Interactive system for training skills of first aid to individual suffering from upper airway obstruction

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to systems for training the medical stuff and population to get skills of the first aid to an individual suffering from the upper airway obstruction with a foreign matter. An interactive training system comprises a full-size model of the human body including a head unit with the oral cavity and an open mouth provided with a foreign matter simulator, the neck unit with anelastic deformation front surface connected to the head unit through the neck unit, and a device for the foreign matter extraction from the upper airway. The model is made of an inflexible plastic material and provided with an electronic assembly, an upper airway obstruction simulator, a sensor of forward and backward flexion of the head, a sensor of a paramedic's hands position on the chest surface when giving a closed-chest cardiac massage, a sensor of the paramedic's hands position on the abdominal surface, a sensor of back strokes, a sensor of forward inclination of the body connected to the electronic assembly which is also connected to a control unit, dynamic speakers and an internal battery.

EFFECT: training system enables simulating pathological conditions occurred in the choking individual, extending the range of trained rescuing measures, improving the ease of use and enabling the self-assisted training of the rescue skills.

8 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to medical equipment, namely to simulators intended for training of wide layers of the population, first of all, with no medical training, simple and effective methods of elimination of asphyxia (suffocation) in humans, when released into the upper respiratory tract (URT) of a foreign body. Obstruction of the upper airway foreign body obstruction) and related asphyxia are the real threat lurks adult and child in everyday life. In severe obstruction, the victim loses consciousness and this may be the underlying cause of heart failure. For example, each year in the UK for this reason, doctors from the ambulance assists, approximately 16 thousand adults and children, recorded cases and deaths. (Cm. Methodological recommendations for the resuscitation of the European resuscitation Council). Most cases of asphyxia associated with ingestion or inhalation of inedible objects, such as coins or parts of toys, they usually occur in the presence of witnesses. So there is hope for the early provision of first aid. To have a real first aid in these cases, only trained witnesses. It is therefore important to train as many people as doctors in most cases are not at the scene.

When mass education special role is given to the practical training of first aid techniques with the use of special equipment. As well known: "the Trainer first aid in the aspiration of an adult W44536, "the Trainer first aid in the aspiration of the child" W44584, "the Trainer first aid teenager W44583 (Catalogue 3B SCIENTIFIC, 2008). Simulators are models of the upper body of a man is depicted with realistic head and chest. The mouth corresponds to the actual size and equipped with alien objects. These models are designed for learning, just one receive liberation from the SDT of a foreign body and does not have control over the actions of "rescuer".

In the patent of Russian Federation №2176822 revealed the simulator to study the techniques of emergency care, including a plaster cast of a man with a block head and torso, as well as sensors: the sensor of mandibular advancement, the shock sensor on the back, the position sensor of the hands of the rescuer during external cardiac massage. This simulator, however, is not intended for working off of receptions of salvation from blockage of var.

In the patent of Russian Federation №2124762 revealed the simulator to study the techniques of emergency resuscitative care, including a plaster cast of a man with a block head, neck and torso simulator blockage of the airway, sensors - throwing back of the head, mouth opening and extension of the lower� jaw. This simulator has limited capabilities and is not interactive. It is intended for testing only a limited number of rescue events that do not involve the techniques of salvation from blockage of var.

The closest analogue to the invention is a dummy Choking Charlie (poperhnuvshis Charlie), (Catalogue to save the lives of 2003, the Company Laerdal, www.laerdal.com. A dummy is a dummy torso of an adult male, made of an elastic material. Mannequin head contains the mouth, is provided with a simulator of the foreign body, and rigidly connected to the neck and torso, also rigidly connected to the neck, has elastic deformed front surface, which in the epigastric region placed the device removal of foreign body from the upper respiratory tract, representing the elastic deformed air capacity, communicating with the duct oral cavity. On the specified dummy runs only one Heimlich maneuver, (with pressure on the epigastric region, the air flow from the "oropharynx" extruded foam ball, previously placed in the oral cavity and simulating a foreign body). When performing this technique, the presence of the instructor is required, as on the mannequin there are no sensors and simulators, providing�incorporate modelling characteristic external signs of asphyxia, independent monitoring and objective assessment of the learner's actions, including dangerous, for example when carrying out reception of the specified dummy was not tilted forward. The effect of training using the specified dummy is also reduced due to the inability to practice known classic technique of removal of foreign bodies from the upper airway using punches in the interscapular region, and to restore the breathing of the victim who has lost consciousness due to asphyxia, from an external cardiac massage.

The technical result achieved by the invention consists in expanding Arsenal are working on saving techniques, improving the usability and provide opportunities for self-development skills to rescue a wide range of people with no medical training.

The technical result is ensured by the following features of the simulator:

Interactive simulator to practice skills on first aid man with occlusion of the SDT contains a full-scale plaster cast of the torso of an adult, made of hard plastic material and comprising: a block head, block and neck block of the body, and is provided with a simulator blockage of the upper airway simulator with foreign body, sensor tilt the head forward and backward, the sensor state� hands "lifeguard" on the surface of the chest during external cardiac massage, device removal of foreign body from the upper respiratory tract, consisting of a position sensor of the hands of "rescuer" on the surface of the abdomen, sensor of inclination of a trunk forward displacement sensor of the front surface of the trunk, and shock sensor on the back, electronics, remote control, loudspeaker and a built-in battery. The sensors are connected to the electronics module.

The head unit contains the mouth with my mouth open, accessible to digital rectal examination and is equipped with a simulator of the foreign body. In the head unit posted simulator blockage of the upper respiratory tract, which includes an electromagnet mounted on the rear wall of the oral cavity in the area of the oropharynx, is connected to the electronics module and operatively cooperating with the electromagnet simulator blockage of the upper respiratory tract. The block body is pivotally connected to the neck block. The front surface of the block body is provided with a relief panel with external anatomic features of the thorax and abdomen of a person, is pivotally mounted on a rigid base disposed in the cavity of the block body. Between these raised panel and rigid base mounted elastic deformed elements, and under the rigid base on the rear surface of the block body contains a block of electronics, speaker and battery. Block neck gesture�about is connected to the head unit, the lower part of the neck block is a convex hemisphere, in which a longitudinal through slot, and the upper part of the block torso ends in a concave hemisphere with a hole in the center. The hemispheres are connected by a spring-loaded bolt, placed in the through groove and the hole, forming a hinge connection, ensuring the head tilts the prop back and forth. Sensor tilt her head back and forth consists of a permanent magnet mounted on the convex hemisphere of the neck block and magnetically operated contact mounted on the concave hemisphere of the body, connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a permanent magnet. Position sensor hands "lifeguard" on the surface of the chest during external cardiac massage comprises a movable button that is installed on a relief panel of the unit body in the center of the chest, under which is fixed to the limit switch connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a movable button. Position sensor hands "lifeguard" on the surface of the abdomen comprises a movable button that is installed on a relief panel in the epigastric region, under which is fixed to the limit switch connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a movable button. The shock sensor on the back contains podvygnukom, mounted on the rear surface of the block body, in the interscapular region, under which is fixed to the limit switch connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a movable button. The displacement sensor of the front surface of the body includes a permanent magnet mounted on a relief panel of the unit body, and a magnetically operated contact, mounted on a rigid base in the unit body, connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a permanent magnet.

Tilt sensor the torso of the dummy forward comprises a housing of non-magnetic material mounted on a rigid base in the block body, the body is made a longitudinal groove, in which the possibility of free movement placed a permanent magnet, and one end of the groove magnetically fixed contact connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a permanent magnet. The electronics module is equipped with a special training program and includes a microprocessor, RAM and sound card connected to the speaker and the battery. The control panel includes three buttons to select programs, click "Reset/Ready", switch the power "On/Off" indicator light and connector adapter charge the battery, installed on the surface of the block body in about�lusty shoulder and connected to the electronics module.

Summary of the invention and the possibility of achieving a technical result are explained in more detail hereinafter with reference to the positions of the drawings, in which:

Fig.1 shows a General view of the simulator according to the invention,

Fig.2 depicts a longitudinal section of a mockup of an individual according to the invention,

Fig.3 depicts a structural block diagram of a simulator according to the invention.

Interactive simulator for skills training first aid man with occlusion of the upper airway foreign body contains dummy 1 (Fig.1) torso of an adult person, are made of thermoplastic material and includes a head unit 2, the neck block 3, block 4 of the trunk with elastic deformed front surface 5 with the simulator unit 6 blockage of the upper respiratory tract, simulator 7 foreign body, removal of foreign bodies from the upper airway (not shown), 8 remote control, consisting of three buttons 9, 10, 11 program selection button 12 Reset/Ready", the switch 13 power "On/Off" indicator light 14, 15, connector adapter 16 charging the battery, the electronics unit 17, a speaker 18 and a built-in battery 19.

Unit 2 (Fig.2) the head contains the mouth 20, accessible to digital rectal examination. In the cavity 21 of the head set simulator 22 of blockage of the upper �hotelnah ways, representing the electromagnet 23, fixed to the rear wall 24 of the mouth 20 and operatively interacting with the simulator 7 foreign body, in the moment of its location directly in the oral cavity 20. This design allowed us to work on model welcome the removal of foreign bodies from the upper airway by the way blows to the back and rotate it with the Heimlich maneuver, as recommended by practicing physicians.

Unit 3 (Fig.1) neck is movably connected to the block 4 of the trunk. The lower part is made in the form of a convex hemisphere 25 (Fig.2) with a longitudinal groove, movably accommodated in the concave hemisphere 26, the upper part of unit 4 of the trunk and connected to it by means of a spring-loaded bolt 28. This connection provides the unit 2 tilts her head back and forth.

The front surface 5 (Fig.1) of block 4 of the trunk is equipped with a hard embossed panel 29 (Fig.2), copying external anatomical characteristics of the chest and abdomen of an adult and mounted using swivel 30, on a rigid base 31, placed inside the unit 4 of the trunk. Under relief panel 29, on a rigid base 31 are elements 32, which provides the elasticity of the front surface 5 (Fig.1) imitation 1 of the torso of a person.

Dummy 1 (Fig.2) is provided with a tilt sensor head 2 back and forth, consisting of a permanent magnet 33,�admission on the convex hemisphere 25, unit 3 (Fig.1) neck and magnetically operated contact 34 (Fig.2) mounted on the concave hemisphere 26 of the upper part of unit 4 of the trunk, connected to the block 17 (Fig.1) electronics and operatively interacting with the permanent magnet 33 (Fig.2).

The displacement sensor of the anterior surface of the thorax, placed in block 4 of the body includes a permanent magnet 35 mounted on an embossed panel 29, and a magnetically operated contact 36 mounted on a rigid base 31 connected to the block 17 (Fig.1) electronics and operatively interacting with a permanent magnet 35 (Fig.2).

On a relief panel 29, in the center of the chest is placed a sensor 37 hand position "lifeguard" on the surface of the chest during external cardiac massage, and in the epigastric region of the abdomen is placed a sensor 38 hand position "lifeguard" on the surface of the abdomen, these sensors are connected to the electronics unit 17.

On a rigid base 31 in block 4 of the body is placed a sensor 39 of inclination of a trunk forward, connected to the electronics unit 17.

Device removal of foreign body from the upper respiratory tract includes the sensor 38 hand position "lifeguard" on the surface of the abdomen, the sensor 39 torso forward, the displacement sensor of the front surface of the chest (a permanent magnet 35 with magnetically operated contact 36 and the sensor 40 shock� on the back, connected to the electronics unit 17.

Simulator 7 (Fig.1) foreign body made in the form of a fragment of a piece of food, such as fruit seeds - apricot, which establishes the permanent magnet 41 (Fig.2), operatively cooperating with the electromagnet 23 simulator 22 blockage of the upper respiratory tract.

The electronics unit 17, a speaker 18 and a built-in battery 19 is placed in block 4 of the body under rigid base 31.

Block 17 (Fig.3) electronics connected to the simulator 22 blockage of the upper respiratory tract, to a magnetically operated contact 34 of the sensor head tilt forward and backward, to a magnetically operated contact 36 of the displacement sensor of the front surface of the chest, to the sensor 37 hand position "lifeguard" on the surface of the chest during external cardiac massage, to the sensor 38 hand position "lifeguard" on the surface of the abdomen in the epigastric region, to the sensor 39 of inclination of a trunk forward, to the sensor 40 strokes on the back-to-8 remote control to the speaker 18, built-in battery 19 and includes a microprocessor 42 with a special program, a map memory 43, 44 sound card.

This system has enabled us to implement interactive learning, to model on model 1 breathing characteristic poperhnuvshis person to assess and monitor in real time and accompanied by an e-instructor all d�istia student in the development of techniques on model 1, significantly improve the efficiency of practical training in mass education and to minimize the participation of the instructor in the learning process.

Below is a description of operation of the simulator.

Training simulator to work in the program mode.

In the initial position of the torso of the dummy 1 is mounted vertically on the table. In the oral cavity 20 is placed simulator 7 foreign body, a permanent magnet 41 which are attracted to the core de-energized electromagnet 23. The switch 13 power "On/Off". Remote 8 control switched into the "On" position, light indicators 14, 15 power. Activate the button 12 Reset/Ready", at unit 17 receives the signal, which is formed during low-frequency audio signals to the speaker 18, the buzzer will sound and the phrase: "the Trainer is ready to work."

Program 1: "First aid to the victim with severe airway obstruction foreign body using strikes back" is as follows:

After the phrase: "the Simulator is ready to use", select the program, activate the remote 8 button 9, the electronics unit 17 receives the signal and it will form a circuit analysis of the status of the respective sensors on model 1 and low frequency sound signals to the speaker 18, the result will sound the buzzer and the phrase: "the Victim loses sosn�tion, he has signs of a severe airway obstruction by a foreign body. Administer any first aid!" After this phrase begins the countdown program, and on model 1 are modeled raucous noises and breathing rare characteristic poperhnuvshis person when hit in the respiratory tract foreign body. The student, diagnosing the condition of the "victim" on model 1 and focusing on the phrase-tip electronic instructor, operates as follows: stands up on the back of the headform is 1 and, keeping one hand around a breast, the other tilts it forward (turns on the sensor 39 torso forward). Holding a fake 1 with one hand in a tilted position, the base of the palm of the other hand gets up to five sharp blows on the back in the interscapular region. With effective shock sensor 40 strokes on the back, the signal from the electronics unit 17 will form in the last circuit of the electromagnet 23 simulator 22 blockage of the upper respiratory tract. Arisen electromagnetic field alienate simulator 7 foreign body and it will be thrown out from the mouth 20 of prop 1. According to the principle described above in the electronics block 17 is formed corresponding chains and commands, resulting in the "Wheezing choking man" will be replaced noisy fast breathing, an alarm will sound the buzzer and fra�and Respiratory tract released conduct an audit of the oral cavity, upon detection of any visible foreign body fragments carefully remove them with two fingers. Monitor the casualty until the arrival of the doctor". Automatic program reset will happen after this phrase, or at the expiration time.

On the simulator automatically controls all actions of the student, including incorrect, for example when applying strokes to the back, between the shoulder blades, neuklonnogo moulage 1 program is interrupted, an alarm will sound the buzzer and the phrase: "the Victim is not tilted forward, it's dangerous, shocks, foreign body can drop deeper into the respiratory tract". Circuit simulator 22 obstruction of the upper airway will be blocked and simulator 7 foreign body remains in "airway" moulage 1 and prior to the expiration of the control time, the student will hear a rattling rare breaths.

Then it will auto reset program.

Similarly, work: program 2 "First aid to the victim with severe airway obstruction foreign body with kicks to the abdomen (Heimlich maneuver) and program 3 "First aid to the victim in a severe foreign body obstruction and respiratory arrest" (Heimlich maneuver, the victim is laid on his back face up). This program provides for the holding�Linux external cardiac massage to restore respiration in asphyxia.

1. Interactive simulator to practice skills on first aid man with occlusion of the upper airway foreign body, containing the full-scale plaster cast of the torso of a man, such as adult men, including the head unit with the oral cavity and an open mouth provided with a simulator of the foreign body, the neck block, block body with elastic deformed front surface associated with the unit head through the neck block, and device removal of foreign body from the upper respiratory tract, characterized in that the dummy is made of hard plastic material and equipped with electronics, simulator blockage of the upper respiratory tract, sensor tilting the head forward and backward, the displacement sensor of the front surface of the body, the position sensor of the hands of the rescuer on the surface of the chest when performing external cardiac massage, the position sensor of the hands of the rescuer on the surface of the abdomen, the shock sensor on the back, sensor of inclination of a trunk forward, connected to the electronics module, which is connected to the control panel, speakers, and built-in battery.

2. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the simulator blockage of the upper respiratory tract contains an electromagnet mounted in the head unit on the back wall of the oral cavity in the area of the oropharynx and connected to b�CMOS electronics, in this case, the simulator of the foreign body made in the form of fruit seeds, inside which is fixed a permanent magnet operatively cooperating with the electromagnet.

3. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the bottom of the neck is a convex hemisphere with a longitudinal through groove, and the upper part of the block body has a concave hemisphere with a Central opening, wherein the hemispheres are connected by a spring-loaded bolt, placed in the Central groove and the hole, providing, thus, the head tilts the prop back and forth.

4. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the front surface of the block body is provided with a relief panel with external anatomical elements of the thorax and abdomen of a person, is pivotally mounted on a rigid base fixed to the unit body, and between the embossed panel and a rigid Foundation placed elastic deformed elements.

5. The simulator according to claim 3, characterized in that the tilt sensor unit of a trunk forward includes a housing formed of non-magnetic material and mounted on a rigid base, the case has a groove in which freely moves the magnetically operated contact connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with the specified permanent magnet, the displacement sensor of the front surface t�of Louisa consists of a permanent magnet, mounted on three panels, and magnetically controlled contact fixed on a rigid base connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a permanent magnet, the sensor head tilt forward and back consists of a permanent magnet mounted on the convex hemisphere of the neck block and magnetically controlled contact fixed in the concave hemisphere of the unit body, connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with the specified permanent magnet.

6. The simulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the position sensor at the hands of the rescuer on the surface of the chest when performing external cardiac massage includes a button movably mounted on a relief panel in the center of the chest, the position sensor of the hands of the rescuer on the surface of the abdomen includes a button movably mounted on a relief panel in the epigastric region, the shock sensor on the back includes a button mounted on the rear surface of the block body, in the interscapular region, under each of the buttons fastened limit switch connected to the electronics module and operatively interacting with a movable button.

7. The simulator according to claim 1, 4 or 6, characterized in that the electronics unit, built-in speaker and battery are mounted on the rear surface of the block body under ill�Kim Foundation wherein the electronics module is equipped with a microprocessor, RAM and sound card.

8. The simulator according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the control panel includes three selection buttons programs: the button "Reset/Ready", switch the power "On/Off" indicator lights and connector adapter charge the battery installed on the block torso, in the area of the shoulder and connected to the electronics module.



 

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1 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: medicine, experimental biology, ecology, toxicology.

SUBSTANCE: at studying the mechanisms of heavy metals toxic action, in particular, cadmium upon renal function, it is suggested to introduce cadmium sulfate solution into stomach once daily for 2 mo at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, on conversion to metal, where cadmium corresponds to 0.5 mg per 1 ml solution. The present innovation enables to study the pathology in dynamics of development and elaborate and searching preparations for treating and preventing chronic toxic nephropathy.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing cell or cell group to external power source. At least two electrodes are introduced before treating the cells. One of electrodes is set on cytoplasmatic external cell membrane surface and the other one cell membrane and membrane potential value is measured. External electric voltage source is connected to the introduced electrodes oppositely in polarity with cell membrane potential difference value being not less than cell membrane potential.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in building cell damage model by means of energy burst and death.

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