Method for quality assessment of layer-by-layer compaction of erected earth fills of highways, railways and dams of hydraulic engineering structures

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.

3 cl

 

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and reclamation, road and other types of construction where it is necessary to evaluate the quality of embankments and artificial grounds.

Known (SU, copyright certificate 1134669, publ. 1985) a device for the continuous monitoring of the degree of compaction of the soil containing the movable die and the measuring device includes a sensor size of sediments compacted soil associated with a movable stamp, and a signal element, and measuring a photovoltaic device is provided by an electronic device with external photoelectric effect and a recording apparatus, the sensor sizes deposits of non-cohesive soil in the form of two transparent tubes, connected by a flexible hose and filled with a working fluid, and one tube is fixed on the axis of the stamp, while the other is fitted in the area of photovoltaic electronic device connected to the signal element and a recording apparatus.

The known device operates as follows.

In the process of compaction movable stamp, transferring the load to the ground, produces a draught of it by some value Δh, wherein the sensor by the working fluid automatically shows on the scale measuring the amount of precipitation of non-cohesive soil. Pre-scale measurements of precipitation to seal�aemula ground install photovoltaic electronic device to the desired value of precipitation Δh Trfunctionally linked to required degree of compaction and is determined according to the calibration graphs and nomograms is the density of the soil skeleton. The coincidence of the magnitude of precipitation sealing of the soil with the required value of precipitation photovoltaic electronic device responds to illumination of the working fluid meniscus in the tube of the sensor automatically closes the electric circuit includes a recording apparatus and a signal element, wherein the recording apparatus records a recorder to tape the degree of compaction of soil for building Executive schedules by the compaction of embankments.

The disadvantage of the resulting measurement, and also the device as a whole should recognize the impossibility of obtaining absolute values of the quantities characterizing soil compaction, in particular the coefficient of consolidation of soil, which is the ratio of the required soil density to the maximum standard density of the soil.

Also known (SU, a patent 1823887, publ. 1993) method of monitoring the degree of compaction of earthworks. When implementing the known method in the process of a hinged pneumatic or hydraulic hammer stamped (rammer) is as follows.

On the surface of the (sealed) earthworks stamp set with pneumatic or g�gremolata, hung instead of a bucket excavator to compact soil in confined spaces. Clicking boom stick of an excavator at the hammer run it, and under the action of compressed air from a compressor or a hydraulic fluid from the excavator (hydraulic hammer), he rises up and puts on a stamp periodic strikes. When the first strikes on unconsolidated ground impact frequency of the hammer will be below the nameplate. With increasing soil density, the frequency of attacks will increase proportionally to the increase of soil density and reaches a maximum (nameplate) values at maximum density ToI=10. The increasing frequency of strokes attributable to the increase in the densification process of the elastic properties of the soil. The frequency of the strokes of a hammer fixed arrow appliance - frequency meter with a scale once ottariano known in units of relative density, expressed by the coefficient of consolidation ForI.

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is possible to recognize the need for sophisticated equipment, preferably of the known technical solution can be implemented in the process of creating the mound.

The closest technical solution can be recognized (RU, patent 2010083, publ. 1994) method of quality control of compaction of clay soil heterogeneity, including sandy-graynamore detritus fractions, including definition of density ραand the degree of compaction R for soil or fine-grained deposits, and pre-determine the lower limit of plasticity WPthe particle density of soil ρsestablish the correlation between the degree of compaction R and relative humidity of the soil (Kwand calculate the relative humidity of the soil by the formula

Kw=ρsραρsραwp,

then find the degree of compaction R for correlations between R and Kw.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions should recognize his lack of accuracy, due to the approximate value used to calculate the defined characteristics of the data.

The technical problem solved by the developed method consists in the evaluation of quality by the compaction by determining the coefficient of consolidation in horizontal and vertical otsypnoy the mound in the absence or unreliability of conduct geotechnical monitoring during the construction of these embankments.

The technical result achieved when implementing the developed ability�and, is to increase the accuracy of determining and identifying areas nedouplotneniya soil for subsequent local dopolneniya.

To achieve the specified technical result is proposed to use a method is developed for assessing the quality of layer-by-layer compaction of embankments of roads, Railways and dams hydraulic structures. According to the method developed previously performed static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 m of the top of the mound, at the same time take samples of undisturbed compacted soil structure to determine the moisture content and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several wells drilled at points at a distance of not more than 1 m in plan from the points held static, dynamic or vibration sensing (p. 52.7 JV 11-105-97. Engineering-geological surveys for construction. M., 2001, part II) to determine the mechanism of compaction on soil samples selected from the body of compacted embankments carried out laboratory tests with standard seals determination of coefficient of consolidation, depending on the density of the soil skeleton and builds the correlation between the specified values of the coefficient of consolidation and the values of penetration resistance�Oia standard cone into the ground at static, dynamic or vibration sensing based on the previously performed in the laboratory of definitions, followed by assessment of the quality of the seal made earthen mounds.

Conduct static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 meter on top of the mound, and sinking wells with sampling of soil and determination of their physico-mechanical properties allows you to define the heterogeneity of the composition and state otsypnoy the mound.

Determination of moisture and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several drilled wells allows to determine the maximum density of the soil, and to build the correlation coefficients between the seal and the values of the resistance to penetration of a standard cone under the sensing.

For more precise definition of quality by the compaction of earthen mounds, built of any kind of clay or sandy soils, it is possible to additionally determine the distribution coefficient of consolidation with the identification of areas nedouplotneniya soil volume specified by earthen mounds. To do this, hold the distribution plot of KI- coefficient of consolidation, defined by the correlation between the resistance to penetration of a standard cone and ratio, low gas consumpti�ntom seal with the allocation of local areas nedouplotneniya soil and recommendations for their dopolnenie.

According to tests on standard seal determine the maximum dry density of soil ρdthat matches the bulk factor of KIequal to 1. Depending on the constructive element of the specified subgrade and, for example, the solidity of the road determine the required density of dry soil earthen mounds ρdaccording to the formula:

ρdtpeb=ρdmaxky

In addition, to improve the accuracy of determination further carried the static, dynamic or vibrational sounding in places located at different points and at different depths were constructed earthen mounds with the standard mathematical treatment of the results.

In the future, the nature and advantages of the developed method is discussed using the example of the developed method.

The developed method was implemented in assessing the quality of aggregates built of earthen embankments on the approaches to the object "reconstruction of the overpass over the railway at km 127+Ali road M-6 "Caspian" from Moscow (from Kashira) through Tambov, Volgograd to Astrakhan. Moscow region".

This work showed the possibility of realization of the tasks set by the developed method.

The purpose of work performed was the evaluation of the quality of construction of embankments on the approaches to the overpass over the railway on the above the highway.

In accordance with the purpose of buildings under construction in the production studies were performed the following works:

- drilling with sampling

- field study of soils (static sounding),

- laboratory work,

- laboratory work.

The first phase involved a self-propelled drilling rig UGB-2A2 (on the basis of the car "Ural" kolinsky way up to diameter 160 mm. (13 wells with depths ranging from 3 to 27 m.)

Drilling was carried out, as mentioned above, core way with the removal, in case of his presence, asphalt pavement and surface of the underlying layer, which was present almost everywhere made on the approach road embankments. The specified thickness of the samples ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 m were Simultaneously performed sampling of soil from the embankment of the approach and its Foundation in natural and disturbed patterns.

Upon completion of drilling, sampling of soil passed generation Tampa�was miravalles source material (quarry sand with layer-by-layer seal).

The location of the workings, the static probe points and lines of engineering-geological sections was shown on the scheme plan backfilled embankment approaches.

On selected samples (28 samples) were cited laboratory studies of physical properties and determination of bulk factor of the material of embankments using standard seal.

In the second phase of work to assess the quality of layer-by-layer filling of embankments approaches are implemented on the basis of the same installation static sounding every 20 meters in 53 points by height of stacked mounds from PC 0 to PC 3+60 and from PC 4+40 to PC 11. Between PC 3+60 to 4 PC+40 overpass was built over the railway.

Static sensing probe was carried out by type II on the instrument LLC Geotest" (Set TEST-4). The static test data acquisition was conducted to clarify the parameters of the frontal and lateral resistance of soil to penetration of a standard cone, that is, to determine the degree of compaction at the height of the earth embankment and the boundaries of her soles. The point of holding static probe was located almost at a distance of about 1 meter from the drilling, which provided a fairly reliable correlation of the results of drilling and cone penetration testing.

The third stage of the work (Desk) was to build a �orelational based on the results of laboratory works on standard compaction of the fill material and field work on static sensing.

Were established correlation between coefficient of consolidation of fine sand fill material and frontal resistance of soil to penetration of the specified cone, made on the basis of field and laboratory studies of bulk soils.

Based on these correlations, the zones of nedouplotneniya soil and recommendations for their deep dopolnenie vibration settings with doubleganger.

During the implementation of the developed method improves the accuracy of determining the quality of layer-by-layer seal otsypnoy embankments 17% with simultaneous detection zones nedouplotneniya soil for subsequent local dopolneniya.

1. Method of quality assessment by the compaction otsypnoy embankments of roads, Railways and dams, hydraulic structures, characterized by the fact that previously conducted static, dynamic or vibration sensing at selected points at a depth of 1 m of the top of the mound, at the same time take samples of undisturbed compacted soil structure to determine the moisture content and density of the skeleton of the specified primer from several wells drilled at points at a distance of not more than 1 meter in terms of sensing points, on selected soil samples from the body of compacted embankment �avodat laboratory studies standard seals with the determination of coefficient of consolidation, depending on the density of the soil skeleton and builds the correlation between the specified values coefficient of consolidation and the values of the resistance to penetration of a standard cone into the soil under static, dynamic or vibration sensing based on the previously performed in the laboratory of definitions, followed by assessment of the quality of the seal made earthen mounds.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further determine the distribution of coefficient of consolidation with the identification of areas nedouplotneniya soil volume specified by earthen mounds.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further carry out static, dynamic or vibrational sounding in places located at different points and at different depths were constructed earthen mounds.



 

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2 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the physics of material (contact) interaction and specifically to a method of determining the angle φd of internal friction and specific cohesion cd of a material contact medium with a deformed structure, which receives pressure higher than gravitational pressure. The method of determining physical parameters of strength of a deformed structure of a material medium comprises determining, during laboratory shearing of samples of a medium of a non-deformed structure in compression conditions, the angle φ=φstr of internal friction and specific cohesion c=cstr of the medium with a non-deformed structure while plotting a Coulomb-Mohr curve τi=pi·tgφstr+cstr of the limiting state of the medium under pressure pi, where τi is shearing stress of the medium under compression pressure pi.To determine the angle of internal friction of a medium with a deformed structure, formed upon achieving under a die a pressure equal to natural pressure pstr.n=pn=(γ·h-cstr)ctgφstr at a mark h of a solid of the natural composition thereof, the angle θ=φstrd=arcsin[2sinφstr/(1+sin2φstr)] is determined. The angle of internal friction of the medium with a deformed structure is determined from the expression φd=θ-φstr, and specific cohesion of the material medium with a deformed structure is determined from the relationship сd=сstr[2tgφdtgφstr].

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FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: device to measure soil deformations comprises a hollow stand, a sensitive element, designed to accept shifting forces from soil displacement, and a recording device, comprising a measurement part, designed for measurement of the sensitive element position under action of shifting forces during soil displacement, and recording equipment connected with it and designed to convert variation of the sensitive element position under action of shifting forces to the value of soil displacement. At the same time the sensitive element is made in the form o a rod with a conical tip and is installed in the hollow stand, and is equipped with a fixator designed to hold the rod in the vertical position after submersion of the stand with the sensitive element in a well and installed on the rod as capable of its displacement along the rod and with the possibility of provision of free deviation of the rod from the initial position under action of shifting forces of the soil. The measurement part of the recording device represents a horizontal plate with measurement sensors installed on it for measurement of angles of rod inclination relative to the axis of the well, at the same time the horizontal plate of the recording device is fixed on the rod of the sensitive element above the fixator of the sensitive element.

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4 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of a housing, the electric motor with a shaft, and the storage cylinder-borer. At that the electric motor with the shaft is mounted inside and along the vertical axis of the housing, made in the form of a triangular truss consisting of the upper and lower belts which are interconnected by racks having vertical grooves for guides mounted inside the truss perpendicular to the racks with the ability of vertical movement along them and connected to the housing of the electric motor, equipped with handles extending outside the housing. At that, the electric motor shaft is provided with a magnetostrictive oscillator and has at the end a telescopic rod for removable storage cylinder-borers selected depending on the type of soil.

EFFECT: increased productivity of soil sampling and enhanced functional capabilities.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial or civil construction, in particular to determine the stability of frozen soils, and can be used in construction of oil and gas pipelines to determine the degree of soil stability to thermoerosional washout. A method of modelling the horizontal thermoerosional washout of frozen soils includes the preliminary positioning of the soil sample in the cuvette, saturation of the soil sample with water up to the specified moisture, application of a drainage line of the certain width on the surface of the sample and freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with the closed lid in the cooling chamber to a determined temperature for minimum one day, the cuvette placing with the prepared soil sample with the open sector under the water supply facility at an angle, depending on the specified parameters of modelling, and erosion of the soil sample by water course. The width of the drainage line, water temperature and flow of the watercourse are adjustable, in this case the measurements of direct indexes are conducted - a depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow within the selected time interval, on the basis of which the indirect parameters of thermoerosional washout are determined: intensity of washout, erosion-preventive resistance of soil, water flow mechanical energy, water flow thermal energy, thermal flow expended for melting of frozen soil, thermal flow due to dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the water flow and frozen soil by the given dependences.

EFFECT: providing determination of a set of parameters, characterising the thermal erosion process of soils under the influence of the water flow.

3 tbl, 2 dwg

Earth dam // 2550885

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular to the construction of high-head dams made of local building materials with unearth impervious elements. Earth dam contains the thickened concrete diaphragm 1 as impervious element. Diaphragm 1 is separated form the concrete pad 10 by the perimeter seam 11 and longitudinal inspection galleries 5 are made in it at intervals by height. Horizontal joints-cuts 9 closed for inspection galleries 5, which prevent the disclosure of joints toward the downstream pool, are made on the upper edge of concrete diaphragm 1. Part of concrete diaphragm 1, located above its foundation part, is made of particularly hard concrete mixes pressed by layers. Screen 7 of asphalt concrete or rolled concrete enriched with cement mortar is also made on the upper edge of diaphragm 1. Concrete diaphragm 1 is cut into separate sections by vertical functional-sedimentary joints 8.

EFFECT: increase of strength of impervious element of the dam and possibility of carrying out the required repair is provided.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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