Method and device to estimate level of ash content in biologic material

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: scope of application: to measure ash content of the biologic material by automatic or semi-automatic method. The essence of invention is that method includes stages of the biologic material scanning using the electromagnetic radiation by at least two energy levels; determination of radiation extent transferred via the specified sample of the biologic material at specified energy levels, and estimation of moisture content of the biologic material based on ratio between specified determined radiation extent transferred via the biologic material at specified energy levels. Then ash content in the biologic material is estimated based on the specified estimation of moisture content of the biologic material and average coefficients of attenuation for the biologic material upon moisture absence, coefficients of attenuation for combustible part of the biologic material, and coefficients of attenuation for ash in the biologic material at specified energy levels. Besides the appropriate device is described.

EFFECT: accurate estimation of moisture content in material sample within wide range of values.

15 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field of the invention

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for level measurement of ash content of biological materials automatic or semi-automatic way. The invention is particularly useful for measuring the ash levels of biological fuels, such as wood chips and coal.

Background of the invention

Biological fuels are often used in combustion processes to generate heat and electricity. One of the most important types of biological fuel is wood. However, various kinds of organic fuels generate different amounts of heat and leave after the combustion of wastes of different types and in different quantities. There are also significant differences for different types and qualities of wood. This creates difficulties in effectively managing the process of combustion or burning.

Effective calorific value specific types of biofuels can be determined relatively precisely, if a known level of moisture and ash levels of biofuels. To date, however, it was quite difficult to obtain in practice quick and accurate assessment of both the level of moisture and ash content.

Ash from biomass, for example wood, usually consists of minerals present in the structure, for example, trees and cous�of arniko, and soil pollution and other contaminants. Properties of wood ash depend on various factors, including the type of tree or shrub, the tree or shrub (bark, wood, leaves), the type of waste (wood, pulp or waste paper), soil type, climate and combustion conditions.

Agricultural waste typically produce much more ash than wood biomass. Usually ash wood approximately 0.5 percent, while at various grown crops from 5 to 10 percent, and rice husk and yarrow from 30 to 40 percent.

The composition and amount of ash residue affects the behavior of biomass at high temperatures during combustion and gasification. For example, melting of ash can cause problems such as combustion and gasification reactors. These issues may include, for example, locking systems for ash removal due to the formation of slag, the clogging of burners and heaters ash deposits, as well as in serious operational problems of systems of combustion fluidized bed. When burning only wood ash deposits usually do not create problems due to the fact that the combustion temperature is usually quite low. However, the combustion of biomass together with coal combustion temperature is significantly increased and can reach this level, at which slagging.

Thus, there is a need for fast and accurate method and system for determining the level of ash content of the biological material, in particular of biofuels that can be used, for example, directly by a person in operating conditions, be used in automated processes or other means.

A brief summary of the invention

Thus, an object of the present invention is an improved method and device for assessing the level of ash content of biological materials automatic or semi-automatic way, which will overcome or at least alleviate the problems of modern technology, referred to above.

This objective is achieved in the present invention by the means described in claims.

In accordance with the first aspect of the invention provides a method of assessing the level of ash content in a biological material comprising the steps:

scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation of at least two different energy levels;

determine the amount of radiation transmitted through the said sample of the biological material at the same levels of energy;

assess the level of humidity of biological material on OSN�ve ratio between said measured levels of radiation transmitted through the biological material at these energy levels; and assess the level of ash content of the specified biological material on the basis of the evaluation of the moisture content of the biological material and average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of moisture, attenuation coefficient for the combustible part of the biological material and extinction coefficients for the ash of the biological material at the same levels of energy.

The present invention is most applicable to assess the level of ash content of biofuels, but may also be applicable to other biological materials. In particular, the invention is applicable to assess the level of ash content of wood chips, however, can also be used for other types of wood, as well as for other types of biological materials, such as cellulose, biofuels, coal, etc. It can also be used for processed biomass, such as brown coal, calcined biomass and hydrothermal carbon (HTC). The invention is particularly useful when working with biological materials in a liquid or enriched form, preferably in the form of granules.

The ash levels in this application is used to denote the residue after complete ashing is preferably the residue after combustion/incineration at a temperature of 575±25°C. �level of ash content can be expressed in percentages of the dry material, i.e.

IpoinenbzolbnoCtand=(ineCobpazCapoCleozolenandI)(ineCoCIWenandIobpazCadoozolenandI)*100

"Moisture content" in the present application denotes the ratio between the amount of moisture (i.e. water) in a certain amount of material and the total amount of material. Therefore, evaluation of the moisture content in the material is also, indirectly, the assessment of dry matter content. For example, wood chips we can say that the material consists mainly of moisture, on the one hand, and fibers with ash residue, on the other hand.

Ash different types of biological fuel is usually composed of substances such as silicon, magnesium, aluminum, iron and calc�th. Ash has a significant influence on the calorific value of the biomass. The increase in the level of ash content corresponds to the reduction in calorific value. Thus, by assessing the level of ash content it is also possible to set the calorific value of the biomass, that is its practical value. It is possible to control combustion/combustion from the point of view of ash levels, with the aim of obtaining more efficient combustion/combustion and eliminate the problems associated with ash, for example, slagging and others.

The combustible part of the biological material, i.e. the part that is not a moisture or ash usually consists mainly of hydrocarbons and lignin. For wood the hydrocarbon concentration is usually in the range of 65-75%. The concentration of lignin is typically in the range of 18-35%.

Specialists in this field it is clear that the assessment of the moisture content in the biological material and the calculation of the average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of moisture at these energy levels should not be shared by operations or carried out explicitly. It is possible to combine these operations in a combined equation or calculation program executed at the time of assessment of the level of ash content of the biological material.

In the method of the present invention, the irradiation is applied with two or more energy levels, and the level of ash content of the material is determined directly or indirectly by measuring the level of energy, that is, the amount of radiation at each wavelength is absorbed in the material.

The step of determining the attenuation coefficient for moisture on at least two levels of energy should preferably be by comparative measurements. Similarly, the stage of determination of the extinction coefficient for the combustible part of the biological material and ash levels of the biological material on two or more energy levels is also preferable to produce by comparative measurements.

Irradiation of the material should preferably be by scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation from at least two different energy levels, and the biological material is in the form of individual particles, preferably in the form of granules.

Method/device according to the present invention is well suited for measurements directly at the transport lines on which the material is transported in pipelines, conveyor belt, etc. This is possible because, for example, the present invention can be used in different and �pregnant women thickness and shape of the biological material.

However, the present invention is also very practical for the measurement of samples of material placed in the sample container, for example for testing samples in industrial production, in the eld, etc.

Thus, the present invention can be used in fully or partially automated processes, without operator intervention or limited participation.

The measured ash levels can be used as an input parameter when controlling subsequent processing of the biological material. Thus, subsequent use of the biological material becomes more effective. For example, this information can be used to achieve more efficient cleaning, waste incineration, combustion, etc. in addition, the measured level of ash content can be used to generate a warning or other signal, for example, in the case of a threshold value. The transfer of this information to the control system and use this information to control subsequent processes can also be automated. Thus, when used in a continuous flow system, the subsequent processes can be controlled in real time based on the specified information. However, it is also possible the storage of that information �La later use with a particular sample or a batch of biological material.

Thus, in one range of embodiments of scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation from at least two different energy levels comprises the biological material in the sample container.

In another line of embodiments of scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation from at least two different energy levels comprises scanning the biological material during its continuous movement through the point of measurement.

The amount of radiation supplied to the sample of biological material at two levels of energy, preferably determined relative to a calibration reference value. Calibration reference value may for example be determined by measuring the transmission of radiation through the reference material in advance of a certain thickness, and this measurement should preferably be carried out immediately before and/or after each measurement of the biological material and the reference material can be, for example, aluminum. In this way it is guaranteed accurate calibration at each measurement.

In addition, the humidity level of the sample of the biological material is preferably based on the determination of K value for the biological material, wherein the specified value To in�cissette as follows:

K=ln(N01/N1)ln(N02/N2)

where N01N02- calibrated reference values for the transmission at the two energy levels, a N1N2- the values of transmission through the biological material at the same energy levels, and assessment of the level of humidity that the biological material is performed by comparing the specified calculated values of K with the corresponding K values for the materials of a similar type, for example, obtained from a reference database. The authors present invention it was found that the value of K is relatively linear for many types of biological materials, in particular for many varieties of wood, and, accordingly, in the reference database should contain relatively few specific values for each type of biological material, to ensure an accurate assessment of the level of moisture of the sample material in a wide range of values. The level of ash content for each sample can be considered more or less constant. When the value of K is linearly dependent on the humidity level in the reference database mo�em to be sufficient to store only two different values of K.

Scanning of the sample of biological material to electromagnetic radiation at at least two different energy levels may include a first scan at a first energy level, and then a second scan with a second energy level.

Preferably, at least two different energy levels both were in the range of x-rays. In addition, it is preferable that the radiation of both these energy levels are emitted from a single radiation source operating in the energy range 20-150 kVp. Here kVp (peak voltage in kilovolts) denotes the maximum voltage applied to the x-ray tube. It determines the kinetic energy of the electrons accelerated in the x-ray tube, and the peak energy of the emission spectrum of x-rays. The actual voltage of the tube may fluctuate.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a device to measure the level of ash content in a biological material, consisting of:

scan device for scanning the sample of the biological material with electromagnetic radiation of at least two energy levels;

sensor for determining the quantity of radiation transmitted through the said sample of the biological material on said energy levels; and

processor for �the TsENKI the humidity level of the biological material based on said measured radiation levels, transmitted through the sample, and assessing the level of ash content of the specified biological material on the basis of the evaluation of the moisture content of the biological material and average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of moisture, attenuation coefficient for the combustible part of the biological material and extinction coefficients for the ash levels of the biological material at the same levels of energy.

This aspect of the invention provides advantages similar to those discussed above in relation to the first aspect.

The emission of two or more different energy levels are preferably achieved by using two or more radiation sources, for example two or more x-ray tubes. Preferably, the radiation of each of the energy levels is obtained from a separate source of radiation.

Alternative or additionally, the radiation of two or more different energy levels are preferably determined using two or more sensors. Preferably, the radiation of each of the energy levels is determined by a separate radiation sensor.

These and other aspects of the invention will be examined in detail and explained with reference to options for implementation, described below.

Brief description of graphic materials

To illustrate by examples the invent�tion will be further described in the detailed details with links to options for implementation, illustrated in the attached drawings, where:

Fig.1 schematically shows a measuring device for determining the level of ash content in biological material transported on the conveyor line; and Fig.2a, 2b schematically shows a variant implementation of the invention in which the material is measured, is located in the container for samples.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments

Fig.1 schematically shows a variant implementation of the measuring device 100 to assess the level of ash content in the biological material 102 is transported on the conveyor line 103. Biological material 102 is typically wood chips or other biofuels.

To was done scanning all the material passing the measuring device, the measuring device includes a source 104 of the radiation used for irradiation of the target area 105 that overlaps the entire width of the conveyor line. Source 104 radiation can provide radiation at at least two different levels of energy / wavelengths. Preferably the radiation source is an x-ray tube, which can provide radiation of x-rays with two or more different wavelengths. Preferably R�nenovsky tube operates in the range of 20-150 kVp. The output radiation from the radiation source is preferably directed to the target area through a collimator and a lens (not shown). The source 104 of the radiation is controlled by the controller 106.

Alternatively, the source 104 of the radiation may consist of two or more individual radiating tubes near, and the sources of radiation nearby, radiating waves of different lengths simultaneously or in turn. However, it is preferable that the irradiation with different wavelength has crossed the material to be measured essentially the same way. When the light from two (or more) different wavelengths is emitted by the radiation source at the same time, it is preferable that the intensity of these two signals was measured separately. It can be made directly through special measures, such as setting filters to separate the parts of the sensors was measured only radiation with a certain energy level, and other parts of the measured radiation with other levels of energy. It can be produced by further processing of the signals, providing the separation of the combined signals.

On the opposite side of the target area 105 is a sensor 107 for receiving radiation transmitted through the material located in the target region 105. The sensor preferably �is a semiconductor sensor, containing a linear array of semiconductor sensors 107a-C, located across the width of the conveyor line. The number of zones of the sensors may change depending on expected changes in the level of ash content material, etc. the Sensor 107 is connected to the block 108 control processor, such as a standard personal computer. The control unit receives the measurement data from the sensors via an appropriate interface, for example via a USB port.

When the source 104 of the radiation irradiating the material in the target region 105 electromagnetic radiation with at least two different energy levels. This can be achieved by sequential exposure of the material to a first radiation with a first wavelength, and then radiation with the second wavelength, i.e., the first radiation source emits beams of light with single wavelength, and then, after changing the voltage on the radiating tube, on the other wavelength.

For each energy level of the radiation transmitted through the material in a target region 105, is measured from the opposite side of the target area 105 using zones sensors 107a-C, forming one sensor, and each zone sensors 107a-C receives the light that passes through the material 102 on the various pathways 109A-C.

In order to obtain a reference value for calibration, pre�respectfully to measure a reference material. This can be achieved, for example, by measuring in the absence of any biological material. Thus in this case, the reference measurement is performed with air as a reference material. Alternatively, the biological material may be substituted for the reference material with known properties, for example aluminum. The reference measurement can be carried out before measurement of the biological material during initialization, or several times during the process. Alternatively, the reference measurement can be carried out by moving the source 104 of the radiation and the sensor 107 in the position near the conveyor line, so that the radiation from the radiation source to the sensor passes only through the air. It is also possible to use additional light sources and sensors located on one or both sides of the conveyor belt.

On the basis of the reference measurement defines reference calibration values according to the formula:

N01,02=NAir1,2exp(µx),

where N01and N02represent the calibration reference values for energy levels 1 and 2, respectively, NAir1and NAir2represent the measured values of the transmission after passing through the known distance through the air, μ is the known attenuation coefficient for air (cm-1), and x is known�deleterious distance by air (cm), separating the radiation source and the sensor.

The K value for the material is determined by the radiation that was adopted in each zone sensors 107a-C. the Value of K is calculated as follows:

K=ln(N01/N1)ln(N02/N2)

where N01N02- reference calibration values for the transmission of two energy levels, a N1N2- the values of transmission through the biological material at these energy levels.

Based on these measurement data, then evaluates the moisture level of the biological material. Assessment of the level of humidity of the biological material can be produced, for example, by comparing the calculated values of K with the corresponding K values for materials of similar types obtained from the reference database.

Standard base 113 of the data may preferably be connected to the block 108 management, it contains data relating at least to the measured values of transmission to radiation with different energy levels and humidity levels for various types of biological material, for example for several�lcih different varieties of wood. Select the appropriate type of biological material in a reference database can be done by manually entering.

However, it is also possible to automatically detect the type of biological material. Such automatic determination of type of material can be obtained, for example, the method described in the PCT application of the same applicants with the application number EP 2009/062767, said document incorporated in this application by reference.

The data in the reference database are collected, preferably by measuring the transmission of electromagnetic radiation at at least two different energy levels through materials of various types and by measuring the moisture level of these materials using conventional methods, preferably by controlled drying. The types of materials can be, for example, different varieties of wood, such as birch, spruce, pine, oak and alder, as well as coal and other biofuels. Thus, the same measurement data obtained in subsequent measurements for new materials, can be attributed to the precisely measured data about the humidity level. As a reference data base should be created only during initialization, and then may be re-used, there is no need to use high-speed processes in the course of measurements for reference b�PS data.

The values according To values in a reference database can be based either on the identification of the nearest value To that found in a reference database for a specific type of the material under test, or on the use of the corresponding values of moisture content obtained as an estimate for the sample. To compensate for differences between the actual value of K and found the closest value of K in the reference database can also be used to make some adjustments.

Alternatively, the value of K for a particular type of material can be used in linear or polynomial representation of the correspondence between the K value and the moisture content, and this function can then be used to estimate the moisture content corresponding to the value of K in the sample material.

Then calculated the average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of humidity for specified levels of energy. The total attenuation when passing through the material at each energy level consists of three parts: the attenuation in a wet environment (in water) and the attenuation in the environment without humidity, i.e. in a dry combustible material and ash. The attenuation in a wet environment depends on the attenuation coefficient for water at a specific level of energy. The weakening in the environment without humidity likewise head�Sith from the average attenuation coefficient for an environment without humidity at a specific level of energy i.e. the average ratio for dry combustible material and the average attenuation coefficient for ash. By assessing the level of humidity discussed above, the amount of moisture and material moisture is already known. In addition, the attenuation coefficient for moisture (water) at a specific level of energy is determined easily, for example by reference literature or specific reference measurements.

Since all other parameters are known, the average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of moisture at these energy levels can then be estimated based on the amount of radiation transmitted through the sample of the biological material at two levels of energy, and attenuation coefficient for moisture at these levels of energy.

Thus the measured average attenuation coefficients for dry biological material, which eventually can be used to assess the level of ash content of the biological material. The weakening in the material without humidity at each level of energy also consists of two components: a weakening in the ash contained in the biological material, and the attenuation in the combustible part of the biological material.

The extinction coefficients for the combustible part of the biological material and ash contained in the biological mate�Yale, accordingly, two levels of energy can be determined, for example, at reference literature or from special measurements, because the type of biological material is known and the expected ash content may also be known or determined by special reference measurements.

Accordingly, by this point consistently obtained two equations, one for each of the energy levels in the two unknowns in total - the content of combustible biological material and content of bottom ash. By solving this system of equations we obtain the estimate of the quantity of fuel dried of biological material, on the one hand, and the amount of ash residue.

Thus, in the final phase of the received level estimation of ash content of the biological material on the basis of the average attenuation coefficients for the biological material without moisture and extinction coefficients for the combustible part of the biological material and bottom ash of the biological material at two levels of energy. A certain level of ash content of the biological material can be used as an indirect measure of the amount of energy that can be obtained from biological material. It can also be used to issue a warning signal or other signal in the case where�oven ash content exceeds the established threshold level or another level.

All calculations are preferably performed in block 108 control.

Fig.2a, 2b schematically shows an alternative embodiment of the measuring device in accordance with the present invention. The measuring device 100 includes a source 104 of the radiation to the irradiation target region on at least two levels of energy. The radiation source is operated using the controller 106. The sensor 107 is located on the back side of the target area. The sensor is connected to the block 108 control that receives from the sensor data. In this embodiment, the implementation of the material with which the measurement is taken is located in the container 301 for samples. Then, the specimen container is placed on the carrier 302, which moves so that the specimen container passes through the target area, and consequently, the path of the beam 109. The carrier can be moved, for example, by means of the conveyor 103. However, to move media other suitable means, for example a linear motor, a screw mechanism, a rail mechanism, etc.

During operation, the container with the sample is moved through the target area in such a way that preferably is clean all the material in the container for samples. On the first pass, the sample material is irradiated by radiation with the first wavelength, and in�Orom pass during reverse movement, radiation from the second wavelength. In order to obtain reference values for the calibration, it is preferable to measure a reference material, preferably, a known amount of aluminum, at the beginning and at the end of the aisle of the container with the sample.

On the basis of the reference measurement defines reference calibration values according to the formula:

N01,02=NAl1exp(µx),

where N01and N02represent the calibration reference values for energy levels 1 and 2, respectively, NAl1and NAl2represent the measured values of the transmission after passing through a certain thickness of aluminum, μ is the known attenuation coefficient for aluminum (cm-1), and X is the known thickness of aluminum (cm).

The next step may be the calculated value for the biological material according to the formula:

K=ln(N01/N1)ln(N02/N2)

where N01N02- reference calibration values for the transmission of two energy levels, a N1N2- the values of transmission through the biological material at these ur�vnah energy.

Then can be determined from the ash levels of the biological material by the same method that was previously described for the embodiment shown in Fig.1.

In accordance with another variant of implementation of the ash is estimated directly on the basis of measurement of radiation energy transmitted through the material at two energy levels, and assessing the level of humidity, measured in accordance with the method described previously.

Based on these incoming values can be composed of the following system of three equations:

N1=N01exp(µv1x+µt1Y+µa1Z),

N2=N02exp(µv2X+µt2Y+µa2Z),

F=X/(X+Y+Z)

where µv1µt1and µa1mass attenuation coefficients of the first level of energy for water, dry combustible material and ash. Similarly µv2µt2and µa2mass attenuation coefficients of the second level of energy for water, dry combustible material and ash.

X, Y and Z - surface density (g/cm2water, dry combustible biomass and ash. The obtained value of F is the level of humidity, defined as ((weight of nashego biomaterial - dry weight of the biomaterial)/weight of nashego biomaterial).

All mass attenuation coefficients for water, ash and dry combustible biomaterial known (see above).They can be defined, for example, by a separate reference measurements in the system. The humidity level can be determined based on the value of K, as described above.

Accordingly, it is possible to formulate the equation for the direct production of Z (ash levels) for biomaterial in accordance with the following:

Z=(F1)μt2R1+μt1R2F(μυ2R1+μt1R2μυ1R2)μa2((F1)μt1Fμυ1)+μa2(μt2Fμt2+Fμυ2)+F(μt2μυ1μt1μ υ2)

where R1equal to ln(N01/N1) and R2equal to ln(N02/N2).

Now be described specific embodiments of the invention. However, as is obvious to experts in this field, there are several alternatives. For example, the radiation need not be x-rays, may also be used other types of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, instead of the value K, discussed above, can be used in other relations between the two measured values of the radiation transmitted through the sample of biological material at two different levels of energy. Additionally you can use three or more energy levels with the aim of obtaining an even higher level of accuracy. Additionally, there are various ways of determining the type of biological material, both automatic and semi-automatic. Depending on the intended use of the reference database can be created that will contain only the most likely types of materials or include a huge variety of different types of materials. Additionally, the implementation of ways to control and processing can be performed in various ways, for example in the form of specialized�agreed instruments either in the form of a program managing already existing means of control and management.

These and other obvious modifications should be considered within the scope of the present invention as defined in the claims. Should indicate that the variants of implementation described above illustrate the invention without limiting it, the specialists in this field technicians will be able to design many alternative embodiments without going beyond the formulas of the invention. In the claims, any reference positions given in parentheses should not be construed as limiting the claims. The expression "containing" does not exclude other elements or steps other than those listed in the claims. The use of an element in the singular does not exclude the presence of several of these elements. In addition, a single unit may fulfill the functions of several tools listed in the claims.

1. Method of assessing the level of ash content of a biological material comprising the steps:
scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation of at least two different energy levels;
determine the amount of radiation transmitted through the said sample of the biological material specified in�ownah energy;
assess the level of humidity of the biological material on the basis of the ratios between the specified amount of radiation transmitted through the biological material at these energy levels; and
assessment of the level of ash content of the specified biological material on the basis of the evaluation of the humidity level of the biological material and average attenuation coefficients for the biological material without moisture, attenuation coefficient for the combustible part of the biological material and extinction coefficients for ash in the biological material at said energy levels.

2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of determining the attenuation coefficient for moisture at the same levels of energy by means of reference measurements.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising the step of determining the attenuation factors for the combustible part of the biological material and ash in the biological material at the same levels of energy by means of reference measurements.

4. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation at at least two levels of energy includes the preparation of biological material in the form of individual particles, preferably in the form of granules.

5. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where the scanning of biological material to electromagnetic radiated�eat with at least two different energy levels comprises the biological material in the sample container.

6. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where scanning the biological material with electromagnetic radiation from at least two different energy levels comprises scanning the biological material during its continuous movement through the point of measurement.

7. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where the amount of radiation transmitted through the sample of the biological material at the two energy levels is determined relative to a calibration reference value.

8. A method according to claim 7, where the calibration reference value is determined by measuring the transmission of radiation through the reference material in advance of a certain thickness, and this calibration measurement should preferably be carried out immediately before and/or after each measurement using biological material and the reference material should preferably be aluminum.

9. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where the humidity level of the specified sample of biological material is determined by determining the value of K for a given biological material, and the specified value is To be calculated by the formula:
K=ln(N01/N1)ln(N02/N2)/mfrac>
where N01N02- calibrated reference values for the transmission at the two energy levels, a N1N2- the values of transmission through the biological material at the same energy levels, and assessment of the level of humidity that the biological material is performed by comparing the specified calculated values of K with corresponding values for materials of the same type.

10. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where the scanning of the sample of biological material to electromagnetic radiation at at least two different energy levels comprises a first scan at a first energy level and a subsequent second scan with a second energy level.

11. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where all of at least two different energy levels represent the wavelengths of x-rays.

12. A method according to claim 1 or 2, where the emission in both energy levels radiate from a single radiation source operating in the energy range 20-150 kVp.

13. A device for assessing the level of ash content of biological material, including:
scanning device for scanning the sample of the biological material with electromagnetic radiation of at least two energy levels;
a sensor for determining the quantity of radiation transmitted through specified about�ASEC biological material at the same levels of energy; and a processor for evaluating the humidity level of the biological material based on said certain amounts of radiation transmitted through the sample, and assessing the level of ash content of the specified biological material on the basis of the evaluation of the moisture content of the biological material and average attenuation coefficients for the biological material in the absence of moisture, attenuation coefficient for the combustible part of the biological material and extinction coefficients for the ash levels of the biological material at the same levels of energy.

14. The device according to claim 13, further comprising at least two radiation sources to form at least two different energy levels, and preferably at least one radiation source for each energy level.

15. The device according to claim 13 or 14, wherein at least two sensors for determining the quantity of radiation transmitted through said sample of the biological material at these energy levels, and preferably at least one sensor for each specific energy level.



 

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: double-spectrum illumination mode with separate selection of signals arising from radiation absorption in a background substance and signals arising from radiation absorption in overlapping layers of the background substance and inclusion substances is executed, wherein the X-ray exposure procedure is carried out not in one but two mutually perpendicular geometric projections, which enable mutual quantitative comparison of the mass thickness of the inclusion in one of the projections with the value of the linear dimension of that inclusion in the other projection and determine density of the inclusion substance from their ratio.

EFFECT: high probability of detecting hazardous inclusions and significant reduction of the probability of false alarm.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for determining characteristics of material of analysed object has a first and a second bogie, each having a source of penetrating X-rays, having a collimator for forming a narrow beam directed onto the analysed object, at least one motor which is configured to move each bogie relative the analysed object so as to move the narrow beam relative the object in a direction having a vertical component and at least one sensor for detecting radiation back-scattered from the analysed object and generated by at least one of the radiation sources.

EFFECT: enabling design of a scanning system which combines high quality of images formed with high efficiency.

16 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: broadband soft X-ray spectrometer has a sealed housing in which there are detection channels, each having, arranged in series on the direction of radiation, an entrance slit, a selective filter, a region bounded by two total external reflection (TER) mirrors and an X-ray detector, wherein the detection channels are arranged quasi-parallel, wherein the TER mirrors are merged into one bundle by a common housing; the entrance slit is common for the whole bundle, and the X-ray detector used is a photographic recorder or a CCD matrix.

EFFECT: high spectral selectivity of the device, easier operation of the spectrometer owing to interdependent adjustment of the detection channels of the spectrometer on the radiation source, and compactness of the device and reduced weight and size due to fewer fastening elements.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: application: to detect spatial distribution and concentration of a component in a pore space of a porous material. The invention concept is as follows: it consists in the fact that a contrast X-ray substance is pumped into a sample of a porous material, such as a water-soluble salt of metal with high atomic weight that enters into a selective ion-exchange reaction with a surveyed component, of the common formula: R+M-, where R+ is selected from the group {Ba +; Sr2+; Tl+; Rb+…}, and M- is selected from the group {Cln; NOn; OHn; CH3COO, SO4; …} in accordance with the table of solubility of inorganic substances in water, upon completion of the reaction of selective ion exchange, a non-contrast displacement agent is pumped into a sample, the sample is scanned by means of X-ray microtomography to define spatial distribution and concentration of a surveyed component by means of analysis of the produced computer tomographic image.

EFFECT: higher X-ray contrast of low-contrast components contained in a pore space, when doing computer tomography of porous material samples.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: application: to detect spatial distribution and concentration of clay in a core sample. The invention concept is as follows: it consists in the fact that a contrast X-ray substance is pumped into a core sample, such as a water-soluble salt of metal with high atomic weight that enters into a selective ion-exchange reaction with clay, of the common formula: R+M-, where R+ is selected from the group {Ba +; Sr2+; Tl+; Rb+…}, M- is selected from the group {Cln; NOn; OHn; CH3COO, SO4; …} in accordance with the table of solubility of inorganic substances in water, upon completion of the reaction of selective ion exchange, a non-contrast displacement agent is pumped into a sample, the sample is scanned by means of X-ray tomography, on the produced computer tomography image an area of interest and a reference section are identified, histograms are produced for grayscale in cross sections of the sample, and spatial distribution and concentration of clay are defined in the sample by means of analysis of histograms, starting from the reference section histogram.

EFFECT: higher spatial resolution and accuracy of detection of clay concentration and spatial distribution in a core sample.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: fish is placed between an X-ray source and an X-ray image receiver, wherein the distance X1 between the X-ray source and the fish is equal to the length L of the fish or the analysed area on the fish and is three times shorter than the distance X2 between the X-ray source and the X-ray image receiver, and the diameter of the focal spot dfp is determined by a corresponding mathematical expression based on said parameters.

EFFECT: possibility of rapid obtaining of sharp images of fish which are magnified three times or more, including bones with diameter of 0,05 mm, which are vital for studying species and population anomalies of the structure of their skeletons.

8 dwg

FIELD: test and measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for measuring thickness of layers of bimetal band, which band is used in thermometers, thermal controllers. Method can be used in mechanical engineering, power engineering and other branches of industry. Device has digital calculator. Sizes of slots of collimators in radiator and in the second chamber are made in cross-sectional cut within 2-4 mm and in longitudinal cut of (1.1-1.2)d, where d is width of band in cross-sectional cut. Slots are oriented in parallel to each other and they focused with their apertures to the same cross-section of band. Ability of scanning within sector of sign-polar angle of +-α is provided for the second chamber inside plane being formed by normal line of direct radiation flux, which normal line is brought into coincidence with longitudinal axis of symmetry of direct flux, and of longitudinal axis of band, which axis crosses between its layers and which axis crosses longitudinal axis of symmetry of direct flux within angle which closes width of aperture of direct X-ray flux at cross-sectional cut of band, which cross-sectional cut is radiated by direct flux. Output of second chamber is connected with input of digital calculator which has output connected with input of processor.

EFFECT: high geometric resolution of material of bimetal band's layers with different structure and density of materials.

2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry, particularly to increase reservoir recovery, oil reserve calculation and effective oil field development control.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing joint filtration of mineralized water and oil through core sample; measuring intermediate intensity of X-radiation passed via the sample; measuring X-radiation intensity change as sample has 100% water saturation; measuring X-radiation passed through dry sample and calculating water saturation from the following formula: where α is ratio between mass X-radiation absorption factors in oil and mineralized water; β is coefficient characterizing sample water saturation change as temperature changes.

EFFECT: increased reliability and measurement accuracy.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: multispectral X-ray scanner that contains source of ionising radiation, collimator in the form of longitudinal circuit intended for creation of flat radiation beam and device for registration of radiation beam, which includes electronics for data reading and processing, luminescent screen and one bar of photoreceiving modules that contain photodiodes that are optically conjugated with luminescent screen, which differs by the fact that device of radiation beam registration contains at least two luminescent screens that are located in radiation beam and separated from each other with complementary filter in the form of two plates made of light metal foil and plate made of heavy metal foil installed between them, and at least two bars of photoreceiving modules, which are installed outside flat radiation beam, every of which is optically conjugated with one luminescent screen.

EFFECT: expansion of X-ray device operation spectral range and division of this range into several spectral zones.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: interaction of multienergy radiation is carried out with the checked object, measuring and recording the measured quantities after interaction of multienergy radiation with the checked object, substitution of a part of the measured values in preliminary determined calibration function for obtaining of the information containing major importance of the performance of object and more exact determination of the performance of material of object by application of a set of functions, suitable for energy line corresponding to the gained information.

EFFECT: possibility of identification of various materials in a wide range of atomic numbers.

32 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics, radiography.

SUBSTANCE: seeds are installed between source of X-ray radiation and image receiver, focus spot of X-ray radiation source is formed with size that does not exceed 0.01 mm (microfocus tube). Inherent blurriness of image receiver does not exceed 0.2 mm. It makes it possible to reduce effect at quality of X-ray image of screen component of image blurriness. Distance between seed and image receiver is defined as result of product of linear size of receiver sensitive area and distance from focus spot to seed divided into seed size.

EFFECT: provision of possibility to detect criteria of low quality grain, image specific sizes of which do not exceed 0,1 mm.

6 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field and can be used for manufacturing of tanks of liquefied gas, low-temperature and cryogenic equipment, facilities for receiving of liquefied gas, rocket envelopes and tanks for keeping of propellant from steel 01X18H9T. Steel sheet is subject to effect of penetrating radiation. Integral width X-ray line 111, measured on characteristic radiation CoKα with overlapping probability 2.18·10-5, is 0.204±0.003 angular degree.

EFFECT: increasing of steel yield point.

8 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in preparing of investigated sample form core of oil-water-bearing rock, in modeling reservoir condition in sample, in determination of intensiveness of Roentgen radiation at scanning of dry investigated sample of rock, in saturating it with model of reservoir water and in determination of intensiveness of Roentgen radiation at scanning of investigated sample at 100% water saturation, in evaluation of residual water saturation, in filtration of oil and agent, in scanning investigated sample of rock with Roentgen radiation, also when filtrating oil, gas is used as agent, further method consists in additional determination of intensiveness of Roentgen radiation at scanning sample of rock saturated with three phases, that is with residual water saturation, and with intermediate oil and gas saturation; after that oil saturation is evaluated from corresponding mathematic formula.

EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of evaluation of oil saturation of rock.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: veterinary.

SUBSTANCE: method includes determination of value of bone tissue mineral density. Computer processing of scanned roentgenogram of examined part of bone system is carried out at standard roentgenogram of healthy animal and at roentgenogram of examined animal, on each of which zones of interest are singled out: "growth zone part", "cortical layer part", "spongy substance part". In each of zones of interest optic density is determined, which is used to calculate coefficient of mineralisation of bone tissue of examined animal, which, in its turn, is used to calculate coefficient of ossification of examined animal. If values of ossification coefficient are 0.95 and higher complete mineralisation is determined, if values are 0.95 - 0.75 - middle degree of mineralisation, if it is 0.75 and lower - low degree of mineralisation.

EFFECT: method is simple and efficient in implementation.

1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for detection of differential criteria in documents produced by methods of electrophotographic printing with application of magnetic toners consists in performance of documents research by detection of magnetite X-ray maximum broadening on X-ray pictures and in further comparative analysis of results.

EFFECT: improved efficiency in identification of documents manufactured by methods of electrophotographic printing with application of magnetic toners.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to X-ray equipment. The method consists in the following: by calculation and before an experiment there is selected an optimal value of θ angle between velocity of fast electrons and direction of quantum escape whereat spectre of slowing-down radiation is concentrated in the region of low frequencies. Also position of maximum of coherent spike is measured experimentally. Additionally, position of this maximum as function of dimension and shape of grain is calculated theoretically. Notably, values of theoretical parametres are chosen to achieve the best concurrence of spectres of calculated and measured spikes.

EFFECT: evaluation of grain dimension in ultra-fine-dispersed medium (nano material).

2 dwg

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