Method of agro-biological land reclamation with close groundwater occurrence on sod-podzol sandy loam soils of central non-black earth soil
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used mainly in the agriculture without irrigation on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with shallow groundwater table.
Known method for improving the water-air regime of soil under perennial forage crops, including the thread with the displaced soil in the side slit, crafts molehills, laying in the drainage pipes for the supply of irrigation water with a smaller diameter than the diameter of the wormhole, simultaneously with cutting of the slit and molehills in it stack pipe, in addition, in the autumn-winter period at the combination of excessive rainfall and waterlogged soil mineralized water is going in and we work through the micropores of the drain pipe enters the inner cavity (RU 2116723, CL. 01G 25/06, E02B 11/00, E02B 11/02, A01B 79/00, 1998).
The disadvantage of this method are the high capital costs required for construction of drainage and reduction of soil fertility, for example, sod-podzolic sandy loam soil where you want to save the top fertile layer of soil to maintain growth on indicators of development of green mass of grass, and the degree of grain. Thus, the extraction on the barren surface of the rock during the construction of drainage reduces ploder�que soils, and additionally requires high fertilizer rate.
There is also known a method of cultivation of maize, including deep tillage with simultaneous formation of the soil ridges. The formation of soil ridges at a predetermined distance from each other, free from residue, then produce the lifestyle of crop residues and further introducing into the ridges of fertilizers. Conduct inter-row cultivation, and the culture harvested at the phase of full ripeness, thus received increased yield by the use of summer precipitation in xeric conditions (RU # 1687105, CL A01G 1/00, B 79/02, 1991).
However, watertable, the first year of life without irrigation there are large loss of plants and thinning of the grass that adds to the cost of overseeding grasses. In conditions of the Central Chernozem region the technology of growing herbs is not sufficiently reliable, i.e. it refers to sod-podzolic sandy loam soil, where it is necessary in the loosened soil layer to obtain the detention of snow, to create the optimal snow cover, which protects plants from freezing. It should also hold in moisture during the spring period in the loosened soil layer.
In addition, in winter the soil in all the fields out in a compacted state. As a result, water runs down the slope of the field, the sweat�and water reach more than 80% from surface runoff. The flow is observed at very high module (intensity) with a sharp warming of the air. All this without any special measures is conducive to the development of gully scaly erosion and decreases the productivity of crop rotation. In addition, significantly slowing the process of restoration of fertility of land washed away on sod-podzolic soils.
Unlike mist irrigation reclamation provide for the conservation and use of moisture that fell as snow in the winter application over the wetted area, and this can occur only in regions with sufficient snowfall (precipitation) for a particular crop. One way is arrest and accumulation of snow in the winter. This method of admission is accompanied by a careful regard to moisture (reducing losses to evaporation and transpiration by weeds), especially where water is taken from surface sources is limited. The retention is achieved by the device of barriers that slow down the wind speed in the surface layer and preventing its preservation from the blow-off from the fields up to 30-70% of snow, especially in areas of the Central Chernozem region, which is associated with the structure of the soil. It is effective in a natural area with snow cover of less than 50 cm To obtain high yields of grasses cultivated on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils, root zone soil strata must have to �Achalov vegetation maximum supply of water, equal to the smallest capacity. Typically, the duration of flooding, for example, alfalfa should not exceed 7-8 days, and it depends on the accumulation of snow in the winter, the stock of which depends on its density. For example, with an average snow density of 0.3 g/cm3in each 10-cm layer accumulates 30 mm of water or 300 m3/ha. Thus, the accumulation of snow does two things: acts as warming the soil under the snow, and in spring thaws faster and absorbs abundant melt water, increasing the efficiency of applied fertilizers at sowing. The crops are tall plants that have strong enough stems (sunflower, corn, mustard, sorghum, etc.), snow delay, as well as weaken the cold and dry winds.
Note that for certain areas, in particular for the Central non-black earth region, the yield is limited to the duration of the frostless period and the sum of active temperatures during this period.
The claimed invention aims at solving the following problem: the preservation of seedlings of herbs while preserving maize seedlings later planting in the summer, not reaching its full maturity, leaving it on the field in the winter, and cleaning it is carried out before vegetation with herbs grinding and removal of stems with leaves on a dry animal feed with subsequent feed additive (ha�internal from a mixture of grain).
In comparison with known technical solutions with minimum expenditure of labor and means of soil parameters are optimized retention of snow, creating optimal snow cover, which protects plants from freezing, and in the spring of accumulation of moisture at the beginning of the first year of life herbs in the loosened soil layer.
The purpose of the claimed invention is to reduce the cost of processing of the soil by creating conditions for overwintering and development of plants while maintaining moisture in them.
To achieve the said technical result of the method the biological reclamation of lands with shallow groundwater on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the Central Chernozem region, comprising treating the soil with simultaneous formation of the soil of the ridges, after a summer of deep tillage before sowing of grasses hold the alignment, rolling in a single pass of a smooth water-filled rollers, sowing is carried out with a mixture of grass growing naturally on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils, tape stripes, and overseeding of tall row crops of maize is carried out with simultaneous formation of ridges between the belts and they don't do inter-row tillage, tilled tall corn, not reached its full maturity, about�property before winter, and cleaning is carried out in the second year in the spring before vegetation with herbs grinding and removal of stems with leaves the field on a dry food with subsequent feed additive, in addition, sowing grass between the strips of tape is carried out in a mechanically destroyed combs and spend feeding the herbs that are harvested in the period of full vegetation, the distance between the bands take 20-25 m, and the corn row spacing - 70 cm.
In addition, at the same time after harvesting row crops in strips with mechanical shattered ridges contribute phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Corn - culture pozdnevesennego sowing time. If nitrogen fertilizer before, some of them will be washed into surface water bodies, as part of the groundwater.
In sowing summer corn strip it faces an acute shortage of nitrogen, as in not yet warmed the soil in the spring microbial activity is suppressed and mineral forms of nitrogen, especially movable nitrates, washed with meltwater. Feeding this high-stem crops nitrogen fertilizer is carried out after the termination of horizontal and vertical drainage, when the humidity of the upper layer will be below 100% of APW, but higher WRC. Nitrogen fertilizer falling on such a soil, dissolve quickly and capillaries penetrate the root layer. Losses from Vym�tion and gaseous losses will be minimal, and the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization. The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer 50-60% of the calculated norms. Sowing row corn conduct drills with pneumatic sowing machine with row spacing of 70 cm and a seeding rate of 90-100 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha. planting Depth of 4-6 cm Before sowing, seeds are treated and covered with film forming composition (inlaying).
Joint planting of two kinds of plants on the same field with alternating strips of crops are sown separately. If grasses are sown one seeder, aisle width of not less than 5 cm, maize, row spacing - 70 cm, grass can be sown without nitrogen fertilizer, and corn to nitrogen fertilizer, corn uses its capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
In a joint way crops have less negative impact on each other, almost eliminates vzaimozatmeniya. Moreover, when sowing crops with different heights of the stem donotbelieve culture better highlights and the mass of one plant is more than the net single crop. Low-stalk component is experiencing some shading, but it is much weaker than in mixed crops.
A mixture of grass strip on the tape gives the greatest yield of better quality if the components of the mixtures are chosen according to species and varietal with�the old Armenian with regard to the criterion of compatibility. Therefore, soil-climatic and hydrological conditions must be considered.
Important factor for different cultures are growth rates in the initial phase of development. For example, corn: in the first phase overhead supply grows slowly, more quickly developed root system, which further ensures its sustainability for winter (snow detention).
In Central non-Chernozem zone of maize for early planting for silage harvested in late August-early September, when it accumulates the greatest amount of mass and goes into the seeds. Whereas in the proposed method, when her late planting, although the root system is already formed, but not yet reached the phase of maturation of the seeds, but the trunk is already quite stable with the formed sheets. Cleaning is not carried out and left in the winter until the spring term of service.
Thus, it is necessary to address the key hydrological parameters: groundwater depth on a particular field, the duration of standing snow melt, soil moisture, corresponding to 100% of APW, and the humidity of the rupture of capillaries. In addition, you should take into account the terrain, the steepness and direction of slope of the field.
The main limiting factor in this zone are the frost-free period and the sum of active temperatures during this� period. Hence the lack of moisture, therefore, it is necessary to hold in the winter in the form of snow, especially on sod-podzolic soils. In different areas different amount of risk.
Late planting of maize (specified period) does not reach the end of the wax phase condition of the grain, however, so that before the onset of the great frost of autumn leaves already become white and dry, but do not crumble. Is the freezing of the plant vacuole in leaf cells and life processes cease. The quality of stability of a rod increases with stunted height. In the spring of timely removed the corn stalks with leaves ground into a mass, which gives dry food with the additive, for example with the processing of grain fodder to feed.
A characteristic feature of these soils is high resistance to adverse environmental conditions, preservation of seedlings from freezing in the winter and provide them with moisture at the beginning of the first year of life due to the winter drawdown of the groundwater level in the first year of life herbs, eliminating the loss of plants in the winter. In addition, in accordance with the proposed method eliminates the appearance of water and wind erosion, in combination with the growing ridge in part of the corn after winter (this period of culture) use stems from ostyvshimi� leaves as animal feed after grinding and removal from the field with subsequent feed (grain, etc.) additive. Direct strip seeding in the crest of the corn forms a separate lane aisle, allowing the spring to remove the stems with leaves with the simultaneous grinding, using known techniques and equipment and otoski corn. Overseeding grasses, alternatively, you can leave next year for a good crop next year, keeping the rotation in the processing of one every 3-4 years. On sandy soils podstawy possible, for example, clover March snow or frozen soil crust - seeding "the crock". When the snow ceases and the top layer of soil becomes waterlogged, seeds, such as clover semosavlebisada a few millimeters, i.e., at the perfect depth of this culture. So for the second year in the cold of autumn (late October-November) and early spring (end of April-first half of may) microbiological activity of the soil is weakened and the salinity of the remaining mass of herbs will be slow, but it will prevent the leaching of spring and autumn precipitation of the released nutrients, primarily nitrogen beyond the root zone. Besides the fields creates a powerful grass grass-legume components with high conservation efficiency are guaranteed no restoration and increase of fertility of soil loss. After the arable about�of abode fields define the interbelt planting grass and corn of the width of the spacing between bands of 20-25 m. These options are strips of corn help to hold the snow not only inside the growing, but also on the strips sown with grasses, creating optimal snow cover as the wind and the frost.
The cycle of these works is repeated every four years. It is important that tillage in crop rotation is performed on each field in 3-4 years and the newly planted grass, corn on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with alternating stripes of cultures that it does not violate inter-row sowing of the seeds of grasses and corn seeds for sowing before the winter period because of tall row crops. The distance between plants in them 25-30 cm, so that the gaps between the stalks were at least 70%, the distance between stripes of different cultures take up to 20-25 m, the distance of the aisle to take corn 70 cm In connection with the phenomenon of "clearauthority" re seeding grass on the same lanes is impractical, and on the same strips of corn. So after 3-4 years of production use of herbs required to produce a seeding strip moving relative to the planting of corn on the distance specified above, and on the same technology aisle. That is, the preparation of the field is repeated.
Thus, for each hectare of arable land to get the maximum number product description�and crop production, you must have the characteristic of each circuit of the field with the following parameters: particle size distribution of the soil; groundwater depth; the slope of the field and its orientation; the reaction of soil solution (pHSol), water acidity and the amount of absorbed bases; the content in the topsoil, humus, legkogidrolizuemihkh nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, boron, molybdenum and other trace elements; soil moisture, corresponding to 100% of APW. This factor can be classified fields (farmer fields) close to the parameters of these indicators of physical, hydrological and chemical properties of the soil. Then, in accordance with the characteristics of the soil of crop rotation should develop the technological scheme of cultivation of each crop, adapted to the conditions of the field.
Consequently, the level of the planned crop, variety, should be determined not by its potential productivity, and the real conditions in which this variety will grow, and the ability to meet the requirements of the biology class.
Thus, in comparison with the prototype in the spring of accumulations of snow melt on the way maps and the moisture is retained in the allotted time in the loosened soil. These reserves of moisture and the presence of an air-permeable pores in the strips of soil for different crops contribute� active growth and development of the root system with the penetration of it into the hem of groundwater, and it lowers the level of groundwater. Ensures the supply of organic matter (manure) and nitrogen nodule bacteria, which improves fertility of the field and creates favorable conditions that provide the greatest productivity of crop rotation on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the Central Chernozem region is particularly effective in the harsh winters.
1. Method biological reclamation of lands with shallow groundwater on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the Central Chernozem region, comprising treating the soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges, characterized in that after a summer of deep tillage before sowing of grasses hold the alignment, rolling in a single pass of a smooth water-filled rollers, sowing is carried out with a mixture of naturally growing grass on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils tape stripes, and overseeding of tall row crops of maize is carried out with simultaneous formation of ridges between the belts and they don't do inter-row tillage, tilled tall corn culture, not reached its full maturity, leave before winter, and cleaning is carried out in the second year in the spring before vegetation with herbs grinding and removal of a stem with leaves from the floor� dry food with subsequent feed additive, in addition, sowing grass between the strips of tape is carried out in a mechanically destroyed combs and spend feeding the herbs that are harvested in the period of full vegetation, the distance between the bands take 20-25 m, and the corn row spacing - 70 cm.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that at the same time after harvesting row crops in strips with mechanically destroyed by the ridges contribute phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the drain well 1 a chamber 11 is located, communicated with the outlet orifices 12 and 25, and a container 13. In the chamber 11 a float articulation linkage is placed, the rod 18 of which is passed through the orifice 12 into the container 13, in which the cone valve 14 with the load 15 is placed. The container 13 through the pipeline 16 is connected to the outlet drain 4. The bottom of the chamber 11 is communicated with the drain well 1 by the inlet opening 17 and is made in the form of a valve 23 and a float sensor 22 interconnected with the rod with the ability of axial displacement. The inlet opening 17 of the float sensor 22 is formed with projections-limiters 24 with windows. The housing 10 of the shut-off device has a recess in which a pipe 26 with a spring 27 with a screw 28 is placed. The spring 27 is placed in the cavity of the flexible sleeve 29, which serves as protection from clogging with debris and deposits. The sensing element in the form of a spring 27 supports the valve 3 in opening and closing the opening 9 in the seat of the housing 10, which eliminates the shock loading of the valve on the seat in the housing 10. Closing the opening of the shut-off device is carried out only after emptying of the float chamber. As a result of this the work of the float drive is balanced by moments of forces from the minimum to the maximum water level in the well 1.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the device, improved accuracy of regulation and enhanced range of technical means for regulation of the water level in the closed drainage systems.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.
EFFECT: high stability simultaneously with the possibility to save area during storing and transportation.
14 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises twisting the device for drain formation in the ground or soil to the desired depth. The device consists of dual hollow tubes. The outer tube has uniformly spaced protrusions of constant rectangular section rigidly fixed on the lateral cylindrical surface along the helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the desired depth by the device, the inner tube together with the cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube to form a hollow space. The soil is removed from the inner tube. Then the inner tube is wrapped with anti-suffusion material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube. Then filter material is poured. The dual outer and inner tubes as filled with the filter material are twisted using a handle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and productivity in the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.
SUBSTANCE: mouth of the drain manifold comprises a shut-off valve 32 with the float drive 23 and the rod 31 mounted on the drain headwall, located in the drainage well 16. The mouth of the drain manifold comprises a plug-ended pipe 1 and is equipped with two chambers 10 and 11. The lower chamber 10 is connected to the upper chamber 11. The chambers 10, 11 through the inlet openings 12, 13 with the pipes 14, 15 are connected through the side wall 16 of the well mounted in the channel 17, and constitute a hydraulic switch, in which the water levels are recorded by the flap valves 19, 20. The upper chamber 11 is connected with a water-filled container 27 with a float 23 connected by the hinged-lever drive with a valve 19 and rigidly through the rod 31 with the shut-off valve 32. The lower chamber 10 is connected through the check valve 7 with the gate 6 with the drain tube 5 connected to the Venturi tube 4 of the drain 3. The outlet opening 18 at the bottom of the chamber 11 is provided with a flat flap valve 19, and the tube 14 - with the flap valve 20. The flap valve 20 through the hinges with the rod 21 is connected with the flap valve 19 which is connected by the hinged-lever drive through the fixed hinge 22 with a float 23. The water-filled container 27 with a calibrated water outlet opening 33 has a float movement limiter made in the form of the level retainers 24.
EFFECT: reliability of operation in transient conditions, depending on the position of water level in the channel is provided by the presence of hydraulic relay consisting of two chambers, interconnected by the valves, and the container, in particular the calibrated opening in it, calculated from the condition that the water level in the retainer of closing of the shut-off device is slower.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: previously they make a horizontal circular drainage 1 with a tubular drain having gravel fill and wrapped in geotextile. Then a bed drain 3 is arranged under the bottom of the basement with filtering fill from crushed stone. A sink 4 is equipped with fill from coarse-grained sand. Walls 6 and the bottom 7 of the basement are hydraulically insulated. Piles 8 are driven, and a groove-and-tongue wall 9 is arranged. Perpendicularly to the horizontal drains 1 tightly to the groove-and-tongue wall 9 at the rated distance they arrange vertical perforated plastic pipes 2. Vertical collectors 2 are wrapped by a protective filtering material and are combined into a single system. For quick reduction of ground water level they apply forced pumping of water by a pump 10 from vertical collectors 2 with its further discharge into the horizontal circular drainage 1.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drainage operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of land reclamation and can be used for draining soils in heavy-textured soils, as well as in regulation of the water level in upper pools of bulkhead structures in irrigation and drainage-humidification channels. The system comprises an inlet 1 and an outlet 28 drains, a storage container 2 and a chamber 3 connected by the pipe 4. The chamber 3 is placed in an inspection manhole 5, in which a siphon is mounted. A float 18 is placed in an additional chamber 20 and is provided with a load 19 with a variable mass. The system comprises a three-port articulation linkage, the first port 8 of which is pivotally connected to the first horizontal axis of rotation 7. A shutter 6 is connected to the axis of rotation 7 with the ability of rotation and fixing the shutter in the end positions by means of clamps on the output head of the chamber 3 which is connected to the inlet pipe. The second port is made in the form of a rod 9 mounted on the second horizontal axis of rotation 11 and connected to a lever 10. The lever 10 is pivotally connected to a rod 12 rigidly connected to the float 18. The rod 9 by a lever 13 with a slider 14 is connected to a rack 15, on which a limiter 16 is secured using a retaining screw 17. In the bottom of the additional chamber 20 there is an inlet 23 with the located valve 24 connected to a float sensor 25. The inspection manhole 5 is equipped with a siphon made in the form of a vertically mounted cylindrical nozzle 29 connected to the outlet 28 drain, and a cap 30 located above it. The combination of the articulation linkage with the floating drive mounted on the wall of the chamber (well) with control elements enables to avoid imbalances by moving the shutter 6 on the axis 7, and the operation of the siphon also enables to adjust automatically water discharge to the outlet drain with the stable flow rate.
EFFECT: system is reliable and stable in operation, it has continuous monitoring of the water level and eliminates an emergency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, and namely to development of flooded mineral deposits, as well as it can be used at unwatering of foundations and in hydraulic engineering. In order to protect an open pit against underground water influx, the main horizontal drain wells 4 are constructed normally to open pit 2 side 1. At least two opposite lying additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed out of each main horizontal drain well 4. Out of points 5, 6, 7 on the main horizontal drain wells 4 there constructed to one side in the direction of adjacent wells 4 to the right are additional side horizontal drain wells 8, 9, 10. Out of the same points 5, 6, 7 on adjacent wells 4 there constructed to the left are additional side horizontal drain wells 11, 12, 13. All the additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed till their mutual intersection and formation of a closed drain circuit. All wells are constructed at the bottom of the drained water-bearing horizon.
EFFECT: providing increase of entrapment degree of breakthrough of underground water to open pit sides and reducing drilling volumes of the main horizontal drain wells owing to enlarging distance between them.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method comprises application of material in the field by the machine having a plurality of devices for dispensing the material. The dispensers of material are arranged to form rows when the machine moves along the field. The machine has a control system for selective stopping for dispensing the material by one or more dispensers while continuing to dispense the material by remaining dispensers. The machine has the means of translational motion and the means of automated determining of position and direction. The method comprises determining the perimeter of the field, identifying the areas of passage of headlands, determining the remaining central region of the field inside the passages of the headlands, the choice of a starting place to begin application of the material. The method also comprises determining a travel route for application of the material starting from the passages in both sides in the central area and turning the machine in the areas, and determining a route plan for the subsequent application of the material in the areas of the headlands. Each headland created around the field is equal to the full width of the machine. The area of passage of the first headland in the perimeter is adjacent to the outer edge of the field. All areas of the passages of the additional headlands are created inside the area of passage of the headland around the perimeter. According to the second embodiment, the method also comprises the use seeds as the material.
EFFECT: technology enables to minimise or eliminate compacting the areas with sown seeds due to exclusion of double passing of the machine on areas with sown seeds.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the basic tillage, sowing, care and harvesting. And the soil tillage is carried out with chisel tool with the formation of ridge bottom of the furrow, and sowing the crop is carried out over the deepening of the furrow bottom in every second deepening in the first year of sowing. In the second year the sowing is carried out over the unused deepening of the furrow bottom of the first year, and the width of row-spacing after tillage is equal to half the distance between the rows. The direction of sowing the crop is oriented perpendicular to the motion of the dominant wind. Sowing the crop over the deepening of the furrow bottom alternates with the steam bands, which are loosened during the growing season to the depth of 0.08-0.12 m at least 2 times. After harvesting the crops the plant residues are treated with biomineral preparation of nitrogenous fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water taken in the ratio of 5:0.2:94.8 based on 310-320 kg per hectare.
EFFECT: method enables to preserve the soil fertility, destroy weeds, obtain quality products and save seeding material.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil science. The method comprises cutting a groove along the site for determining the soil moisture capacity with the length of 0.5-0.7 m, width of 0.25-0.30 m to the depth of the estimated soil layer. Then, the groove is filled with water, water is supplied to the site from the grooves with infiltration for 7-14 cm, the water is discharged from the groove 30 minutes after pouring water. The groove is closed with boards or metal sheet, and the surrounding area within a radius of 1.0 m from the centre of the groove - with polyethylene film, 20 cm layer of straw and 20 cm layer of soil. The soil moisture capacity in the walls of the groove is determined on layers on the investigated depth in three, five, seven days in four-fold replications to establish a constant humidity, which will be considered its lowest moisture capacity (HB). Water to moisten the soil is fed from the groove, cut on the side of the experimental site, infiltration simultaneously in all layers.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the period of determining HB by 16-18 days, the cost of water for its determination in 2,4 times, the need in electronic water meters in 6-11 times.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises watering using the system of mole drainage, flooding rice checks, mowing rice in rolls with two-three-fold threshing of rolls while leaving rice straw on the surface of the check. In autumn before fall ploughing the chemical ameliorant phosphogypsum is applied along with 60 t/ha manure on the surface in the dry state by spreading on the surface using spreaders. The ameliorant dose depends on the degree of soil salinisation: in case of the exchangeable sodium content of less than 15% 3-5 t/ha is applied, in case of 15-20% - 8-10 t/ha, and if it is greater than 20% - 10-15 t/ha. In spring the mole drainage of subsurface layer is carried out, the disease-treated rice seeds are sown in ordinary way. Then flooding of rice checks is carried out with water layer of 10-12 cm. In case of a very strong degree of soil salinity the originally created layer is drained after 2-3 days, and the checks are flooded again with fresh water, in the initial period of development of rice plants - from seed germination till emergence of 2-3 leaves, for the period of germination and seedling emergence (23-27 days) the water is drained and during this period dressing with fertilisers and growth stimulants is carried out, treatment with herbicides using aircraft is carried out. After the mass seedling emergence in phase of 2-3 leaves on the rice field layer of water of 10-12 cm is created again and supported up to tillering period, and then reduced to a level of 5-10 cm. If increase in mineralisation of water to 2 g/l in the check is recorded, its drainage and replacement with fresh water is required. In the early phase of booting the water layer is increased to 15 cm and kept to the end of the milk stage. In case of increasing of mineralisation of water its systematic replacement is carried out, then the water supply is stopped and by the beginning of full ripeness of grain the water is completely drained.
EFFECT: method enables to prevent the surface redistribution of irrigation water during irrigation, to reduce infiltration groundwater recharge, to prevent resalinisation of the soil root zone, and to reduce the salinity of the upper layer of soil, and to increase the grain yield of rice.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises processing soil in row spacing and care of plants using tillage tools in the unit with wheel-type tractors. At that the wheel-type tractors move along permanent artificial tracks with hard coating in the root zone of hop plants. Supports for placement of race tracks are made in the form of a metal pipe embedded in soil, which is welded to two brackets, and two race tracks with hard coating are placed on them.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of hops and the performance of machine units.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes the harvesting of the previous culture, adding of phosphoric fertilisings, skimming, application of organic fertilisings. Tillage is performed with a complete turnover of the layer, relief leveling, early spring harrowing, pre-plant tilling, sowing, inter-row care, vegetation waterings and harvesting. Meanwhile for intensifying of photosynthetic activity of its culture during its growth and the decrease of the growing season, just before the amaranth sowing a nanostructure water-phosphatic suspension consisting from nanoparticles with the dimensions below 100 nm and obtained from connatural phosphorites is applied into the soil, at the rate of 1.0-2.0 kg per 1 ha of the sowing area.
EFFECT: method allows to increase nitrogenase activity of amaranth during growth and to reduce a growing season while keeping a former level of productivity of the given culture.
2 tbl, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.
EFFECT: increase of yield.
7 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanisation of agricultural production. The method is characterised in that spraying of leaves of cultivated crops with fertiliser solutions is carried out and herbicides are applied with the tape. Spraying of leaves of cultivated crops is carried out in portions with a solution of mineral fertilisers, and application of the herbicides - on both sides symmetrically with respect to the row of plants within the protection zone with overlapping. To prevent the contact of the solution of the herbicide with the leaves of cultivated crops they are raised, and devices for application of fertilisers and herbicides are brought to the action zone of protective shields.
EFFECT: method provides improvement of quality of spraying, and also minimises the negative impact of herbicides on cultivated vegetative crops.
SUBSTANCE: method of crop irrigation in rice crop rotation comprises formation on the surface of the check of the ridge surface and the furrows, laying of drainage elements, planting upland rice or other crops of rice crop rotation, supply into the furrow of irrigation water and drainage loss. The novelty of the invention is that prior to the formation of ridges and furrows the chemical ameliorant is applied on the surface of the check, improving the properties of alkaline soils, and along the central part of the ridges parallel to furrows at a depth of 0.5-0.7 m mole drains are laid.
EFFECT: significant reduction in intensity of salt accumulation in the ridge part of the furrows, elimination of risk of secondary salinisation and alkalinisation, improvement of soil structure and providing sustainable draining effect.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.