Mass exchanging device comprising structured attachment
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: absorber comprises a layer of structured attachment fitted by corrugations. The corrugations form a variety of open channels. The channels comprise the first corrugation recess, the first corrugation protrusion and the second corrugation protrusion. The first corrugation protrusion and the second corrugation protrusion confine the first corrugation recess, and the first and the second corrugation protrusions have the first tip and the second tip. An indentation passing in the direction of the first tip is provided on the first tip of the first corrugation protrusion. The first corrugation recess has the recess bottom, and normal distance from at least one indentation point to the corrugation recess bottom is less than the normal distance from the first tip to the corrugation recess bottom.
EFFECT: invention provides for improved mass exchange for absorber or desorber.
15 cl, 14 dwg
The invention relates to a structured nozzle, as well as the mass transfer device, which contains a structured packing such as, for absorption column or desorption column.
Structured packing is made in a commercial embodiment in the form of folded metal sheets disposed one after the other, the structure of which has a sloping channels that constantly intersect with one another. These channels have a positive effect on the flow of the gas phase and the liquid phase inside the nozzle and to facilitate mass transfer between the phases. Namely the gas phase and the liquid phase are brought into contact in the channels of the nozzle, and the mass transfer between the phases, respectively, is facilitated.
In order to improve the capacity of structured packing to the separation, the surface of the structured packing is usually increased, which usually is achieved by the increased number of layers of the nozzle and/or more dense geometry of the channels. However, these measures lead to increased pressure drop in structured nozzle. This implies, however, that to reduce the pressure drop shall be provided to the lower surface of the nozzle, resulting in the ability to the separation, namely the efficiency of the nozzle deteriorates. In addition, there may be provided more open perezcious�the existing channels. More open intersecting channels means that the angle of the selected channels smaller in relation to the main flow direction. This means that we are to find an optimum between the pressure drop and the best ability to branch, depending on the application.
Intersecting canals, however, have a number of points of contact that can act positively in some applications, but may also act in a negative way in other applications.
Downstream from the sites of contact, when viewed in direction of flow of the fluid, this can lead to dead zones, and the liquid in these dead zones involved in the mass transfer, to a lesser extent than the rest of the fluid, which is structured the nozzle. This phenomenon is already known from US 6378332 B1, which describes a nozzle for cryogenic distillation, which is designed to reduce the occurrence of dead zones. The solution in accordance with US 6378332 B1 is to reduce the number of contact points between the layers by alternating high and less high excesses of each individual layer.
From US 6378332 B1 are known, respectively, the process of rectification, which uses a structured nozzle which has a structure with intersecting channels, namely she�Elana of corrugated or folded metal sheets, which are arranged on each other in a cross way. Adjacent metal sheets in contact with one another along the ridges of the corrugations or along the edges. A more volatile fluid, in particular gas phase can flow between folded sheets of metal, in countercurrent to the less volatile fluid, in particular liquid phase, this can cause mass transfer. In US 6378332 B1 presents a method of reducing the number of contact points between two adjacent metal sheets. For this purpose, the measures taken to change the height of the projections or edges of the corrugations so that only some of the ledges or edges of the corrugations of each sheet metal having a maximum height. The metal sheets thus in contact with one another only at the maximum height along the ridges of the corrugations or edges.
The disadvantage of the nozzle is proposed in accordance with US 6378332 B1, is its insufficient mechanical stability. In addition, the volume filled by the nozzle, not perfectly correspond to the geometric area of the exchange, partly due to less bends (folds), therefore, this development project is associated with the loss of space mass transfer.
Therefore, the aim of the invention is to provide a structured packing, which has a high stability at the same or less� the number of contact locations.
Another objective of the invention is the improvement of mass transfer in particular for the absorber or the desorber, in which the rate of mass transfer is governed by the liquid phase.
The solution includes an absorber or desorption, containing the first layer of structured packing having corrugations, with the corrugations formed by a set of open channels. The first layer of structured packing has a plurality of open channels include a first corrugation trough, the first protrusion of the corrugation and the second protrusion of the corrugation, wherein the first protrusion and second corrugation ledge corrugation limit the first corrugation trough, wherein the first and second protrusions have a first corrugation peak and a second peak. At first the top of the first ledge corrugation recess extending in a direction of the first vertex, wherein the first corrugation trough is the bottom of the hollow, and wherein the normal distance of at least one point of the recess from the bottom of the troughs of the corrugation is less than the normal distances of the first vertex from the bottom of the corrugation troughs.
In addition, a second layer, wherein the second layer contains the corrugations, wherein the first layer and the second layer are arranged so that the channels of the first layer intersect with the channels of the second layer. The first layer is in contact with the second layer, wherein the contact is interrupted at the site of each of the recesses.
Through required�of the grooves creates an additional opportunity for the directional flow of fluid, as well as the location of the points of contact provides maximum wetting the nozzle surface.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the implementation of the second recess is located on the second top. Alternatively or in addition, at the bottom of the first trench may be located in the third recess. The layer can be, naturally, a plurality of first, second or third recesses.
Each layer may include a first edge boundary and a second boundary boundary, the first boundary border is essentially parallel to the second edge border. Between the first boundary value boundary and the second boundary boundary may, in particular, has many indentations.
To achieve high stability at the same or a smaller number of points of contact of the nozzle has corrugations essentially constant height of the projections.
In accordance with a preferred variant implementation, at least a portion of the top is formed as an edge and/or at least some of the troughs of the corrugations are V-shaped.
Structured nozzle, respectively, includes a first layer of a nozzle in accordance with any of the above embodiments and a second layer, wherein the second layer has corrugations, similar to the first layer, located�completion of the first layer and the second layer so the channels of the first layer cross the channels of the second layer. The first layer is in contact with the second layer, preferably so that the peaks of the ridges of the corrugations of the first layer and the tops of the corrugation troughs of the second layer are in contact.
Pits can be located on each of the first and second layers. Contact the first layer with the second layer is interrupted by the recesses.
The nozzle in accordance with the present invention is made of a structured Packed layers, all bends (folds) which have the same height. This ensures high stability of the nozzle, which, in particular, is especially important in large diameter columns. Reducing the number of intersection points of the individual layers is implemented in accordance with the present invention through the use of recesses. These recesses can be made in the form of lenticular dents that can be formed, for example, plastic deformation peaks. Recesses are formed at specific locations of the folded Packed layers, and the layers of the nozzle can be thus separated at a certain distance and in certain points from one another.
Alternatively, recesses can be formed into a Packed layer by performing a hollow space, which can be used insert�.
In addition, at least some of the recesses are at a length which corresponds to at most 75% of the length of the top. The recess is preferably between at least one of the first and second boundaries so that the boundary region is made for increased stability of the shape of the nozzle.
Each of the recesses may include an intermediate ledge, in particular, if the hole goes at most to 75% of the length of the top. The intermediate ledge can then lie on top of the adjacent layer or may be located at a distance from the adjacent layer.
Each layer may contain a hole. Such aperture may facilitate flow of gas and/or fluids adjacent channel. Holes may be provided on the wall section of the corrugation on the tops of the ridges of the corrugations or troughs of the corrugation or also in the area of the recesses.
Where possible, the formation of the recesses is carried out together with the manufacture of the layer by means of profiling. Fabrication of the layer can thus be performed with a minimum number of process steps. For this purpose, recesses may be formed on the metal sheet by pressing, stamping or deep extraction at certain points, for example, on the upper edge and the lower edge of the nozzle layer. When individual layers are placed one on another, the channels do not touch�components with each other, accordingly, in the region of the recesses. Deepening missing at least in the respective two edge areas, or on the top edge or the bottom edge of the layer or on the side edges of the layer, so that there are enough points of contact, in particular contact points to support adjacent layers with a gap therebetween defined by the height of the corrugations. Through the implementation of a plurality of recesses within each regional area achieves a significant reduction of the contact locations, as well as maximizing the wetted surface of the nozzle while the stability of the individual layers and, thereby, also the nozzle as a whole, which is formed of multiple layers.
The distance between the individual layers of the nozzle remains constant even if the recesses are located at the vertices that limit open channels. The peak may be understood either as the projection of the corrugation, or as an edge, which is the end, which is formed by two adjacent side surfaces of the channel.
Mass transfer occurs in the form of a multitude of individual phases occurring sequentially, to clean more volatile fluid, in particular gas. The components contained in gas that must be separated are moved to the surface section of the liquid by convection and diffusion. The components must then pass through� surface section and move into the liquid. You must provide the mass transfer area for liquid, which is as large as possible, so that the mass transfer can be improved.
Another objective of the invention is the choice of the location of the points of contact so that there has been minimal change in mass transfer due to the contact locations.
The contact points, in particular, are located mostly in the outer region of the first layer in the device in accordance with any of the above variants of implementation. In contrast to the prior art, whereby preferably uniform distribution of the contact locations, however, the number of contact locations is reduced, the requirement of uniform distribution of points of contact over the surface of the nozzle can be completely bypassed in accordance with the present invention. If a smaller number of contact locations is therefore more tightly against each other, the restriction of the flow affects the backflow after ground contact, thereby decreasing the area of the undamped surface at the site of contact. Accordingly, this leads to a small number of points of contact with less undamped surface and eventually to the minimum floor area ratio undamped surface and total surface area.
In accordance with prefer�inim variant implementation of the device many of recesses located on each layer. In this case, all layers have the same structure, which reduces the manufacturing effort and/or costs. Layers may be made continuously so that the tape is continuously formed (formed by the folds), and at this time, recesses are formed. Fold the tape is provided with a recess, is cut to the desired size. The ribbon is cut to the size of layers, and each second layer is rotated in such a way that creates a cross-shaped arrangement of the layers when they are placed one on another, adjoining one another.
The mass transfer device, in particular column, may include a structured nozzle in accordance with any of the above variants of implementation.
Method of cleaning fluids in the mass-transfer device, which contains a structured packing comprising the following steps: served less volatile fluid into the mass transfer device; distribute submitted less volatile fluid on the nozzle surface; serves more volatile fluid into the mass transfer device in the region for introduction of the fluid; distribute more volatile fluid into the area for the introduction of gas via the nozzle surface while passing the more volatile fluid in countercurrent to the liquid; select more volatile tech�can sense the environment, it comes out of the nozzle in the area for release of the fluid at this structured nozzle comprises a first layer and a second layer, wherein the first layer and the second layer have the corrugations of constant height, wherein the corrugations form the open channels, wherein the channels of the first layer cross the channels of the second layer, and the more-volatile fluid to flow through the channels from the field for the introduction of the fluid medium in the direction of the field to release the fluid and the less volatile fluid surrounds the more volatile fluid medium which flows through the channels, and flows along the walls of the channels. The first layer is in contact with the second layer through the tops of the ridges of the corrugations, so that the mass transfer occurs between the more volatile fluid and the less volatile fluid on the mass transfer area formed by the channels.
Maximum hydration liquid, the nozzle surface in mass transfer device is made possible through the use of recesses and through the location of the contact.
The nozzle is preferably made of structured layers, folds (bends) which are all the same height. The result is a high stability of the nozzle, which, in particular, is of particular importance in large diameter columns. The number of points of intersection between individual CL�Yami reduced in accordance with this invention by forming recesses on the tops of the ridges of the corrugations of at least one of the two adjacent layers.
The invention will be explained hereinafter with reference to the drawings. It illustrates:
Fig. 1 - view of the device in accordance with the present invention, including a plurality of Packed layers;
Fig. 2a is a sectional view through two adjacent nozzle layer in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 2b - view of two adjacent packing layers with corrugations in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 3 - image of the usual Packed layer with the path of flow of the less volatile fluid;
Fig. 4 - image of the points of intersection in accordance with the decision of the prior art;
Fig. 5 - image of the intersection points according to the first embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 6 - image of the intersection points according to another embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 7a - image layouts with recesses in accordance with this invention the layer in the future;
Fig. 7b - type layer in accordance with Fig. 7a in the direction of the folds;
Fig. 8a is an illustration of the deformation of the nozzle in accordance with the prior art when a bending load;
Fig. 8b is an illustration of the deformation of the nozzle in accordance with the present invention, when a bending load;
Fig. 9 - image of the absorption layer as an example of application of the present invention;
Fig. 10 is a graph representing�th measured value NTUM for the gas phase, adjustable absorption system or desorption system;
Fig. 11 is a graph representing measured values NTUM for the liquid phase, adjustable absorption system or desorption system.
Fig. 1 shows a device 1 in accordance with the present invention, which includes a number of layers of structured packing 7, which form the body of the nozzle. Under the means of mass transfer between two fluid phases involves structured nozzle 7. Structured nozzle 7 is used in the mass-transfer device 2. Masomenos the device may, in particular, be made in the form of a column 5, which can be used for absorption or desorption.
Structured nozzle 7 is made of multiple layers that are in a regularly repeating geometric relationship with each other. The gap between adjacent layers can be picked up as an example for this geometric relationship. In accordance with the geometric relationship of the spaces between adjacent layers, separating them from one another, can periodically take the same value, so that the structure is a result of the amount of layers, which is characterized by the same or at least periodically the same intervals. The frequency about�specials throughout structured nozzle, whereby the nozzle attached to a regular structure. The structure can be, in particular, made in the form of corrugations.
In contrast, bulk tips are made from bulk elements, which are elements with the same geometric structure, however, each bulk element may have any desired spacing relative to the adjacent bulk elements, so that the frequency of these intervals is unrecognizable. Bulk items are entered in a column to fill. They form a layer in a heap at the base of the column. Layer in the form of a pile is characterized by a random arrangement of individual bulk items.
The layers according to Fig. 1 is made of thin-walled elements, which have corrugations. The corrugations are characterized by the periodic repetition of the sequence of the protruding sections, namely the projections of the corrugations and vaginaobese recesses, that is, the corrugation troughs. These corrugations can be, in particular, made in the form of folds with a zigzag cross-section with sharply converging edges. The layers are located relative to each other so that the corrugations of two adjacent layers have a tilt with respect to the main flow direction. The corrugations of adjacent layers are arranged intersecting with respect to each other.
Fig. 2a shows two adjacent layers 10, 100 �strukturirovannoi nozzle 7 according to Fig. 1. The first layer 10 is located adjacent to the second layer 100. The first layer 10 and second layer 100 may, in particular, to include an element of sheet metal or wire mesh; alternatively to this, however, they may also include elements from plastic or ceramic material. The element can in this respect include General layer, but may also form only a part of it. The element may be in the form of a plate, which contains the corrugations, in particular, with a zigzag cross-section, or corrugations with rounded protrusions and the bottom of the depressions. The element may have a coating of ceramic or plastic, to provide improved resistance layer against chemical influences, such as corrosion or thermal influences, such as temperature or mechanical stress, such as pressure.
The first layer 10 and second layer 100 of Fig. 2a is shown as representing parts of the first surface 8 of the nozzle 7. The first surface 8 of the nozzle 7 is located essentially perpendicular to the main flow direction 6. The flow direction is called the main flow direction 6, in which a more volatile fluid, in particular gas, flows upward, i.e. in the direction of the head of the column 5, in the column without installations. Alternatively to this, the opposite direction may �also be defined as the main direction of flow. In this case, the main flow direction corresponds to the direction in which the less volatile fluid, which is usually a liquid, flows through the column without installations, i.e. it is in free fall. In the nozzle the flow direction locally deviates from the main direction of flow, as the flow changes the direction of the layers of the nozzle.
The first layer 10 of the structured packing 7 has corrugations with many open channels 12, 14, 16 formed by the corrugations. The channels include a first cavity 22 of the corrugation, the first lug 32 of the corrugation and the second protrusion 42 of corrugation. The first lug 32 of the corrugation and the second protrusion 42 of corrugation limit first hollow corrugation 22. The first lug 32 corrugation 32 and the second protrusion 42 have a first corrugation peak 33 and 43 of the second top. On the second apex 43 of the second protrusion 42 of corrugation recess 44 extending in a direction of the second top 43. The first cavity 22 corrugation has a bottom 23 of the trough. The first cavity 22 corrugation has a bottom 23 of the trough, while the normal distance of 27 at least one point of the recess 34 from the bottom 23 of the trough 22 of the corrugation is less than the normal distances of the first vertex 33 of the bottom 23 of the trough corrugation 22.
The normal distance between the first apex 33 of the first protrusion 32 and bottom corrugation 23 of the first trench 22 called corrugation corrugation height of 28. The height of the corrugation 28 respectively more than a normal Russ�oanie 27. In the layer in accordance with this invention, the height 28 of the depression, in particular, is essentially constant, i.e. within the range of normal deviations, which lie in the region of 0.5 mm.
The first recess 34 may also be located at the first vertex 33. The second recess 24 may also be located on the bottom 23 of the first trench.
The second layer 100 of the structured packing 7 has corrugations with many open channels 112, 114, 116 formed by the corrugations. The channels include a first cavity 122 of the corrugation, the first protrusion 132 of the corrugation and the second protrusion 142 of the corrugation. The first protrusion 132 of the corrugation and the second protrusion 142 corrugation limit of the first cavity 122 of the corrugation. The first protrusion 132 of the corrugation 32 and the second protrusion 142 have a first corrugation peak 133 and 143 of the second top. At first the top of the first ledge 133 132 corrugation recess 134 extending in a direction of the first vertex 133. On the second top 143 of the second protrusion 142 corrugation recess 144 extending in a direction of the second top 143. The first trench 122 corrugation has a bottom 123 of the depression. The recess 134 and the recess 144 has less the normal distance from the bottom 123 of the corrugation troughs 122 than the second top protrusion 143 of the second corrugation 142 from the bottom of the trench 123 corrugation 122. At least the top part can be manufactured as an edge. At least some of the troughs of the corrugations may have a V-shape. Normal distances between the�tion between the bottom of the hollow and the top is essentially the same for all projections of the corrugations of the layer according to Fig. 2a.
Fig. 2b shows two adjacent layer of structured packing having corrugations, whereby the vertices do not form sharp edges, but on the contrary, made in the form of the curved portions. References in other respects are made to the description of Fig. 2a.
Fig. 3 shows the effect of the locations of the contact locations on the wettability of the surface layer, such as layer 10 of the nozzle shown in Fig. 2a or Fig. 2b. Fig. 3 in this respect, shows the location in accordance with the prior art. Layer 10 covers the layer 100, which is not visible because it is behind him in the plane of the drawing. The first top 33, the second top 43 and a bottom 23 of the trough, located between them, represent the layer 10 by way of an example. The first and second peaks 33, 43 and the bottom 23 of the trough formed by the edges of the folds. The top 33, 42 placed on the bottom 123 of the depression, which refers to the layer 100. Each of the layers 10 layers and 100 naturally contains many other tops and bottoms of the depressions, that are not designated in more detail, since they do not differ from the marked tops and bottoms of the depressions. Fig. 3 lines that are related to the peaks of the protrusions of the corrugations, is made thicker than the line relating to donham depressions. In addition, the dashed line with long dashes is provided to the peaks of the ridges of the corrugations of the second layer 100 and the dashed line with short strokes.�Lena for the bottoms of the depressions of the layer 100. The contact point 48, which is indicated by a circle in Fig. 3, occur at those points where the bottom of the hollow layer 10 and the top layer 100. The contact points are distributed uniformly over the entire area shown in two layers 10, 100.
One can see from Fig. 3 that the contact points are very close one to another, which leads to a very large number of small sections 46 undamped surface and, consequently, to a comparatively large part of undamped surface in relation to the nozzle surface. Fig. 3 shows only a single section 46; arrows 47 indicate the flow of the less volatile fluid.
Fig. 4 shows a case where the contact point is reduced, for example by folding the layers thus, as proposed in US 6378332 B1. In a much smaller number, but in return is also larger, undamped sections 46 presumably arise from the flow of the less volatile fluid, indicated by arrows 47. The fluid streams are deflected to a greater extent in this variant implementation. In the end, again formed a large part of undamped surface on the full surface of the layer 10. The geometric shape of the layers in accordance with Fig. 4 is shown in detail in Fig. 8a.
Fig. 5 shows the arrangement of contact points 48 between two adjacent layers 10, 100 in accordance � by the present invention. Layer 100 is located behind the layer 10. Reference is made to Fig. 3 in the details view. The number of contact points is reduced relative to the surface of layer 10. The contact point, in particular, are not distributed evenly over the surface.
If a small number of contact points, in contrast, are located more closely together, respectively, with a reduced distance relative to each other, the restriction of the flow affects the after countercurrent contact, whereby decreases, in turn, the area of the undamped surface at the site of contact. Accordingly, this leads to a small number of points of contact with less undamped surface and in General to the minimum floor area ratio undamped surface and total surface area of the layer.
Layer 10 includes the first marginal boundary 50 and the second marginal boundary 60, wherein the first marginal boundary 50 is essentially parallel to the second peripheral border 60. The vertical location of the boundary layer the boundary 50 is the upper boundary surface and the second marginal boundary 60 is the lower surface of the partition. Layer 10, in addition, includes the first boundary the boundary 51 and the second boundary boundary 61. The first boundary boundary 51 and the second boundary boundary 61 is held until it is tight to the inner wall mass transfer device, to a pri�STI columns, with a vertical arrangement of the layer in the nozzle.
The gap, which is located at least one additional nozzle may be adjacent to at least one of the upper surface or the lower surface of the partition.
The contact points 48 are located near the first and/or second edge 50, 51, 60, 61. Adjacent layers are in contact with one another in these places of contact. Other contact points are at least partially eliminated between these places of contact within regional boundaries through the use of recesses. Many depressions that may have the same structure as that of one of the first, second or third grooves 24, 34, 44 in accordance with Fig. 2a or Fig. 2b, is located between the first edge 50, 51 and the second marginal boundary 60, 61.
The recesses may, of course, also be located near at least one of the first and second boundary limits.
Fig. 6, furthermore, shows another variant in which the contact points are not located one next to another and one above the other. There is also fluid flow down along the points of contact thereby minimizing the square of the undamped surface between the point of contact.
Type layer 10 in accordance with this invention is shown in perspective in Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b is a plan view of a layer according to Fig. 7a in the direction�of folds. Corresponding structured nozzle 1 includes the first layer 10 and second layer 100, the second layer 100, preferably having corrugations, similar to the first layer 10. The first layer 10 and second layer 100 are arranged so that the channels of the first layer 10 intersect with the channels of the second layer 100. The first layer 10 is in contact with the second layer 100 lower parts of the valleys of the corrugations of the second layer 100 located opposite the protrusions of the corrugations of the first layer 10. The first and second peaks 33, 43, 133, 143 are disposed on each of the first and second layers 10, 100. The first and second peaks 33, 43, 133, 143, which form the contact points, arranged as in Fig. 5 or Fig. 6. The contact points are shown by circles on these drawings. In locations in which no circles, no common ground, and holes.
The second layer 100, for simplicity, are not shown graphically in Fig. 7. Recesses 24, 44 of the first layer 10 have at least one point of separation from the first and second lower sections, not shown, the troughs of the corrugations of the second layer 100, which would be located at the top of Fig. 7. Recesses 44, which are located near the boundary of the first boundary value 50, preferably are arranged so that they form low areas on the first side 11 of the layer 10. Recesses 24, which are located between the first edge 50 and second to�Evoy border 60, made in the form of recesses on the second side 13 of the layer 10. The first side 11 of the layer 10 is opposite the second side 13 and forms the surface layer.
Pits can be, in particular, are arranged one below the other in vertical disposition of the first and second layers 10, 100. Alternatively, or in combination with this, the indentations may be arranged one next to another with a vertical arrangement of the first and second layers.
Other indentations that need to be made in the form of dents or optionally in the form of dents, may also be located along the top of the layers 10, 100. Such a recess may include an empty space, which contains an insert with an area having a gap from the top of the adjacent layer. This site is formed so that it at least on separate sites located below the normal height of a corrugation. The corrugation height is understood as the gap between the ledge and neighbouring corrugation trough of the corrugation. If the corrugation trough has limited curvature on its lower section, a gap is defined as the normal distance between two tangents to the two extreme points located parallel to one another. If the curvature is very large, i.e., the apex is pointed, and the highest point, thus, has no clearly op�delannoy tangent, the plane is defined as passing through the highest point and contains all the top sides of the layer. Plane similarly passes through the lowest point of the corrugation troughs and contains all the points of the troughs of the corrugation and, in addition, other depressions of the corrugations. These two planes must be parallel to one another. From this it follows that the height of the corrugation is a normal distance between these two planes.
Deepening in accordance with any of the above embodiments are parts of a vertex or edge. Pits can be formed by profiling, i.e. pressing, stamping or deep extraction blanks for the layer, for example, sheet metal for attachment. Recesses are formed mainly on one side of the vertices of the corrugation ridges or troughs of the folds.
The advantage of this arrangement is that the workpiece can be made infinitely long. Such a preform can be manufactured from strip material, for example, in the form of a plate of sheet metal. Then pieces of a certain length is cut from the strip material. These parts are converted into corrugated material, for example by bending. As an alternative, use a tape material that already has corrugations. Crop�Naya part, having the corrugations, and then forms a layer. The profiling process can be applied to these Goram during the procedure of bending, so that the recesses are formed during the bending procedure. The first layer 10 and second layer 100 are placed consecutively one upon the other when combined with the turning of all of the second corrugated sheets. At least one row of recesses is located between all the layers near the upper and lower boundary limits and/or close to the lateral edge of the borders.
The depth of the grooves is preferably in the range from 10 to 30% of the height of the layer, so that between the individual layers form a gap value in this interval. The minimum value of the gap is 1.5 mm for aqueous systems. Narrower gaps can be difficult, with a liquid, in particular water, can be captured between two adjacent edges may remain there and may form a bridge from the liquid.
Fig. 8a shows the layer in accordance with the known form of construction, having the folds of variable height to reduce ground contact. The disadvantage of this form of construction is that the layer is compressed under loads on the upper side and the lower side, while the arrows 20, 21 indicate the direction in which the compressed layer. The pleats include a first apex 65 � second highest peak of 85, and depression 75 corrugation located between them. The first and second peaks 65, 85 may be in contact with the adjacent layer, which is not shown. Intermediate cavity 66 and the intermediate corrugation ledge 67 corrugation, which forms a fold located between the first apex 65 and the bottom 75 of the depression. Intermediate trough corrugation 66 has a bottom 68 of the intermediate depression, and the intermediate protrusion 67 corrugation has an intermediate vertex 69. Normal distance 70 between the bottom 68 of the intermediate depression and the intermediate peak of 69 less than the normal distance 71 between the top 65 and bottom 75 of the depression. In a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 8a, the normal distance of 70 is approximately half the normal distance 71. Fold half height are formed, respectively, between the intermediate cavity 66 and the intermediate corrugation ledge 67 corrugation. Fold half height serves as a site crushing, and can be deformed. On the one hand, the nozzle is not stable may be formed by the deformation; on the other hand, cannot maintain a fixed layer height of the nozzle. The height of the layer corresponds initially to a certain normal distance 71.
This problem can be avoided by the shape of the structure in accordance with the present invention. As shown in Fig. 8b, the layer with the recesses on each �clutch can be compressed to a much lesser extent, and the layer may thus be subjected to higher loads on the upper side and the lower side. This makes it possible to design a stable attachments and provides essentially a constant height layer to obtain a certain surface of the nozzle.
In addition, the surface indentations are suitable for mass transfer. This means that not only should be expected to increase the area of mass transfer in comparison with the prior art, but also compared to conventional nozzles, which have overlapping layers with corrugations, the height of which is constant.
Fig. 9 shows an absorption system 90. Absorption system 90 includes two mass transfer device, the absorber 91 and desorption 92, which, in particular, made in the form of columns. One or more components from the gas stream are separated in the absorber 91 in an absorption system. For this purpose, a liquid solvent or absorbent. In desorber 92 solvent or absorbent cleared from the absorbed component.
As absorption and rectification are the separation process to separate one or more components from existing source flow 93. Rectification is used to separate liquid mixtures based on the different boiling points of individual components, and rectification to dominionists as continuous distillation, which, in particular, includes a number of separate stages. Absorption, on the contrary, one or more components are separated from the gas stream with a suitable solvent or absorbent 94 and thereby removed from the gas stream. The head product of the absorber 91 are, respectively, flow 95 purified gas. The bottom product of the absorber 96 91 is an absorbent or solvent containing the absorbed component or components of them. May be reasonably economic, energy and environmental reasons to clean up the absorbent or solvent and feeding it again to the absorber as purified solvent or absorbent 94. Cleaning absorbent or solvent occurs in the desorber 92. The absorbent or solvent absorbed with them component or components, the bottom product of the absorber 96, forms the original thread of the desorber. This source stream is fed into the desorption in liquid form according to Fig. 10. Desorption 92 may include one or more nozzles in accordance with any of the above variants of implementation. The absorbent or solvent absorbed with them component or components proceeds in the direction of the sump 95. The absorbent or solvent is at least partially vaporized in the sump, and to this end provided with the evaporator 98 �of STOLICA. The absorbent or solvent, is evaporated in the evaporator sump, contains components that are subject to division, and absorbs the components to be the office, while lifting the column from the original thread of absorbent or solvent having absorbed them component or components flowing in the direction of the sump. Stream 99 gaseous parts, respectively, rises in the desorber and enriched components, amenable to office. These components are subject to separation, can be separated by a thermal, namely condensation, or through other stages of the branch downstream from the stream 99 gaseous parts.
Alternatively or in addition, may be provided to the expansion node, if desorption must operate at a lower pressure than the absorber or compressive node, if desorption must operate at a higher pressure than the absorber.
Mass transfer between gas and liquid usually occurs in accordance with the temperature differential between the sump and the head in both directions when rectification. A fluid with a higher boiling point condenses from the gas phase and absorbed by the fluid, and a fluid with a lower boiling point evaporates from a liquid phase to a gaseous phase. When the absorption masoom�n occurs only in one direction; the gas absorbed by a liquid.
The difference between rectification and absorption is that the gas flow and liquid flow are associated with one another by rectification; in absorption, in contrast, both threads can proceed independently of one another: if a certain amount of rectification of the liquid evaporates and rises in the direction of the column head of the column. All the steam condenses in the head part of the column and is discharged at least partially back again into the column in liquid form. The maximum possible amount of liquid, respectively, will correspond to the number of fully condensed steam that reaches the head part of the column. If more liquid is vaporized in the sump, more fluid may also flow in the opposite direction. Both streams are connected to one another in this respect, and the mass transfer depends explicitly from the vapor stream. Applications rectification, respectively, are governed usually by gas.
In contrast, different modalities can be installed in various applications of absorption using pumps and fans: a large flow of absorbent can be brought into contact with a relatively small gas flow or Vice versa. In addition to�, absorbents can link the gaseous components in different ways: physically, through a chemical reaction or both physical and chemical way. In this respect, the choice of absorbent or solvent for specific gaseous components and their concentrations in gas and liquid is determined by the fact, that subject to mass transfer in a greater degree, from the gas or to a greater extent by the liquid.
In order to check the applicability of the nozzle in accordance with the present invention produced a prototype, which contains indentations in accordance with the invention, to reduce the number of contact points. In the studied case, the distance formed by the groove between the two ridges of the corrugation, is 2.5 mm. the Number of contact points, respectively, decreased for specimens 37500 m-3up to 18,000 m-3. Thus, was achieved by reducing the points of contact by approximately 50% compared with the prior art with the same full surface 205 m2/m3.
This prototype was compared with the known nozzle without grooves, for example a nozzle in accordance with CH398503 having the same geometric surface area. Deepening on the experimental sample reduces the number of contact locations. In addition, the gas flowing along the channels of the Packed layer can be� partially introduced as a side stream through the recess adjacent channel located in intersecting manner Packed layer. Due to this change in the flow of gas should be expected for the low efficiency of separation for a test sample.
The above prototype was initially tested in an absorption column having a diameter of 300 mm. Isopropanol was favorably absorbed from the air with water. Thereby was obtained a system with regulation mainly gas side, like rectification. As expected, a smaller number of transfer units or NTUM (number of transfer units per meter) was obtained by measurement to a test sample, which is shown in Fig. 10 in the form of a first series of measurement points 52, 53, 54. The larger the number NTUM, the higher the efficiency of the nozzle in relation to mass transfer. The graph shows an example NTUM for selected F-factor 1.5 PA0,5for the nozzle in accordance with CH398503 and nozzles in accordance with the present invention. Changed loading of liquid L. F-factor is an indicator for the gas velocity in an empty column, multiplied by the square root of the gas density. F-factor is proportional to the kinetic energy of the gas. Measurement points 55, 56, 57 known for a nozzle in accordance with CH398503 show a higher value NTUM than measurement points 52, 53, 54 for attachment in accordance with this invention.
These preliminary research results show that nozzle in accordance with the present invention with reduced�ing the number of contact locations and a large distance between a Packed layers reduces the pressure drop, however, in addition, reduces the efficiency of separation, that can be seen from the lower values NTUM in Fig. 10. Consequently, this attachment manifests itself as a disadvantage for absorption or rectification and thus inherently different from the nozzle, are in US 6378322 B1, which is undoubted best way for rectification.
During subsequent testing has surprisingly been discovered that there are systems of substances for which the nozzle according to the invention leads to improved efficiency of the office. The second investigated system substances represents the absorption of CO2from the air with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by which CO2is chemically bound. Fig. 11 shows the measuring points for this system with a prototype for downloads fluid of about 10 to 80 m2/m3·h, whereby the measurement points 58, 59, 63, 64, 72, 73, 74 result in a higher value NTUM for the prototype than the measured values 78, 79, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88 for known nozzles. As shown in Fig. 11, the nozzle in accordance with the invention results in a reduced number of points of contact with at least the same efficiency of separation, and what is opposed to the nozzle. This means that the separation efficiency actually can be� improved by reducing the contact locations and a suitable arrangement of the contact locations. Along with this can be reduced the pressure drop by the use of nozzles in accordance with the invention. The lower curve in Fig. 11 shows NTUM for commercial structured packing in accordance with CH398503 under increasing load mass transfer device is less volatile fluid with F factor of 1.5 PA0,5load L shown in the m3/m2·h on the x-axis of the graph. The upper curve 102 in Fig. 11 shows for comparison NTUM for a structured packing in accordance with the present invention. For all measurement points, are investigated under the same load L, this leads to the fact that NTUM more, when the nozzle is used with indentations, but not when the nozzle is used without recesses.
The nozzle in accordance with the present invention has advantages in systems that can be found in the absorption treatment of the flue gases. In such systems from the flow of the flue gases must be extracted problematic components by reactive aqueous solutions. As an example, can be described as the absorption of CO2that may cause damage to the environment, from the flue gases of power plants. Absorption is the means for absorption of aqueous solutions which may contain organic or inorganic basic materials, the�s as MEA (monoethanolamine) or potassium carbonate.
A suggestion, why not reduce the points of contact in certain types of application leads to a better efficiency of absorption is: moisturizing due to weak capacity of the fluid used areas are formed behind the contact locations on the layer of nozzles, which are generally not wetted by liquid. Full Packed surface layer cannot be used in its entirety with liquid. Hindered the flow of the liquid at the contact points, and it accumulates and is deflected to the edges. The same can also be observed when water flows down on a flat surface, such as film, and the thread suddenly outraged introduced by the object (e.g., a pin was placed on the plane). Film stream flows with high speed behind the object, and the result is dry, undamped surface which is moistened again only when the object is removed from the stream. When applied in absorption, in which flows the gas through modifications in accordance with this invention has no negative impact on the efficiency of separation, is achieved by improved separation efficiency. In the system for the absorption of isopropanol from air to water, for which the mass transfer is governed by the gas phase, the degree of hydration has no significant impact on wt�Oomen. In a system in which mass transfer is governed by the liquid phase, for example, at the absorption of CO2from the air with a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), the complete surface wetting of the nozzle occurs when the increase NTUM.
1. Mass transfer device constituting the absorber or desorption with structured packings containing first layer (10) which has a first corrugation forming many open channels (12, 14, 16), wherein the channels include a first cavity (22) of the corrugation, the first protrusion (32) of the corrugation and the second protrusion (42) of the corrugation, wherein the first protrusion (32) of the corrugation and the second protrusion (42) corrugation limit first cavity (22) of the corrugation, the first and second protrusions have a first corrugation peak (33) and the second peak (43), with the first apex (33) of the first protrusion (32) of a corrugation recess (34) extending in a direction of the first vertex (33), wherein the first cavity (22) of the corrugation has a bottom (23) of the depression, and the normal distance (27) at least one recess (34) from the bottom (23) of the depression (22) of the corrugation is less than the normal distance (28) of the first vertex (33) from the bottom (23) of the first hollow protrusion (22) of the corrugation, thus, a second layer (100) that has a second corrugation, and the first layer (10) and second layer (100) are arranged so that the channels of the first layer (10) intersect with the channels of the second layer (100), wherein the first layer (10) is in contact with the �which layer (100), characterized in that the contact is interrupted in each of the first, second or third recesses (24, 34, 44), and recesses (24, 34, 44) is made by plastic deformation of the vertices (33, 34).
2. Mass transfer device according to claim 1, wherein the second apex (43) has a second recess (44).
3. Mass transfer device according to claim 2, wherein at the bottom of the first trench (23) performed a third recess (34).
4. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, which includes the first boundary boundary (50, 51) and a second boundary boundary (60, 61), wherein the first boundary edge (50, 51) is essentially parallel to the second edge (60, 61).
5. Mass transfer device according to claim 4, wherein the first, second or third recesses (24, 34, 44) are located between the first boundary value boundary (50, 51) and the second edge border (60, 61).
6. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first, second and/or third recesses (24, 34, 44) is made in the form of lenticular dents.
7. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the height (28) of the corrugation is substantially constant.
8. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein at least a portion of the top (33, 43) is made in the form of the edge.
9. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein at least some of the troughs of the corrugations are V-shaped.
10. Massoobmena� device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the recesses (24, 34, 34) are disposed on each of the first and second layers (10, 100).
11. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the recess (24, 34, 44) runs along the length which corresponds to at most 75% of the length of the top (33, 43).
12. Mass transfer device according to claim 4, wherein the recess (24, 34, 44) is made on the inner side of the first and/or second edge of the border(50, 51, 60, 61).
13. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the recesses (24, 34, 44) of the first layer (10) located at least partially overlapping recesses in the second layer (100).
14. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the recess (24, 34, 44) comprises an intermediate ledge.
15. Mass transfer device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first and/or second layer (10, 100) comprises a hole.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle is stock with rigidly secured on it trays, perforated by holes having cylindrical or cone shape. Along periphery of each tray the flanging is rigidly secured at both sides, at that gap between the wall and tray edge is 2 mm maximum.
EFFECT: extended range of stable operation and increased efficiency of the performed operations in the vibration apparatus.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cleaning of fluids and can be used at absorption or desorption column. Device comprises mass exchanger containing volatile fluid and poor-volatile fluid. Mass exchanger includes structure bed. The latter includes first layer (10) and second layer (100). Bed first layer (10) contacts with second bed (100) via spacing elements (24, 34, 44, 134, 144). The latter make the component of the bed first or second layer (10, 100) and are composed of bridges. Said elements (33, 43, 133, 143) confine open channels 12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116. First bed layer (10) and second layer (100) feature wavy profile making said open channels (12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116). Method of cleaning includes the feed of poor-volatile fluid into mass exchanger and its distribution over common surface. Beside said process comprises the feed of volatile fluid into mass exchanger and its distribution at gas inlet over the common surface. Volatile fluid flows in counter stream with fluid. Then, volatile fluid is collected at the bed fluid exit. Open channels of the bed first layer cross the second layer channels of the bed. Volatile fluid flows in said channels from fluid inlet to outlet. Poor-volatile fluid envelops volatile fluid to flow in the walls of channels. Therefore, mass exchange is increased between volatile and poor-volatile fluids via mass exchange surface composed by said channels.
EFFECT: decreased drop in head, higher separation capacity of structured bed.
18 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: preformed packing consists of units made from vertically set corrugated plates having the corrugations with notches formed due to the shift of adjacent corrugation rows in respect to each other, the plates are mounted with a gap in relation to each other in the row of one unit and with a gap in the units adjacent by height for the value commensurable with the corrugations height. The corrugation height amounts to from 0.2 to 0.5 of the value of equivalent channel diameter de, and the value of the gap between the adjacent corrugated plates in the row of one unit amounts to from 0.6 to 0.8 of the value of equivalent channel diameter de, where de=4 ε/a, ε - packing porosity, m3/m3, a - specific surface of the packing, m2/m3.
EFFECT: complete wetting of preformed packing surface, intense turbulisation of liquid phase, high intensity of heat and mass exchange and reduced overall dimensions of a device.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device intended for separation of gas (vapour) phase from trapped fluid drops in mass transfer gas-fluid columns. Drop trap for mass transfer columns comprises rings assembled to chains. Rings feature different diameter. Note here that said rings are assembled in different-length chains suspended vertically from the grate. Note here that long chains contact with lower end of fluid top distribution device.
EFFECT: decreased fluid (drop) carry over by gas (vapour) flow at lower drop.
SUBSTANCE: regular nozzle contains placed in a parallel way flat disks loosely placed on a horizontal axle, with the adjacent disks being provided with fixed between them two blades, made in the form of a surface of horizontal half-cylinders, facing with its their convex part the opposite sides and forming the nozzle element. External longitudinal edges of each blade are adjoined with disks along their circle, and internal longitudinal edges of each blade are located with a centring error relative to the centre of the disks, equal to 0.1÷0.15 of the disk radius, and edges of blades are located on one axis of the disk symmetry.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of processes of heat- and mass- exchange, simplification of the apparatus construction and reduction of energy consumption.
8 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: stage tray comprises horizontal belts inclined from column wall and arranged as steps from column wall to opposite wall to make the gap between overlying and underlying belts. Said belts have grate belts on the side extending from overlying belts and edge at the belt opposite side. Edge and grate belt planes are located in parallel and perpendicular to belt plane.
EFFECT: lower hydraulic resistance, higher mass exchange between gas and fluid, operation in the wide range of rates.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regular nozzles for heat- and mass-transfer process in gas (steam) - fluid system, e.g. rectification, absorption cleaning and drying of natural gas. Besides it can be used in chemical, oil-and-gas industries, etc. Said nozzle consists of vertical parallel sheets coated on both sides with synthetic (polymer) frieze. Length of threads makes 0.007-0.01 m. Spacing between adjacent threads on sheet makes 0.002-0.003 m. Thread diameter makes 0.001-0.002 m. Spacing between sheet surfaces makes up to 0.02-0.03 m. Note here that fluid is fed on said surface from above intermittently to produce wave thereon. Spacing between threads on sheet surface makes at least 0.002 m to rule out thread-to-thread adhesion. Alternate wave wets the threads to coat them with fluid film so that developed surface of contact between gas and fluid is created. Then, next wave comes to carry old film and to produce new film thereon.
EFFECT: developed surface of phase contact, intensive heat exchange.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regular nozzles for heat-and-mass transfer process in gas (steam)-fluid system, e.g. rectification, absorption cleaning and drying of natural gas. Besides it can be used in chemical, oil-and-gas industries, etc. Said nozzle consists of stacked horizontal element formed from ceramic or plastic materials. Nozzle elements feature curvilinear surface consisting of regular conical ledges and recesses. Note jeer that round through holes are made at ledge top and recess bottom. Said ledges and recesses are staggered so that one ledge is surrounded by four recesses. Walls of said ledges and recesses are either polyhedral (eight faces). Horizontal elements are laid one onto another and jointed together so that holes at adjacent ledge holes overlap to make vertical variable-cross-section gas and fluid passages.
EFFECT: efficient operation, intensive heat-and-mass transfer.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, regular nozzle is composed of a stack of corrugated sheets made of solid or perforated sheets alternated with corrugated sheets of solid or perforated sheets with holes. Holes at made crimps extending parts facing both adjacent corrugated sheets. Distance between openings equals the pitch of crimps. Extending parts of crimps are fitted in holes of adjacent sheet so that clearances are formed between edge of said holes and said part of crimps. In compliance with second version, regular nozzle consists of the stack of sheets alternated with corrugated sheets rectangular or trapezoidal in cross-section from solid or perforated sheets in shape similar to profile of adjacent sheet. End face part of crimps between holes has a cutout.
EFFECT: higher efficiency mass exchange between gas and fluid, lower drag.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing unsaturated carboxylates by reacting alkenes containing 2-6 carbon atoms with alkane carboxylic acids containing 1-6 carbon atoms, in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and a noble metal-based heterogeneous catalyst via a continuous process in a homogeneous gas phase in a reactor. The gas phase is fed into recycling gas and before entering the reactor, is saturated with an alkane carboxylic acid in a saturated designed for this purpose, where before the saturator for saturating with an alkane carboxylic acid (main saturator), there is a pre-saturator in which the recycling gas is saturated with a portion of the alkane carboxylic acid used for saturation, after which the recycling gas is fed into the main saturator and saturated therein with the remaining amount of the alkane carboxylic acid. The invention also relates to an apparatus for realising said method.
EFFECT: use of the presaturator for saturating with acetic acid prolongs the time interval between stoppages of the production process for cleaning the equipment.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; fine gas separation from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorbing and rectifying columns.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of chemical industry and intended for fine separation of gas from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorptive and rectifying columns. The multi-cartridge ring-type separating nozzle contains: a cover, a filtering unit, a device of water separation, an inlet connection pipe connected with the filtering unit by a pin, gas-distributing discs fixed to the pin. The filtering unit is made in the form of mesh cartridges mounted one on another. At that the internal surfaces of the mesh cartridges form a gas-distributing collector. The device of water separation is made in the form of the overflowing pipes located in the cartridges and mounted under them the drain pans with the axial apertures. Each mesh cartridge is supplied with a baffle made in the form of a plain disk with an axial aperture and a ring-type bead along the disc perimeter. Each mesh is formed by simultaneous winding of two parallel bands of the mesh, one of which is made out of a flat mesh, and the other - out of a corrugated mesh. On the side of its cylindrical internal surface a mesh cartridge is supplied with a cylindrical perforated shell. At that the first layers of the mesh band are fixed to the perforated shell by metal staples or welded to the perforated shell. At least two external layers of each mesh band are fixed by metal staples. The number of the mesh cartridges makes 6. The overflowing pipes are installed uniformly around the nozzle on a circumference, diameter of which makes from 0.85 up to 0.92 of the external diameter of the mesh cartridge and the diameter of a flow area of each overflowing pipe makes from 0.038 up to 0.05 of the external diameter of a mesh cartridge, and the total area of apertures of the shell perforation makes from 50 up to 60 % of the area of the internal cylindrical surface of the shell. In result the invention allows to increase efficiency of separation at the expense of prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increase efficiency of separation and prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; heat-and-power engineering and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to distributing-contacting devices for the mass-exchange devices and may be used in chemical industry, petrochemical industry, heat-and-power engineering and other branches of industry. The distributing-contacting device contains a distribution plate supplied with a screen with holes, overflow branch-pipes, overflow devices, deflecting shields, perforated truncated cones. The perforated truncated cones are made out of a sheet of no more than 1 mm thick with shutter-type splits of a width -"S" equal to 0.3-0.5 mm, and with a step not exceeding the thickness of the sheet and with an inclination in direction of the liquid motion at an angle α equal to 30-45°, the ratio of the length "1" to its width "S" is from 13 up to 25, a direction of the shutter channels to the horizontal axis of coordinates is at an angle β is equal to 30-45° and the overflow branch-pipes. At that for the packed columns on the ends of the drain branch-pipes at the calculated space intervals there are spray washers, and for plate-type columns the liquid from the drain branch pipes is fed onto an underlying sheet of a plate through a hydraulic lock. The presented distributing-contacting device ensures a high efficiency of the mass-exchange parameters in a wide range of a stable operation of packed columns and in the plate column apparatuses.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a high efficiency of the mass-exchange parameters in a wide range of a stable operation of the packed columns and the plate column apparatuses.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; oil-refining industry; chemical and other industries; devices for realization mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses used both in the systems of a liquid-liquid type and in the systems of a vapor-liquid type and may be used in petrochemical, oil-refining, chemical and other industries. The mass-exchange head includes a row of rectangular platesinclined to each other at an angle with a flanging towards to each other in the upper part of the plates. The rectangular plates of no more than 1 mm thick are made with a perforation in the form of a louver gauze, in which the slit louver holes have a width S equal to 0.3-0.5 mm and with a step equal to no more than the thickness of the plates, with an inclination at an angle α equal to 30-45°, the ratio of the plate length 1 to its width S - from 13 up to 25, a direction of the louver channels to the horizontal axis of coordinates at an angle β equal to 30-45° and with the spacing interval between the louver channels of 1-2 mm. The flangings are facing each other are connected among themselves without a clearance and form a blind bin with the overflow slats in height of no less than the values of a water seal. The inclined rectangular plates with the perforation in the form of a louver gauze in vertexes of the lower angles are connected by the blind plates, which form among themselves a drain branch pipe dipped into the blind bin with the overflow plates of the below lying row of the inclined plates. The advantage of the offered design of the mass-exchange head is expansion of the range of its stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the range of the mass-exchange head stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises uniform distribution and supply of gas-liquid mixture to the structurized members with macroscopic and microscopic structures, impregnating the surface of the members with the liquid to be separated, collecting liquid on the surfaces of the structures, and discharging liquid and gas separately. The liquid in gas phase is converted into the liquid phase by reaching the phase thermodynamic equilibrium of the mixture.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: regular nozzle comprises stack of sheets provided with sloping corrugations or projections. The perforated members are interposed between the sheets. The sheets and/or the perforated members interposed between them are provided with flow swirlers that define perforation. The axes of the swirlers are vertical. The swirlers can be defined by woven grid. The members may be provided with corrugations that intersect with the corrugations or projections on the sheets. The corrugations of the members are smaller than corrugations or projections on sheets. The swirlers are made of slots, and members are interposed between the sheets in pair.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; equipment for separation and the mass-exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the regular nozzle for the separation and mass-exchange apparatuses. The regular nozzle for separation and the mass-exchange apparatus is pertaining to the designs of the regular nozzles intended for realization the heat-mass-exchanging and separation processes in the system gas (steam)-liquid. The nozzle contains the turned relatively to each other packets of the sheets with the slant corrugations or the porous prominences crossing in the adjacent sheets. At that and the porosity of the prominences and/or the sheets in the packets is diminishing in the nozzle towards the gas outlet. Besides the prominences and/or the sheets of the packets are made on the gas inlet into the nozzle out of the hydrophilic material, and on the outlet of the nozzle - out of the liophilic material, and the ratio of the pores sizes of the prominences and/or of the sheets of the packets on the inlet and the outlet of the gas are proportional to ratios of the surface tension of the separable liquids in the power of 0.5. The invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.
EFFECT: the invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-processing industry; chemical industry; production of the spiral heads for the heat-mass exchanging and simultaneous with them reaction processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is mainly pertaining to the oil-processing industry and chemical industry. The spiral head made in the form of the sequential rows of the spirals is installed in the packet in parallel to each other and to the flow in compliance of the dense location scheme. The adjacent and sequential spirals may be of the similar or counter rotation type. The sequential spirals are not necessary coaxial. Such location allows to form the oncoming or following movement of flows between the parallel spirals, that increases the turbulization and promotes stabilization of distribution of the dispersion particles according to their section and also to optimize selection of the design of the packet for the particular conditions of the process. The invention provides for manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range. Uniqueness of the spiral head ensures the effective interaction of the phases in their three possible relative movements: the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
EFFECT: the invention ensures manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range and the effective interaction of the phases in their relative movements - the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.
11 cl, 22 dwg
FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petroleum industry; natural gas industry; other industries; production of the nozzles used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to designs of the regular nozzles, which are used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration and also as the mixers of the liquid and gaseous streams as the separators of the phases in the separation devices, as the contact elements in the condensers of mixing, as the sprinklers of the water cooling towers and may find usage practically in all production processes in petroleum, gaseous, chemical and other allied industries. The regular nozzle consists of the corrugated plates gathered in packages installed vertically and in parallel with the inclination of the flutes of the adjacent sheets to the horizon in the opposite sides, contacting by the protruding flutes to each other and forming among themselves the free channels of the complicated geometrical form. The nozzle is supplied with the spacers made in the form of the block of the horizontally laid in the rows in parallel to each another volumetric components. At that the symmetry axes of the components laying in the adjacent in height rows are mutually perpendicular. The ratio of the height of the package consisting of the corrugated sheets to the height of the spacer block lays within the limits of 2-5. The total height of the block of the spacers lays within the limits of 1.0-4.0 equivalent diametersof one component. The equivalent diameter of channels of the corrugated sheets package and the equivalent diameter of the component of the block of the spacer are in the ratio of 0.4-0.8. The components of the block of the spacer represent the solids of revolution, which are made in the form of the multiple-thread helicoids, at that the number of the threads makes 2-4. The components of the spacer block are laid in the rows with the clearance to each other, at that the interval, which separates the symmetry axes of the adjacent components makes 1.7-2.5 diameters of one component. The invention allows to raise intensity of the processes of the heat- and mass-exchange due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased intensity of the heat-exchange and mass-exchange processes due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: separation of materials.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises stacks made of vertical sheets provided with projections that define the sloping passages between the sheets for flowing the phases. The sheets of at least one pair of the stacks are coated with porous belts made of polymeric materials. The porous belts are connected with a source of positive charges.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 4 dwg