4.0 ml of 10% gelatin. The solutions "A" and "B" are mixed in an amount of 5 ml of each, in darkness, with further submergence of the blood smears for 20 min in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C with the further submergence of the smears into distilled water for 2-3 seconds. After that, they are twice subjected to a 8 min exposure in a 5% sodium thiosulphate solution in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C. After that, they are washed successively with tap water and distilled water, after-staining is performed in the Romanovskiy dye for 30 min. After that, the smears are washed again with tap water, air-dried, placed in the Canadian balm and covered with a coverslip.
EFFECT: increased quality of smear staining and provision of a possibility to identify and further evaluate parameters of nucleolus organiser regions.
4 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprises embedding along the genetic horizons of nth thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selector of the ith diameter with a pointed lower end of a triangular shape. The selection of the horizontal soil monolith from the pit is carried out with the number of cylinders-monolith-selectors k, equal to where i - number of the cylinder diameter (n > i > 1), n - number of cylinders of different diameters, ki - the number of repetitions of the cylinder of ith diameter (ki > 3). And each time, prior to selection of the horizontal soil monolith the inner surface of each used cylinder-monolith-selector is greased with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolith-selector is performed in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit stepwise with fixing the load of each step. The set of devices for selection of the horizontal soil monolith comprises the said k-th number of thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selectors and a metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector. The metal nozzle is provided with a cylindrical recess in one of its ends, which diameter is equal to the outer diameter of the cylinder-monolith-selector having a maximum diameter of n cylinder-monolith-selectors, and the axis of symmetry coincident with the axis of symmetry of the metal cylindrical nozzle. The set also comprises (n-1) washer with an outer diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and the thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end of the metal cylindrical nozzle with the ability of mounting of each of them to the recess, followed by fixing in it. The inner washer diameters are different and equal to the outer diameter of each of the (n-1) cylinder-monolith-selector, constituting a pair: washer-cylinder-monolith-selector. Set is provided with a screw press with a head and a heel of cylindrical shape and a shield with a recess on its axis of symmetry with the ability of mounting in it through the heel of the screw press. And in the other end of the metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector on its axis of symmetry a recess of cylindrical shape is made, the diameter and depth of which correspond to the diameter and thickness of the head of the screw press.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of sampling soil of undisturbed placement and increase in the accuracy of determining the water-physical and filtration properties of soil on genetic horizons of the soil profile, reduction of time for selection of the monolith and the complexity of operations in selection of quality horizontal soil sample.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a floating element 10, which is placed onto the sea surface and connected to a pump, rigidly fixed to the sea bottom or to massive floatage 8. The pump is made in the form of a cylindrical pipe-shaped vertically arranged chamber 1 semi-submerged into the sea, which in its upper and lower parts is equipped accordingly with lower 3 and upper 6 nozzles. At the lower nozzle 3 there is a hose 4 with certain length arranged in water depth. In the chamber there is a piston in the form of an inlet check valve placed on the stem 9, which is made as capable of passing water in the chamber only in direction from the lower nozzle to the upper one and is connected by means of the stem 9 with a floating element 10. The piston may be made within a membrane 12 adjacent to the plane of a disc 11 made with through holes, axes of which are parallel to the axis of the disc.
EFFECT: simplified design, expanded area of application of a device for water lifting.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for determining consumptions and periodic water sampling from different horizons of a peat deposit, which are fixed as to depth. The complex includes a well casing pipe with a cone tip and a water intake structure. Besides, a sampling unit includes a cylindrical housing, on which there located are two elastic rubber cuffs with diameter equal to well diameter; in the wall of the cylindrical housing there are side holes - a middle one - for water receiving from a working horizon and is located between two cuffs; an upper one is located above the upper cuff; the lower one is located under the lower cuff; upper and lower holes are of a transit type and connected to each other with a tube passing inside the cylindrical housing of the sampling unit; the lower part of the cylindrical housing is connected to the water intake structure through a flange attached to the cylindrical housing; the upper part of the cylindrical housing is connected to a bracket for lifting the sampling unit and the water intake structure connected to it, the diameter of which is lower than inner diameter of the well casing pipe; the well casing pipe is pipes from one to N, which are connected to each other with external threaded couplings and side holes made throughout length of the pipes.
EFFECT: simpler design.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring probe for measurement and taking samples in molten metal. The probe is provided with a measurement head located on a rod, which includes at least a temperature sensor and a sampling chamber. The latter is at least partially enveloped with the measurement head and includes an input channel passing through the measurement head. The input channel has an internal section with length L, which is located in the measurement head, and has minimum diameter D at least at one point in this internal section; with that, L/D2 ratio is less than 0.6 mm-1. Besides, the measurement head has counter pressure Pg of lower than 20 mbar, which is determined so that first a reference gas flow is passed via a pipe with two open ends, and pressure P1 is measured in the pipe. Then, the pipe is inserted with one end into the inlet channel of the measurement head; the same reference gas flow is passed via the pipe and pressure P2 is measured in the pipe, and counter pressure Pg of the measurement head is determined based on difference P2-P1.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the obtained samples.
23 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a receptacle in the form of a sealed container whose lower part is fitted with a controlled two-way diaphragm valve, and a nozzle for feeding water used to wash the sample delivery line. The apparatus also includes a filter element, which is hermetically connected to a filtrate storage container, and an information control, display and transmission unit. The filter element is located in the working medium and is mounted on the sample removal line. To regenerate the filter surface, the apparatus includes a hydraulic pressure pulsator, which is installed on the sample removal line between a ball valve and a resistance disc, through which the sample is fed into the sample receptacle in the form of a sealed container, having a water-cooled jacket located at the end of the filtrate removal line.
EFFECT: invention improves the accuracy of monitoring process parameters, provides timely detection and rectification of process disorders, which enable to obtain more reliable data on the chemical composition of a solution.
SUBSTANCE: blood is sampled, acidified to pH 2-3 with aqueous oxalic acid, extracted in toluene for 5 min; the prepared extract is centrifuged for 60 min at 7,000 rpm, added with sodium sulphate to dewater and acetylated for 3 hours by introducing trifluoroacetic anhydride while stirring continuously in the pyridine medium. The blood sample, toluene, trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine are taken in volume ratio 5:2.5:0.2:0.1 respectively.
EFFECT: simplifying the stage of sample preparation and increasing the sensitivity of pentachlorophenol test.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: described are: solution for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining, which elutes paraffin-containing mounting medium from microscope slide with tissue sample, embedded into medium, and extracts antigenicity of tissue sample, and which can be used three or more times, and solution concentrate for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining, which provides possibility of easy obtaining of solution for preliminary processing. Solution for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining contains antigen-extracting agent, certain non-ionic surface-active substances in specified range and cyclodextrin or its derivative in certain amount, with not less than 80% of water constituting the remaining part. Composition of antigen-extracting agent is such that pH of solution for preliminary processing is in specified range, and content of cyclodextrin or its derivative represents specified amount.
EFFECT: obtaining solutions for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining.
21 cl, 5 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory test equipment, namely to the device for forming and testing of samples of thin coatings in loading devices, for example, for testing of thin ceramic heat-shielding coatings for tensile strength. The device is a two-piece unit intended for placement in the load device comprising two cylindrical and circular details the external surface of which is intended for application, at least, of one layer of thin coating and forming of a sample. One of cylindrical details has on the axis a cylindrical cavity, and another one a companion cylindrical ledge placed through a ring hole in a cavity and connecting the details. The external surface of cylindrical details has adhesion, and a ring surface has applied coatings without adhesion, and serve, respectively, for forming of a sample as a connecting layer and/or non- adhesion thin coating.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of study of strength properties of thin coatings by forming of non-adhesion longitudinal superficial sample on the two-piece unit suitable for loading by longitudinal and temperature loads.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to making preparations of adhering or non-adhering cells and/or particles, contained in liquid. Compartment (10) for making said preparations contains accumulation chamber (20) for storing liquid in accumulation chamber in suspended state against force of gravity, acting on liquid, only due to forces of adhesion and/or superficial tension. Accumulation chamber is made with possibility of storing liquid, which contains cells and/or particles, and discharge of stored liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, through output opening (22) by application of specified external force, in particular centrifugal force. Compartment contains channel (30), located adjacently to output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20), with output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20) leading to said channel. Channel (30) has section, larger than section of output opening (22), and wall in the place of transition from output opening (22) into channel (30) forms edge (32). Compartment also includes subject section (50) for reception of output liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, and absorbing means (40), located adjacently to subject section (50) between channel (30) and subject section (50). Absorbing means (40) has opening (42) , making it possible for liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, move through opening (42) onto subject section (50), and additionally removes liquid from liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, on subject section (50) in such a way as to leave said cells and/or particles on subject section (50) for analysis.
EFFECT: realisation of more efficient, reliable and high-quality making of preparations of cells and/or particles, contained in liquid.
25 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of "Physics of material contact interaction" and serves to determine gravity (compression) pressure in a massif of material medium of certain density. The method to determine gravity pressure of material medium in a massif and its natural density consists in the fact that at the specified depth h (cm) of the material medium massif using field methods of engineering survey, they determine the angle φsrt of the inner friction and specific adhesion csrt of the medium of integral structure under conditions of gravity (compression) pressure pc. At the same time the value of gravity pressure in the massif of elastic cohesive plastic soil medium is determined according to dependence
EFFECT: possibility to determine the value of gravity (compression) pressure in a massif of material medium by data of its strength parameters φstr and cstr in integral condition, and also value of specific weight γstr and density ρstr of medium under conditions of gravity of Earth surface.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a loading die, a load application unit, a thrust system and a measurement system. The die is made in the form of a stiff structure of a square shape. Under the die there arranged is an elastic plate with dimensions of the die in a plan view, with thickness of 0.05-0.1 of the size of the die sides and elasticity modulus of 30-50 MPa. A rectangular coordinate grid is applied to lateral sides of the elastic plate. The measurement system includes a recorder of the applied load and a die settlement recorder. On the lateral sides of the die there rigidly fixed on its symmetry axes by means of brackets are video recorders of deformation of the elastic plate with a possibility of complete vision of lateral sides of the elastic plate.
EFFECT: simplifying and cheapening of determination of distribution of reactive voltage of a soil foundation at any arbitrary points along the die bottom and improving reliability of results at one test.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of material interaction physics, namely to the method of determination of gravitational (local) pressure in the massif of connected material medium. The value of gravitational pressure is determined by the relation pl=(γ·h-cstr)ctgφstr, where γ - specific gravity of the material medium, h - depth of determination of pressure in the medium massif, cstr - structural specific cohesion of the medium, φstr - angle of internal friction of the structured medium in a natural occurrence.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determination of local pressure value.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction and is intended for use in engineering and geological survey in order to partition soil thickness in process of rotary drilling and determination of mechanical properties of soils in field conditions. A sound procedure plant, comprising a vehicle, on the platform of which there is a mast with a spinner, a hydraulic system providing for operation of crane drilling equipment, differing by the fact that with the purpose to expand functional capabilities and to increase accuracy of measurements, the plant is equipped with a measurement device, a device of axial loading and a laser range finder, a measurement device, one end of which is connected to the spinner shaft, the other one via a device of axial loading with a tail of a drilling string, comprises two force sensors, measurement of vertical movement of a drilling tool is carried out using a wireless laser range finder and a reflector fixed on the mast, measurement of drilling string and soil weight on its side surface is carried out using a force sensor, speed of rotation of a drilling tool is determined by means of analysis of radio signals recorded during rotation of the measurement device.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities, increased accuracy of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: testing method of carrying capacity of pile consists in the creation of stepwise increasing load on the soil through the pile and die before the conditional stabilization at which the upset speed doesn't exceed the specified value, during time specified, depending on type of soil, in the simultaneous upset recording with control precision equal to 0.01 mm, and for each stage of loading - in the construction of graphs of upset change in time, having the exponential form with curved zone, characterizing the upset speed before the initiation of conditional stabilization, and with flat zone. Upset registration at each stage of loading is performed at regular time intervals, which are specified within the limits of 3-5 min. Schedule of upset change in time (exponential curve) is built by upset values, uniformly registered in each time interval. The interval with the registered upset speed equal to 0.05 mm/min, according to which the new criterion of conventional stabilization is set, is determined at the curved portion of exponent. Time prior to conventional stabilization is determined by the number of intervals at the curved area until the specified time interval. Time of observation over the upset speed not exceeding 0.05 mm/min, is determined by the number of time intervals at the remaining segment of the curved area of exponential curve before the initiation of the flat area. For different types of soils the specified number of observation intervals over the upset speed is maintained in the ratio L1: L2=1/T1:2/T2, where T1, L1 - interval time and number of intervals, respectively, during time of observation over upset speed during pile testing on the sandy and clayey soil from solid to low-plasticity consistency; T2, L2 - interval time and number of intervals, respectively, during observation over the upset speed when testing the pile on the clay soil from solid to low-plasticity consistency.
EFFECT: reduction of time and cost of tests due to bringing the results of upset registration of pile to the actual state of soil of the respective type.
2 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the physics of material (contact) interaction and specifically to a method of determining the angle φd of internal friction and specific cohesion cd of a material contact medium with a deformed structure, which receives pressure higher than gravitational pressure. The method of determining physical parameters of strength of a deformed structure of a material medium comprises determining, during laboratory shearing of samples of a medium of a non-deformed structure in compression conditions, the angle φ=φstr of internal friction and specific cohesion c=cstr of the medium with a non-deformed structure while plotting a Coulomb-Mohr curve τi=pi·tgφstr+cstr of the limiting state of the medium under pressure pi, where τi is shearing stress of the medium under compression pressure pi.To determine the angle of internal friction of a medium with a deformed structure, formed upon achieving under a die a pressure equal to natural pressure pstr.n=pn=(γ·h-cstr)ctgφstr at a mark h of a solid of the natural composition thereof, the angle θ=φstr+φd=arcsin[2sinφstr/(1+sin2φstr)] is determined. The angle of internal friction of the medium with a deformed structure is determined from the expression φd=θ-φstr, and specific cohesion of the material medium with a deformed structure is determined from the relationship
EFFECT: obtaining a relationship of physical parameters of strength of a material medium loaded above natural gravitational pressure with said parameters of structural strength of the medium.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device to measure speed and direction of soil motion relative to an underground pipeline located in areas with possible landslide effects. The device to measure the speed and direction of soil motion relative to the underground pipeline comprises a measuring telescopic double-link lever with an extension sensor, a hinged joint, a unit of movements count with a unit of accelerometers. Besides, the device additionally comprises two measuring telescopic double-link levers with sensors, one of which is hingedly fixed on the pipeline and installed with the unit of movements count down, and the second one with its anchor is installed into soil not prone to landslide effects and is connected by a hinged joint to the pipeline.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil movement measurement.
SUBSTANCE: device to measure soil deformations comprises a hollow stand, a sensitive element, designed to accept shifting forces from soil displacement, and a recording device, comprising a measurement part, designed for measurement of the sensitive element position under action of shifting forces during soil displacement, and recording equipment connected with it and designed to convert variation of the sensitive element position under action of shifting forces to the value of soil displacement. At the same time the sensitive element is made in the form o a rod with a conical tip and is installed in the hollow stand, and is equipped with a fixator designed to hold the rod in the vertical position after submersion of the stand with the sensitive element in a well and installed on the rod as capable of its displacement along the rod and with the possibility of provision of free deviation of the rod from the initial position under action of shifting forces of the soil. The measurement part of the recording device represents a horizontal plate with measurement sensors installed on it for measurement of angles of rod inclination relative to the axis of the well, at the same time the horizontal plate of the recording device is fixed on the rod of the sensitive element above the fixator of the sensitive element.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of device under single action of vibration dynamic load with preservation of high accuracy of measurement.
4 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a housing, the electric motor with a shaft, and the storage cylinder-borer. At that the electric motor with the shaft is mounted inside and along the vertical axis of the housing, made in the form of a triangular truss consisting of the upper and lower belts which are interconnected by racks having vertical grooves for guides mounted inside the truss perpendicular to the racks with the ability of vertical movement along them and connected to the housing of the electric motor, equipped with handles extending outside the housing. At that, the electric motor shaft is provided with a magnetostrictive oscillator and has at the end a telescopic rod for removable storage cylinder-borers selected depending on the type of soil.
EFFECT: increased productivity of soil sampling and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial or civil construction, in particular to determine the stability of frozen soils, and can be used in construction of oil and gas pipelines to determine the degree of soil stability to thermoerosional washout. A method of modelling the horizontal thermoerosional washout of frozen soils includes the preliminary positioning of the soil sample in the cuvette, saturation of the soil sample with water up to the specified moisture, application of a drainage line of the certain width on the surface of the sample and freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with the closed lid in the cooling chamber to a determined temperature for minimum one day, the cuvette placing with the prepared soil sample with the open sector under the water supply facility at an angle, depending on the specified parameters of modelling, and erosion of the soil sample by water course. The width of the drainage line, water temperature and flow of the watercourse are adjustable, in this case the measurements of direct indexes are conducted - a depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow within the selected time interval, on the basis of which the indirect parameters of thermoerosional washout are determined: intensity of washout, erosion-preventive resistance of soil, water flow mechanical energy, water flow thermal energy, thermal flow expended for melting of frozen soil, thermal flow due to dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the water flow and frozen soil by the given dependences.
EFFECT: providing determination of a set of parameters, characterising the thermal erosion process of soils under the influence of the water flow.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular to the construction of high-head dams made of local building materials with unearth impervious elements. Earth dam contains the thickened concrete diaphragm 1 as impervious element. Diaphragm 1 is separated form the concrete pad 10 by the perimeter seam 11 and longitudinal inspection galleries 5 are made in it at intervals by height. Horizontal joints-cuts 9 closed for inspection galleries 5, which prevent the disclosure of joints toward the downstream pool, are made on the upper edge of concrete diaphragm 1. Part of concrete diaphragm 1, located above its foundation part, is made of particularly hard concrete mixes pressed by layers. Screen 7 of asphalt concrete or rolled concrete enriched with cement mortar is also made on the upper edge of diaphragm 1. Concrete diaphragm 1 is cut into separate sections by vertical functional-sedimentary joints 8.
EFFECT: increase of strength of impervious element of the dam and possibility of carrying out the required repair is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg