Procedure for electroslag coating build-up on internal surface of pipe
SUBSTANCE: strip electrode is fed, it is moved along pipe, and is melted with forming of liquid metal bath. Liquid metal bath is subjected to permanent magnetic field created by two solenoid coil with cores making opposite poles at edges of the strip electrode. Build-up is performed with pipe rotation and with electrode axial movement with core ends location in plane parallel to plane of the strip electrode, at both sides of its side edges. Build-up of the first ring bead is performed at similar supply currents of the solenoid coils. Build-up of the second and next beads is performed at increased by 1.3-3 current of the solenoid coil with core creating "north pole" at edge of the strip electrode at side of the previously build-up metal bead.
EFFECT: invention reduces difference of thicknesses of the build-up coating and its discontinuity as per chemical and phase composition.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of protective coating on metal surfaces by welding under the flux layer and may find use in the application of protective anticorrosion coatings on inner surface of pipes, equipment for nuclear and chemical industries.
A method of coating electric arc welding under flux on the surface of the pipe, including the use of groups of electrodes that move along the axis of the rotating pipe with a continuous supply of flux, and in the process of welding the pipe from the opposite side is cooled.
(EN 2308364, UK 9/04, UK 31/02, published 20.10.2007)
The disadvantage of this method is the poor quality of the deposited coating, which reduces the operational reliability of the pipe. This is due to the fact that conducting the process in arc welding mode is accompanied by the periodic closure of the arc gap, whereby the deposited layer is obtained heterogeneous.
The closest in technical essence is a method of electric arc welding of metal in the product is submerged, including surfacing with strip electrode and the impact on a bath of molten metal constant magnetic field, formed by two electromagnetic coils with cores, forming opposite poles at the end�in strip electrode, moreover, the ends of the cores are in front of a tape electrode in the direction of the surfacing at the same distance from the axis of the strip electrode and the surface of the product.
(DE 2218078, UK 9/04, UK 35/30 published 25.10.1973)
Specified known method also inherent disadvantages of methods of welding in arc mode. In addition, the known method does not allow to adjust the magnitude of the magnetic field in the coils of the magnetic system, in combination with non-optimal arrangement of the ends of the cores relative to the bath of molten metal does not provide the possibility of obtaining high-quality deposited coating on the inner surface of a pipe having a curvature.
The task and the technical result is to provide a method of surfacing coating on the inner surface of the pipe in electroslag mode, reducing thickness variation of the deposited coatings and the reduction of heterogeneity in chemical composition.
The technical result is achieved in that a method of electroslag surfacing coating on the inner surface of the pipe comprises feeding strip electrode, it moves along the pipe, melting with the formation of the liquid metal bath and the impact of constant magnetic field on a bath of molten metal, which is formed by two electromagnetic coils with cores with �formirovanie opposite poles at the edges of the strip electrode, in the process of welding the pipe and rotate after each full rotation of the pipe by moving belt electrode along the pipe, and the ends of the cores of solenoid coils are placed in a plane parallel to the plane of the strip electrode, both sides from its side edges, facing the first annular bead carried out at the same supply currents to the electromagnetic coils with a core, and the second and subsequent surfacing of rollers is carried out at a magnification of 1.3 to 3 times the current power referred to the spool core in comparison with the supply current when welding the first annular bead and the formation of the "North pole" at the edge of the strip electrode from the previously deposited bead of metal.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the ends of the cores are placed at a distance of 5-30 mm from the side edges of the strip electrode, at a height of 5-15 mm from the weld surface of the pipe and at a distance of 0-30 mm from the plane of the strip electrode, but in the process of deposition the outer surface of the pipe over the place surfacing cooled.
The invention can be illustrated by an example using Fig. 1-3, where
1 - trumpet;
2 - surfacing the head with intermediate flux bin;
3 - column for console mounting;
4 - trolley to move NAP�ovocny head along the axis of the pipe,
5 - power source;
6 - basic fluxing bunker;
7 - cassette tape electrode;
8 - stationary remote control;
9 - power source and control panel of the magnetic system;
10 - drive a pair of rollers roller conveyors;
11 - idle pair of rollers roller conveyors;
12 - frame roller conveyors;
13 - heater resistance (for preheating);
14 - cooling system (sprayer and drip tray);
15 - the drip tray.
16 - console;
17 - resistant roller;
18 - the strip;
19 is a liquid metal bath;
20 - slag bath;
21 - a layer of flux;
22 - the bead;
23 - cores;
a, b, C are the coordinates of the placement of the pole tips;
α - the angle of pole tips;
VH- the direction of the surfacing;
N - "North" pole of the magnetic system;
S - "South" pole of the magnetic system.
Electroslag surfacing under flux on the inner surface of the pipe 1 (Fig. 1) nominal diameter DN 850 of steel grade HF were using consumable strip electrode 18 of a width of 60 mm and a thickness of 0.5 mm steel type Cr20Ni10Nb. Filing strip electrode 18 and the flux were using surfacing head 2 (Fig. 1) with intermediate flux hopper placed on the console 16 inside the pipe 1. Console 16,�esenkoy on the column 3 for its fastening, in the area of surfacing was applied flux from the primary flux hopper 6 and the strip 18 from the cassette 7. The axial displacement of the welding head 2 with strip electrode 18 along the pipe 1 was carried out using a truck 4, on which was placed the power source 5, connected to the stationary control unit 8 and the power source control unit of the magnetic system 9. Tube 1 is placed on the rollers of the roller stand is provided with a frame 12, an idle roller 11 and driven by a pair of rollers 10, which was carried out by rotation of the pipe 1. Preheating pipe carried by the heater resistance 13, and the outer surface of the pipe over the place surfacing were cooled with cooling system, including nozzles and drip tray.
Impact on a bath of molten metal 19 constant magnetic field, which was formed by two electromagnetic coils (not shown) with the cores 23, forming opposite poles ("North" and "South") at the edges of the strip electrode 16. The ends of the cores were placed at a distance of 5-30 mm (for example, a=15 mm) from the lateral edges of the strip electrode 18 at a height of 5-15 mm (for example, b=10 mm) from the weld surface of the pipe 1 and at a distance of 0.5-30 mm (for example, C=20 mm) from the plane of the strip electrode 18 (Fig. 2, 3).
This mutual arrangement of the core�at 23 and formed of the molten metal bath 19 to compensate for the forces due to the intrinsic magnetic field of the welding circuit (so-called "magnetic blow"), which lead to the displacement of the molten metal bath and, consequently, to the formation of undercuts in its subsequent crystallization along the line of fusion between the rollers and the base metal. Also you can prevent the formation of slag inclusions in the weld metal.
The ability to change the location coordinates of the ends of the core 23 of the magnetic system relative to the pipe 1 and the strip electrode 18, as well as the ability to control the parameters of the magnetic system (the current in the coils) alter the amount and nature of the impact created by it's magnetic field on formation of weld platens 22, including when using ribbons of different sections.
The welding was performed while rotating the pipe drive rollers 10 (Fig. 1) at a speed of 10 m/h and the axial movement of the surfacing head 2 after the completion of each full revolution of the pipe 1. The first ring roller are deposited at the same currents power solenoid coils supplied from a power source 8 (Fig. 1) coils of the magnetic system, and the second roller and subsequent rollers - when you increase 1.5 times the current of the electromagnetic coil core 23 (Fig. 2, 3) forming the "North pole" at the edge of the strip electrode 18 side earlier napravljen�th roller. This ensured the stability of the process of formation surfaced rollers, their uniform thickness and made it possible to eliminate the offset of the molten metal bath and to correct the defects in the morphogenesis of rollers, such as undercuts, uneven edges, sticky formed between the rollers.
In the process of deposition the outer surface of the pipe is cooled using a sprayer cooling system 14 (Fig. 1). This eliminates the possibility of overheating of the metal filler pipe and caused overheating of the formation of hardening structures in the metal heat affected zone under surfaced rollers. These structural changes may result in the operation of the weld the pipe to the emergence of the so-called "welding" cracks in the metal pipe and the output pipe from service. The use of forced cooling of the pipe using a sprayer greatly reduces the likelihood of "welding" of cracks, i.e. improves the quality surfaced pipe and increase its reliability. The implementation of the method according to the invention has allowed to avoid a short circuit between the pipe and tape electrode, which provided a reduction in the heterogeneity of the deposited coating by chemical composition.
As a result of the implementation of the method of deposition according to the invention on the inner surface of the pipe �ylo obtained homogeneous in chemical composition anti-corrosion protective coating of uniform thickness, without undercutting, zabadani between the rollers, pores, cracks and other defects, which allows to increase the resource of the weld pipes and their reliability as part of the equipment for atomic power stations, installations, petrochemical industry, etc.
1. Method of electroslag surfacing coating on the inner surface of a pipe comprising feeding strip electrode, it moves along the pipe, melting with the formation of the liquid metal bath and the impact of constant magnetic field on a bath of molten metal, which is formed by two electromagnetic coils with cores with the formation of opposite poles at the edges of the strip electrode, characterized in that in the process of welding the pipe and rotate after each full rotation of the pipe by moving belt electrode along the pipe, with the ends of the cores of solenoid coils are placed in a plane parallel to the plane of the strip electrode, both sides from its side edges, with the surfacing of the first ring roller are at the same currents power electromagnetic coil core and the cladding of the second and subsequent rolls is carried out at a magnification of 1.3 to 3 times the current power referred to the spool core in comparison with the supply current when welding the first ring of the roller and forms�ing "North pole" at the edge of the strip electrode from the previously deposited bead of metal.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ends of the cores are placed at a distance of 5-30 mm from the side edges of the strip electrode, at a height of 5-15 mm from the weld surface of the pipe and at a distance of 0-30 mm from the plane of the strip electrode.
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of deposition the outer surface of the pipe over the place surfacing cooled.
SUBSTANCE: bimetallic workpiece is produced by electroslag facing on workpiece of primary layer of consumable electrodes from corrosion-resistant steel. Then bimetallic workpiece is rolled on steel plates. Before facing on the whole length of primary layer workpiece, in under-electrodes space cover plates are welded, and in inter-electrodes space recesses are grinded out. Cover plates are made from steel close by its chemical composition to steel of primary layer or steel of consumable electrodes. Cover plate section is a plane described by zigzag line or arc or their combination.
EFFECT: uniformity of hot-rolled bimetallic plates cladding layer thickness, high strength and integrity of layers adhesion, as well cladding layer corrosive resistance.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: mould can be displaced relative to the part to be hard-faced and includes current-feed, mid and forming sections arranged in height and isolated. Circular open electromagnet is designed to affect the fluid hard-facing metal by magnetic field. Mid section has through cut-outs. Said mould is arranged in the gap of said open circular electromagnet secured at forming section bed. Heights of electromagnet wall and mould forming section wall are related as 1:2-1:3. The first independent power supply designed to heat the molten pool is connected to current feed section. The second source to generate ring magnetic field is connected to mid section. The third source is connected to open electromagnet.
EFFECT: higher metal resilience and strength.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented as additional operation introduction means - application of a working root weld of minimum width and with maximum penetration of root faces. When performing the working root weld, a process weld that was welded before it is fully rewelded. After that, internal and external working welds covering the root weld on both sides are applied.
EFFECT: enhancing a pipe manufacturing process, reducing welding heat input, decreasing the heat effected zone for parent metal, improving mechanical properties of weld metal and heat affected zone, reducing level of residual stresses, and improving geometry of the pipe and weld shape.
SUBSTANCE: system to control an electric holder with an electrode for setting of an electroslag melting, welding and overlaying comprises a hydraulic cylinder, a control unit, providing for immediate displacement of the electric holder with the hydraulic cylinder connected with the electric holder, a hydraulic station and oil lines with electrically controlled valves - a valve of oil supply into a hydraulic cylinder and a valve of oil drainage from a hydraulic cylinder. The system is equipped with a controller and an oil line with a double-sided electric valve connected with the hydraulic cylinder, at the same time the controller is arranged as capable to supply signals to valves with electric control and an electric valve.
EFFECT: higher reliability of plant operation by exclusion of human factor influence and increased efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to hydride method of laser welding, particularly, to laser electroslag welding to be used in machine building for producing welded structures at larger thickness of welded edges. Slag and metal baths are formed. Said baths are retained in space limited by copper shaping plates and weld seam edges. Slag, filler wire or consumable plate electrode, seam metal or edges are heated by heat released by electric current passing between electrodes and seam metal and through fused slag. Laser beam is fed onto slag bath surface, its power being uniformly distributed over welding bath mirror surface and filler wire of consumable electrode feed rate being simultaneously increased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device may be used for reconditioning workout machine parts and producing tools. Crystalliser 1 is arranged on support plate 7 to form built-up metal. Added part 6 makes the bottom of said crystalliser. Mechanism 3 for feeding electrode wore 2 into crystalliser 1 serves to displace vertically electrode wire and to feed current thereto from power supply. Crystalliser vibrator is arranged under it on base 5 to oscillate in horizontal and vertical planes to drive crystalliser axis along conical surface. Said vibrator comprises motor 9, cam 10 and, at least, three springs rigidly secured on base 5 by their lower ends and their upper ends on support plate 7.
EFFECT: constant hardness and strength of added metal due to uniform distribution of tungsten, decreased tungsten consumption.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at repair of large-size thick wall iron parts with complex deep and long crack in plane. There is bored a row of through orifices of specified diametre at a specified space along trajectory of the crack and perpendicular to surface of its development. The space between through orifices should facilitate overlap of a preceding seam with the following one at weld of each orifice. Diametre of orifices is chosen depending on degree of deviation of the crack from vertical. A removable process plug out of graphite is installed into each successive orifice; the plug eliminates overflow of melt from the preceding orifice into the following orivice through a bridge formed with a section of the crack between orifices. Depending of diametre of the orifice it is welded either by electric slag method or by arc welding with austenite high nickel wire under a mode of electric heating, thereby producing a solid seam. From beneath under orifices there is positioned a graphite crucible. Also there can be formed a bed by charging first dry sand, then iron chips or shot over sand through an orifice; charge is successively compacted to plug an output from the orifice. Crack zone is locally heated along whole cross section of the part.
EFFECT: procedure ensures raised strength of crack repair producing monolith, also reduces labour input of repair.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention may be used for repair of worn-out flat surfaces and production of said surfaces by hard-facing. Current feed element 3 is arranged along crystalliser 1 edges in electrically insulating layer 2 to make an axially symmetric chamber in said crystalliser. To produce slag tanks, molten slag 11 is poured into aforesaid chamber so that slag tope surface exceeds lower end face of current feed element 3 by preset amount. Region of maximum heat release is produced in said slag tank nearby hard-facing metal formation zone. Two hollow non-melting electrodes 12 are arranged inside crystalliser, connected to independent current source and located at preset distance between their centers. Filler material 14 is fed into slag through cavity of each non-melting electrode 12. Built-up metal is cooled due to heat rejection towards opposite side of hard-facing surface with the help of 9.
EFFECT: higher quality of hard-facing.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structure of nonconsumable electrode for electroslag hard-facing or electroslag remelting. Hollow nonconsumable electrode is fixed in water-cooled electrode holder with channels for feeding of inert gas, located concentrically to axial channel of electrode holder and nonconsumable electrode. Electrode allows cyllindrical working section with ratio of its diametre D and diametre of axial channel d, selected from the range 2.0-2.3 and height, calculated depending on diametre D subject to coefficient, defining minimal and maximal permissible height of working section. Working section is implemented with cavity, expanding by the direction to the butt of submersed into slag electrode, for increasing of current density in slag ensured by decreasing of wall thickness. In axial channel of electrode it is installed dielectric cyllindrical pype. Cavity can be implemented in the form of hemisphere or in the form of cone.
EFFECT: device allows technological universality and provides increasing of heat consumption for heating of slag and melting of adding material ensured by reduction of contact area of working section of electrode with slag and increasing of current density.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: device contains cooled diecasting die, electrode with displacement drive by guide way and appliance for fixation of parts and diecasting dies, fixed on rotor-turning gear. Rotor-turning gear is located on guide way. Guide way is implemented in the form of hollow pipe and serves for rotor-turning gear as rotation axis. Rotor-turning gear additionally contains distributor of cooling liquid, which corresponds sealing divided cavities, two of which are located inside guide way and serving for centralised supply and withdrawal of cooling liquid, and two outside the guide way - for direct supply and withdrawal of cooling liquid to diecasting die.
EFFECT: increasing of manufacturability and efficiency of renewal process, reduction of overall dimensions of device, improvement of management of diecasting die cooling and ensured by this providing of ability of increasing the amount of operation positions.
SUBSTANCE: first, a shell with an outside end thickening of a cylindrical shape and a spherical bottom of a variable cross section is made of an O-bar of high-strength steel like SP-28 or VP-30 of a rolled plate. A reinforced throat is made from carbon steel 35. The thickness of a weld edge of the throat is chosen in the ratio of 2:1 to the thickness of the shell weld edge. The structure is assembled in a welding and assembly device with a removable pad so that the coincidence of axes and an annular manufacturing clearance at the butt, which is equal to 0.10…0.16 of the thickness of the shell weld edge, is provided. Gas-shielded welding is performed.
EFFECT: invention provides the quality of the weld joint from dissimilar steels and the uniform strength of the weld joint.
7 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to joint metals on aluminium base. Between two connecting materials gasket material is inserted, it contains alloy comprising zinc and aluminium, or zinc and magnesium; or zinc, magnesium and aluminium; or zinc, copper and aluminium; or zinc, tin, aluminium; or zinc, silver and aluminium as main components. Both materials are heated to temperature that upon at their pressing results in eutectic reaction of gasket components and aluminium. Film of aluminium oxide is displaced together with melt from the separation border. At that one or both following conditions shall be met: pressure during jointing is from 5 MPa or up to 30 MPa, and ratio between roughness Ra of surface of both jointing materials and thickness t of the gasket material is from 0.00003 to 0.06. By the specified jointing method different parts are connected, such as separately cast block of engine head, separator of fuel element and solid-state component.
EFFECT: method ensures metals connection in air at low temperature and low pressure without flux use, minimises their deformation.
9 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: module comprises a guide belt, a movable orbital carriage mounted on the guide belt and able of travelling along it. The carriage includes a longitudinal movement drive and a moving device consisting of a carrying roller system and a gear wheel. A joint monitoring sensor, a welding wire reeling device and a handler are installed on the carriage. The handler consists of two mutually perpendicular linear guides with motors, which can move in respect to each other. The transverse linear guide is equipped by a laser welding head, a wire feeding unit, an arc welding torch, a video camera and a controller.
EFFECT: invention allows for the increase of productivity and efficiency of welding process for fixed ring pipe joints and for the improvement of welded joint quality.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: end surface of fragments to be coupled are levelled and cleaned. Bores are drilled therein and thread is cut. Said fragments are degreased by gasoline. Then, fragments are assembled to flat structure with the help of studs made of stainless steel. Then, edges are finished for welding, fragments are degreased and subjected to arc welding with application of bronze wire in lines of joint of said fragments. Now, welds are finished and surface of made structure is subjected to sand blasting.
EFFECT: higher strength and reliability of welds.
1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler plates are locally secured and assembled in packages in stamp with their location between the lining plates. Package is heated to welding temperature. During heating the diffusion hydrogen treatment of the titanium alloy is performed due arrangement in the oven cover of the titanium alloy reflector having higher atomic hydrogen content relatively to the titanium alloy of the filler plates. Filler cells are made due to gas supply under pressure between filler plates, and cells between each other and with lining plates are diffusion welded. Due to the diffusion spattering the additional alloying of the titanium ally by hydrogen is performed resulting in change of the alloy microstructure.
EFFECT: increased strength characteristics of ready panels.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to welding of overlap joints and can be used in power production, motor production, ship and railway car building. Power supply is connected. Plasma-forming protective gas is fed. Arc is excited at top element to penetrate both elements. Note here that top element features higher density that that of lower element metal. Depths of top and bottom elements are related as 1:3. Note also that elements are assembled to overlap by at least tem depths of bottom element while welding time is set (2…4)δ seconds where δ is total depth of the elements, mm.
EFFECT: reliable weld.
SUBSTANCE: separate section of reducing roller shoe consists of the frame, two drive roller shoes articulated with reduction gear and motor and two idle free running roller shoes. One or several section of driven roller shoes consist of the frame, two driven roller shoes engaged by couplings with pairs of idle roller bearings an pair of idle roller bearings. Section of driven roller shoes are mounted with frame abutting on the section of driven reducing roller shoe to make an integrated section with aligned continuous drive rolling support and aligned continuous rolling support. Roller shoes in pairs are mounted at different heights, those nearby the bench lengthwise axis are arranged below far ones with allowance for touch of standard shells with four roller shoes at a time. The number of driven roller shoes is selected proceeding from the possibility for bench to support calibrated shells, to set them as required and to assemble in circular butt. Sections of mobile roller shoe are arranged at track to displace there along in mirror axis of roller bench.
EFFECT: possibility to assemble cylindrical housing of various length.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solder is composed of aluminium-based allow that contains the following elements in wt %: Cu 6.0-9.0; Ti≤1.0; Ni 1.0-2.0; Al making the rest. Solder solid phase temperature equals 540-545°C, while that of liquid phase - 635-640°C. Prior to soldering, parts surfaces are processed to make them rough. Said solder is placed between said surfaces. Parts are subjected to plastic deformation at pressure equal to stress not lower than solder yield point. Assembly to be soldered is heated in ambient air in furnace or subjected to local heating with holding at 645-650°C for 9-13 minutes. Parts can be shaped to plates, pipes and rings.
EFFECT: high quality and hardness of soldered seam.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: cleaning of surfaces of attached items from oxides is performed. An intermediate layer from niobium in the form of foil, a plate or a sputtered layer is installed with further heating in vacuum or a protective atmosphere. First, an item from an alloy based on titanium nickelide is connected only to an interlayer from niobium, heated to the temperature of 1170-1190°C and exposed during 1-15 minutes. Then, the item is cooled and brought into contact with the second item from titanium or its alloys with a side containing a niobium layer. Then, it is heated to the temperature of 850-950°C in the protective atmosphere or vacuum; the pressure of 1-15 MPa is applied, exposed during 5-60 minutes and cooled.
EFFECT: maintaining physical and mechanical properties and a microstructure of combined alloys based on titanium due to reduction of diffusion welding temperature.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to induction surfacing of inner cylindrical surfaces in machine building. The article is arranged horizontally in retainer to joint rotation about article mirror axis. Spreader made of plate of heat-resistant graphite is arranged inside at article bottom to displace at surfacing radially relative to processed surface and with clearance between the latter and spreader smaller than the depth of built-up ply. Inductor is arranged in place. Retainer is revolved jointly with the article. Inductor is switched on to feed gradually the charge on surface being faced ahead of spreader in direction of article rotation. Charge is negated by inductor and surface being faced to joint melting at article rotation. Clearance between spreader and surface being faced gradually to preset depth facing ply. Note here that article is rotated at rpm selected to prevent fall of facing material and melt running-off while spreader is vibrated in direction of outs length.
EFFECT: cylindrical surface is turned to preset diameter.
FIELD: metallurgy, namely metal welding, possibly butt welding of hot rolled steel strips designed for further cold rolling.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of drawing together end edges of strips; welding them by passing electric current through them and upsetting them; determining value of welding current according to relation Iw = isp x V, where I w - welding current value, A; i sp - specific density of electric current equal to 0.52 -0.56 A/cub. mm; V - volume of melt metal of strip, cub. mm. Upsetting value after welding is determined according to relation Δ c = K x δ, where Δ c -upsetting value, mm; K - empiric coefficient equal to 1.45 - 1.75; δ - strip thickness, mm.
EFFECT: enhanced possibility for rolling welded joints due to optimal structure of metal in zone of welding joints.