Method to produce encapsulated chippings and device for its realisation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to produce encapsulated chippings consists in application of a polymer film onto surface of chippings grains, besides, chippings are chosen from products of crushing and granulometric classification of crystalline rocks of microgranular structure, grains of chippings have spherical or ellipsoidal shape and cellular microrelief of surface with cell size of 5-50 mcm and concentration of cells of at least 80% of the area of grain surface, mixing is carried out on the flat horizontal surface in the layer of chippings with thickness of 30-70 mm at ambient temperature for 3-7 min until complete coverage of grains with polymer film and subsequent thermal treatment in drying devices until agglomeration stops.

EFFECT: increased quality of encapsulated chippings due to its more complete dyeing and coverage, reduced consumption of encapsulating substances.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the construction materials industry and can be used in the manufacture of various types of stone chips encapsulated fractions from 0.1 to 3 mm, intended for use as a decorative granular fillers in the compositions for interior and exterior surfaces of buildings and structures, as well as toppings booking the outer surface bitumen roll roofing and waterproofing materials.

A method of producing a material of colored mineral granules comprising forming on the surface of grains of stone chips painted polymeric film which is carried out by soaking and draining stone chips suspension of pigment in an aqueous dispersion of the polymer [1].

As stone chips used quartz sand or products of rock crushing, having an average particle size of preferably from 1 to 3 mm and an acute-angled shape. The amount of pigment is from 1 to 10% by weight of coated substances, the ratio of the mass of mineral material to the impregnating liquid is from 1:1 to 10:1. Colored granules are separated from the excess liquid and dried at an elevated temperature up to 100°C. Unused aqueous suspension is re-used with the addition of the colorant and (or) light�her polymer dispersion. The disadvantages of this method are:

- discontinuity protectors on sharp edges and smooth areas on the surface of the grains;

- variation in colour of the material of colored mineral granules in connection with the unevenness of the ratio of the colorant and polymer dispersion into reusable suspensions;

- high consumption of polymers and pigments.

The known method of encapsulation of solids, preferably spherical granules with a diameter of 2-2. 5 mm, 0.5-1 mm, etc., to form on their surface protective polymer films [2]. The method is implemented by injecting a polymer solution under vacuum, in a vibrating chamber with the pellets for 1 min, followed by increasing the pressure in the chamber to atmospheric, the division received capsules to prevent agglomeration in the installation of vibratory centrifugal separation, drying, heated up to 90°With air. Encapsulation of the granules produced in excess encapsulating substances, which leads not only to the wind, but also to agglomeration and coalescence of the encapsulated material, which significantly reduces the efficiency of the process. The separation of the agglomerates from of the encapsulated granules in vibratory centrifugal installation complicates the technological scheme and increases the process.

A method of staining stone chips, including shale chips, fraction to�upnote 0.1-3 mm, comprising forming on the surface of the shell of the colorant by mixing the crumbs with a suspension of pigments in a polymethylphenyl siloxane lacquer in a rotary mixer with the evacuation of air to a pressure of 450-500 mm Hg.PT. and subsequent heating of the mixture at a pressure of 45-50 mm Hg.PT.[3]. The lacquer and pigments of 3.0-3.5 wt.%. Stirring for 10 min, heat treatment at a pressure of 45-50 mm Hg.PT. and a temperature of 80+5°C for 4-6 h with periodic rotation of the mixer. However, this method ignores the effect of the grain shape on the process of mixing the crumbs with the dye substance and the influence of the surface microrelief of the grains on the strength of its adhesion with polymers. During rotation of the rotary mixer, the movement of grains and angular leaf shaped relative to each other is difficult (unlike grains of spherical shape), and grain with a smooth surface microtopography have low adhesion to polymers. Therefore, in the practical implementation of this method a continuous enveloping the surface of grains of stone chips dye composition is not achieved, a significant portion of the grains is unpainted, and unexpended colorant contributes to agglomeration and adhesion of the colored grains.

Known method of dyeing of loose granular materials, e.g. quartz sand, stone chips, etc, the implementation of which, to prevent clumping of grains and reduction of consumption of the colorant and polymer processing granular material is carried out by moving the cylindrical chamber at a frequency of 300-700 rpm on a circle, whose diameter is 0.2 to 0.6 inner diameter of the chamber, and a colorant is supplied to the chamber in the form of a suspension containing 0.1-1.0 wt.% adhesives, 0.3 to 2.0 wt.% dye and 2.0-5.0 wt.% water from a painted material [4]. As the use of adhesives polyvinyl acetate or acrylic emulsion. The consumption of polymers and pigments 1.7 to 3.0 mass%, water is added in an amount of 2-5 wt.%. The latest color - 1-4 minutes, the time for drying and the temperature is not specified. Encapsulation of granular material is achieved by pressing the material to the inner surface of the chamber under the action of centrifugal forces and mutual collisions of granular material and encapsulating substances. The clumping of the grains at the exit from the chamber is prevented intense movement relative to each other. However, this method does not provide for measures against clumping of grains and the formation of agglomerates during drying of granular material, which greatly reduces its effectiveness. In addition, in the grinding chamber, the granular material by impact of the grains on the chamber wall and each other, h�about leads to disruption of the required fractional composition of the encapsulated granular material.

The closest analogue of the invention is a method for continuously dyeing granular rock materials, such as sand or gravel, on a conveyor belt, in which to obtain a polymer film on the surface of the grains as binders are aqueous dispersions of polymers and dyes used aqueous dispersions of organic pigments or suspensions of inorganic pigments in aqueous dispersions of polymers [5]. This method is adopted as a prototype. In the known method of mixing granular material with a binder and colorants is performed at room temperature in a mixer blade or screw type, allowing you to visually control the quality of the painted material at the outlet of the mixer, and adjust the download speed of each component during the process to obtain the product of desired quality. For curing the polymer film on the surface of the grains used drying devices of various designs with heated air. The consumption of polymers and pigments of 1.25-1.50 mass%.

The disadvantage of this method is insufficient staining and continuity wraparound due to the fact that this method does not take into account the morphology of the grains and the microrelief of the surface, influencing the process of encapsulating zere� coloring substance, as well as on the continuity of the polymer coating and the strength of its coupling with the surface of the grains, which leads to high consumption of polymers and pigments. Adjusting the speed of loading of the components into the mixer based on a visual assessment of the quality of the colored material at the outlet of the mixer does not provide high-quality encapsulation and the single colour staining stone chips. In addition, implement a continuous process on a conveyor belt is practically difficult because the curing rate of polymer films in the drying apparatus of any structures clearly less than the rate of encapsulation of aggregate in the mixer.

The technical result of the claimed invention is to improve the quality of encapsulated stone chips due to more complete her coloring and coat, as well as a significant reduction in the consumption of encapsulating substances (pigments, polymers, etc.).

Said technical result is achieved according to the claimed invention, because it is sufficient to choose the rock dust fractions from 0.1 to 3 mm from the products of crushing and particle size classification of the crystalline rocks, micro-grain structure, the grains which are spherical or ellipsoidal shape and a mesh surface microrelief with a cell size of 5-50 μm and a concentration of cells of at least 80% of uploadi the surface of grains, on the surface of the grains of the polymer film is applied by stirring at room temperature for crumbs, to which is added a liquid encapsulating substance, as elected by the aqueous dispersion of polymer with additives, on a flat horizontal surface in a layer of stone chips with a thickness of 30-70 mm for 3-7 minutes until completely enveloping the grains of the polymer film, which is controlled visually by the glitter and/or color, stone chips with beans, covered with polymer film is subjected to heat treatment in a drying apparatus at temperatures above 80-85°C until the termination of agglomeration.

The implementation of the inventive method is carried out using a device for encapsulated stone chips, which includes feed hopper, mixer to cover stone chips liquid encapsulating substance disposed over the spout of the liquid encapsulating substances, dryer and storage bin, packaging unit, interconnected by a feed conveyor. The mixer consists of a housing, a rotary table provided with a mechanism for reciprocating motion at a speed 2-10 m/min and clamps to hold the tray and mounted above the table horizontal shaft with vertical movement and fixed thereon for coupling with clamps blades �removalno form. Mixing the crumbs produced in trays with flat bottoms are square and the sides with a height of 150 mm, inclined at an angle of 50 to 65° to the bottoms, when the forward movement of the turntable toward the shoulder blades when lowering the shaft and the rise of the shaft, the table returns to its original position and rotated 90°, and the blades are fixed at an angle to the bottom of the tray is equal to the angle of inclination of the flanges. The dimensions of the sides of the blades not less than 250 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 50-150 mm, and the distance between the blades is ½ of the length of the bottom sides of the blades. The thickness of the layer of stone chips in the trays, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades, and the speed of the translational motion of the table is chosen experimentally on the content of grains of a certain size in the composition of the stone chips, namely:

1) the thickness of the layer of crumbs 60-70 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades of 120-150 mm and the speed of the translational motion of the table 8-10 m/min is chosen when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of the chips up to 1 wt.% and the content of grains with a thickness less than 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm less than 10%,

2) the thickness of the layer of crumbs 30-40 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 50-70 mm, the speed of the translational motion of the table 2-5 m/min. when choosing the contents of the grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of crumb more than 50 wt.%,

3) the thickness of the layer of crumbs 30-40 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides l�patok 50-70 mm, translational velocity table 2-5 m/min is chosen when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in crumbs 1-10 wt.% and the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm over 50%,

4) the thickness of the layer of crumbs 40-60 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 70-120 mm, the speed of the translational motion of the table 5-8 m/min is chosen when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of aggregate in the range of 1-50 wt.%,

5) the thickness of the layer of crumbs 40-60 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 70-120 mm, the speed of the translational motion of the table 5-8 m/min is chosen when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in crumbs 10-50 wt.% and the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm in the range of 10-50%.

In the crystal physics mesh is called the microrelief of the surface of crystalline substances, characterized by a heavy concentration of hillocks (projections) and depressions (cells). Depression are multifaceted incoming angles. In multifaceted incoming angles on the surface of crystalline substances are unsaturated bonds molecular interactions that contribute to the emergence vanderwaals relations between substances of different chemical structure.

The inventive method is based on visual observations of the interaction of the encapsulating substance with the surface of the stone chips obtained p�the crushing of crystalline rocks. When applied to the surface of the grain crumbs liquid encapsulating a substance flows with smooth surfaces and sharp protrusions, concentrated in the dihedral and polyhedral cavities. After curing of the encapsulating substance is firmly fixed in the depressions, but easily comes unstuck from smooth surfaces, sharp edges and corners.

In the inventive method to achieve the specified technical result is to choose a stone aggregate of grains spherical or ellipsoidal shape, the surface of which has a mesh microrelief with the size of the depressions in diameter and to a depth of 5-50 μm and the concentration of the depressions is not less than 80% of the surface area. Encapsulation of stone chips is made by mixing with a liquid encapsulating substance on a flat horizontal surface in a layer of stone chips with a thickness of 30-70 mm at room temperature for 3-7 minutes until completely enveloping the grains of the polymer film, which is controlled visually by the glitter and/or color. Liquid encapsulating substance is added to the stone chips in the minimum quantity required to fill depressions and create a thin film (thickness of 5-50 μm) on the surface of grains. Thanks to a spherical or ellipsoidal shape, grain crumbs while mixing easily move relative to each other, and enveloping their Jew�first encapsulating substance is additionally plays a role of lubrication.

The most effective result of the continuity of stone chips obtained, as is known, with grains of spherical or ellipsoidal shape and a mesh surface microrelief grain - crushing of rocks, with solid structure and fine-grained texture, impact crushers principle of operation followed by particle size classification of the products of crushing the dry way [6]. By crushing the rocks on the impact crushers principle of operation is implemented by dividing the rocks into pieces with a maximum opening of natural fractures, including cleavage in the mineral individuals, the boundaries between mineral individuals, dislocations, causing the separation. Thanks to the fine-grained structure and massive texture of the original rock grain stone chips out of the flattened shape, without sharp edges and corners, but with mesh surface microrelief. Fig.1 schematically shows examples of grains of natural stone chips obtained by crushing of rocks with fine-grained microlites or idioblastic (Fig.1, a), formed granoblastic structures or mosaic (Fig.1, b), lepidoblastic (Fig.1), lepidopterology (Fig.1, g), nematoblastic (Fig.1, d), hematogenously (Fig.1, e). The most preferred rocks with crystal diameter individuals (great�m size) from 5 to 20-30 μm, if they have subsolutions or leaf-shaped (Fig.1, a-g), or rocks nematoblastic (fibroblastoma) structure with the thickness of acicular crystals up to 20-30 μm, regardless of their length (Fig.1, d-e). Can be used also breed melkoporistoj patterns if porphyroblast represented by sieve crystals or diabeticheskogo structure (Fig.1,). To obtain the stone chips with a predominantly spherical shape of grains, subject to the above conditions, the source rock must have cuboid or parallelepipedal or cystoplasty separation; to get the stone chips with beans shape of a flattened ellipsoid - leaf separateness, which is due to the system of subparallel cracks and microguagua of dislocations (Fig.1, h).

Flow of liquid encapsulating substances largely depends on the surface area of the grains of stone chips, increases inversely proportional to their size and directly proportional to the content of the plate-forms (forms strongly flattened ellipsoids). The optimal quantitative ratio of liquid encapsulating substance and stone chips is determined experimentally. The flow of liquid encapsulating substance affect its viscosity and fluidity, the microrelief of the surface of grains (FD�we the size and concentration of cells), the total surface area of the grains of the aggregate, depending on the fractional composition of crumb and content, of the plate-shape. Content in the composition of rock dust grains of certain size fractions determined by the method of particle size analysis, which consists in sizing the weights of stone chips on sieves with holes of square shape to constant mass at a fraction of the size, the weight fractions and the determination of their mass fraction in the composition of aggregate in mass%. The content of grains plate shape determined by the method of counting grains of a thickness less than 0.7 mm in the samples taken from the fraction size from 1.25 to 1.6 mm, in %.

Fig.2 is a diagram of a device for encapsulated stone chips containing proposed in the claimed method the mixer. The mixer consists of a housing 1, a rotary table 2, horizontal shaft 3 mounted thereon with the blades 4. Mixing natural stone chips with a liquid encapsulating substance is portioned in open trays 5. The trays have a flat bottom square shape, and the sides inclined to the bottoms of the corner 50-65°. According to studies and numerous approbations we can say that the most preferred trays with the following dimensions: length-floor - 1000 mm, height of sides by vertical�and - 150 mm Trays are made from sheet stainless steel or plastic. Tray feeder to the mixer and moving from the mixer to the storage hopper of the drying apparatus (not shown) is carried by conveyors 6. Rock dust is loaded into the trays from the feed hopper 7 with dispenser, provided with a slit nozzle. Slit nozzle is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the trays. Honey is poured into trays with a layer thickness of 30-70 mm so that the distance from the bases of the flanges to the edges of the layer of crumbs was 20-50 mm. Above the mixer is a dispenser of liquid encapsulating substance 8 from which the liquid encapsulating substance is fed into the tray through the tubes arranged in front of the shoulder blades. In the raised position of the shaft, the vanes hang freely in the closed position, the vanes are fixed at an angle equal to the angle of inclination of the sides of the tray.

The mixer operates as follows. Tray with stone chips is mounted on the table so that the blade in the raised position is above the edge of its rim. From the spout to the edge of the layer of stone chips served liquid encapsulating a substance in quantities of 25 vol.% of the total volume required for the encapsulation of one portion of chips. Then the hair shaft with blades is moved to the lower operating position. The blades are inclined take on�agenie, and the table with the tray is moved toward the blades at a speed 2-10 m/min At an angle of inclination of the blades more than 45° to the horizontal stone chippings under the action of gravity rolls off the surface of the blades down and on the sides, around the shoulder blade. For free oversleeping stone chips between the shoulder blades, the distance between them should be ½ the size of the bottom sides of the blades. Pan movement continues until, until the blades reach the opposite side. After that, the blades are raised, and the table with the tray returns to its original position and rotated 90°. From the spout to the edge of the layer of crumbs served 25 vol.% encapsulating substances, and the operation is repeated again. All operations with the supply of encapsulating substances to four. Subsequent operations include only mixing without the filing of encapsulating substances. Stirring is carried out under visual control until, until all the grains of the filler is completely covered by the encapsulating material. Due to the possibility of visual control of the process, the quality of encapsulation each serving of chips can be improved by more thorough mixing and, if necessary, add additional quantities of encapsulating material.

The speed of movement of the table (blades), the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades and the thickness of the layer of stone chips t�activate chosen experimentally depending on the content in the crumb grains of a certain size. In General, with increase in the composition of the content of the crumb grain of fines and/or content of the plate-form to improve the quality of encapsulation is necessary to reduce the thickness of a layer of crumbs, the length of the bottom sides of the blades and the speed of the translational motion of the table.

Covered with the encapsulating substance stone chips poured from the trays in the storage hopper of the drying apparatus. In the storage hopper chips can be stored at room temperature (25°C) for several hours as agglomeration begins no earlier than 3,0-4,0 h after encapsulation. For complete vitrification (solidification) encapsulating substances at room temperature is required, as a rule, 72 h When heated to 70-85°C partial vitrification occurs within 20-30 min. For thermal processing chips with the goal of accelerating the transition can be used convective dryer drum, mining and other types, in which the heating of the chips is provided by heated air, and grains of the filler to avoid agglomeration are in intensive movement relative to each other. In the inventive method, the heat treatment in the drying apparatus at a temperature of 70-85°C for the time required for curing of the films encapsulating substances to a state that prevents agglomeration of the grains. Duration�lnost treatment depends on the characteristics of the surface microrelief of the grains and the content in tiny grains of lamellar form and, typically, 30-50 min.

After heat treatment of encapsulated stone chips Packed in bags or big bugs. In some cases, require strict compliance with the requirements for maximum permissible content of grains of a certain maximum size, for example, in the manufacture of toppings rolled bituminous materials, stone chips before packaging for quality control passed through vibrating screens.

To obtain a liquid encapsulating substances in the inventive method is used containing a colorless or pigment aqueous dispersion of polymers. The most preferred aqueous dispersion of copolymers of acrylates and styrene, such as, for example, ACRONAL S740, ACRONAL 290 D produced by German company "BASF", can be used polyvinyl acetate dispersion (PVA), etc. To obtain colored encapsulating substances in the aqueous dispersion polymer is added pigments. It is preferable to use an aqueous dispersion of organic pigments. To obtain steadfastly painted encapsulating compositions it is preferable to use suspensions of inorganic pigments (iron oxides, titanium dioxide, green chromium oxide, molybdate red, yellow, Nickel-titanium) and to use dyes or pigments in the form of finished pigment suspensions in aqueous dispersions of polymers.

The composition of the chargers�following polymer compositions may also include plasticizers, thickeners, antifoaming agents, stabilizers, preservatives and other conventional additives.

To create encapsulating polymer compositions can also be used a polyurethane resin, but used in these cases, the more toxic solvents, which requires additional precautions to protect the safety and health of personnel and leads to complication of the device for the encapsulation and curing of the films.

The inventive method allows enough flexibility to produce a variety of encapsulating polymer composition, for example, at a pre-set recipe used encapsulating substances, color painting, etc.

Quality control of encapsulated stone chips made by methods of particle size analysis, determination of content is not fully encapsulated granules and the determination of the agglomerates of grains in specified size fractions.

For granulometric analysis of encapsulated stone chips linkage selected from which on sieves with square cells are allocated to the specified size fractions, sorted to constant weight. Size fractions are selected in accordance with the technical requirements of encapsulated stone chips which are governed by the consumers depending on the scope of use in prom�of industry. As a General rule, use a sieve with square cells, the size (mm): 5,0; 3,0; 2,5; 2,0; 1,5 (1,6); 1,0 (1,25); 0,5 (0,63); 0,2 (0,25); 0,1.

Particle size distribution is determined by the ratio of the mass fraction of each size fraction to the mass of the original sample in wt.%, with rounding to 0.1 mass%.

To determine the content is not fully encapsulated granules of a predetermined size fractions of a sample taken encapsulated stone chips, the number of grains which must be no less than 400 pieces. Performed semi-quantitative analysis of the samples visually with the use of, for example, the magnifier by counting the total number of grains and not fully encapsulated granules. It is not fully encapsulated grains include grain, on which surface discontinuity of the film is not less than 10% of the surface area of the grain. If you are using colored polymer, the discontinuity of the film are recognized by their parts unpainted (natural) grain surface. If you use uncolored polymer composition, the differences between encapsulated and not encapsulated by the surface grains are fixed by their colours and the brilliance. The surface of the grains coated with a polymer film, has a strong luster and more saturated (darker) shade of color than the surface of the natural aggregate. The content is not fully kapsulirovannyh in a given size fraction is expressed by the ratio of their number to the total number of grains in the sample encapsulated stone chips in %, rounded to the nearest 0.1%.

To determine the content of agglomerates of grains of a given size fraction sample shall be taken encapsulated stone chips, the number of grains which must be no less than 400 pieces. Performed semi-quantitative analysis of samples with the use of a magnifying glass by counting the total number of grains and number of agglomerates. The agglomerates are agglomerated grains of comparable size, i.e., the diameters of which differ by no more than 3 times. The content of the agglomerates in a given size fraction is expressed by the ratio of their number to the total number of grains in the sample encapsulated stone chips in %, rounded to the nearest 0.1%.

The inventive method was tested in a production environment in real time. The results of testing and the effectiveness of the inventive method is shown below on seven examples.

Example 1.

Encapsulation stone chips produced with the aim of obtaining decorative granular filler blue for the finish facade plaster fractions of 2.0-3.0 mm. When implementing the method using crumb white fine-grained quartzite fractions of 2.0-3.0 mm production factory "nilsiä" (Finland), styrene-acrylate dispersion "ACRONAL 290 D" manufactured by BASF (Germany), water-based coders for facade works FT (purple), MT (blue), TT (black) production�of DSTV "TIKKURILA (Finland). Liquid encapsulating substance is prepared according to the manufacturers instructions. In the styrene-acrylate dispersion "ACRONAL 290 D (75 vol.%) add 2 vol.% coalescent and 23 vol.% water. Coders diluted with water in ratio 1:1. Prepared components are mixed in a mixer to obtain a uniformly colored suspension. In the liquid encapsulating substances 51,3% vol. dispersion "ACRONAL 290 D" and coalescent, a 16.7 vol.% Kolerov, (including of 8.3 vol.% FT, 6,7% vol. MT and 1.7 vol.% TT), water 32,0 vol.%. Grain crumbs have a spherical form, content grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm not more than 0.1 mass%, the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm no more than 2%. Prepared liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 150 mm in layer thickness of 70 mm at a speed of translational movement of the table 8 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 10.0 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 3.5 min. Heat treatment is carried out in the dryer shaft, portions of up to 500 kg at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 30 min. Ready crumbs Packed into bags.

Example 2.

Encapsulation stone chips produced with the aim of obtaining decorative granular filler blue for �Nishnij façade plasters fraction 0.5-1.0 mm. The technology of producing liquid encapsulating substance according to example 1. Use stone chips of white fine-grained quartzite factory "nilsiä", size fraction 0.5-1.0 mm. grains of the filler have a spherical form, content grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in average 1.5 wt.%. Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 80 mm in a layer thickness of 50 mm at a speed of translational movement of the table 6 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 18 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 4.5 min. Heat treatment is carried out in the dryer shaft, portions of 500 kg at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 30 min. Ready crumbs Packed into bags.

Example 3.

Encapsulation stone chips produced with the aim of obtaining decorative granular filler reddish-brown color for the finish facade plaster fraction of 1.0-2.0 mm. Use natural baby products from crushing on the shock-centrifugal crusher red-brown topolica Shaidomskoe field (Russia, Republic of Karelia) size fraction of 1.0-2.0 mm Grain crumbs have a predominantly spherical shape, the content of grains of dimension f�shares of 0.1-0.5 mm not more than 1 mass%, the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm 10-15%. It is sufficient to use a colorless polymer dispersion, which is prepared by mixing the styrene-acrylate dispersion "ACRONAL S740" (75 vol.%), coalescent (2 vol.%) and water (23%). Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 100 mm in a layer thickness of 50 mm at a speed of translational movement of the table 7 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 12 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 5.5 min. Heat treatment is carried out in the dryer shaft with tilting shelves, in portions of 500 kg at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 25 min Ready crumbs Packed into bags.

Example 4.

Encapsulation of stone chips is carried out with the aim of obtaining a hydrophobic sprinkling coarse red-brown color for roll asphalt roofing materials. Use natural baby products from crushing red-brown topolica Shaidomskoe field on the shock-centrifugal crusher and sieving on sieves with mesh sizes of 1.5 mm and 0.5 mm. Encapsulation spend colorless polymer composition. The technology of producing liquid encapsulating substances�VA - according to example 3. In the composition of the content of the crumb grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm 3-7 wt.%, the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm 10-15%. Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 80 mm in a layer thickness of 50 mm at a speed of translational motion of the table 6-7 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 16 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 7 min Heat treatment is carried out in a drum dryer, a portion of 5 tons, at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 30 min. After heat treatment, the encapsulated chips are passed through a sieve with cell size of 2 mm, because consumers are placing stringent requirements on the maximum size of the grains. The finished granulate is Packed in big-bugs.

Example 5.

Spend encapsulation shale chips for the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic scaly sprinkling of gray for rolled asphalt roofing materials. Use shale aggregate of the products of crushing shock-centrifugal crusher and sieving on sieves with mesh sizes of 0.5 mm and 1.6 mm sheet like microlance Shaidomskoe field. Encapsulation is carried out colorless polymer composition. Technologiepolitik liquid encapsulating substances according to example 3. In the composition of the content of the crumb grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm 3-7 wt.%, the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm 10-15% is 50-75%. Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 60 mm in layer thickness of 40 mm at a speed of translational motion of the table is 3 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 18 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 6 min Heat treatment is carried out in a drum dryer, a portion of 5 tons, at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 40 min. After heat treatment, the encapsulated chips are passed through a sieve with cell size of 2 mm. the Finished granulate is Packed in big-bugs.

Example 6.

Spend encapsulation shale chips for the purpose of obtaining spreading scaly red for roll asphalt roofing materials. Use shale chips with particle size distribution measurements according to example 5. It is sufficient to use the styrene-acrylate dispersion "ACRONAL 290 D" with the addition of colorant RS "TIKKURILA". The technology of producing liquid encapsulating substance according to example 1. Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades � length of the bottom side 50 mm in layer thickness of 30 mm at a speed of translational motion of the table is 3 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 18 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 7 min. Heat treatment and subsequent operations technology - according to example 5.

Example 7.

Spend encapsulation shale chips for the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic fine sprinkling for roll bitumen waterproofing materials. Use shale crushed fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm from microlance Shaidomskoe field. Liquid encapsulating substance are prepared by the technology - according to example 3. Liquid encapsulating substance is mixed with the crumb trays blades with the length of the bottom side 50 mm in layer thickness of 30 mm at a speed of translational motion of the table is 2 m/min. Flow of liquid encapsulating substance is 23 liters per 1 ton of chips. The mixing of one portion to complete enveloping the grains of the liquid encapsulating substance is 7 min Heat treatment is carried out in a drum dryer, a portion of 5 tons, at a temperature of 75+5°C. the heat treatment Time before the termination of agglomeration is 40 min. After heat treatment, the encapsulated chips are passed through a sieve with cell size of 0.63 mm. the Finished granulate is Packed in big-bugs.

Main technological parameters for the considered examples.�of debugger stone chips are shown in table 1. The results of the tests of encapsulated stone chips are shown in table 2.

The claimed invention allows, as shown by the results of the above studies, getting stone chips encapsulated with a substantially higher quality of the final product as to the completeness and uniformity of its color and in required cases, visually pleasing quality luster and a significant reduction in consumption as encapsulating substances, and expensive polymers and pigments.

The list of the used sources of information

1. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 466321.

2. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 404501.

3. RF patent №2144009 (EN).

4. RF patent №2201408 (EN).

5. U.S. patent No. 2003/0170385 A1 (US) - prototype.

6. Wawenoc A. V. Metamorphic complexes of Karelia: new sources of aggregates for composite building materials / Mineral. 2006. No. 1(5). Pp. 21-27.

1. A method of producing encapsulated stone chips, which consists in coating the surface of granules of stone chips fractions from 0.1 to 3 mm polymer films by stirring at room temperature for crumbs, to which is added a liquid encapsulating a substance which is chosen aqueous dispersion of polymer resin�and additives, and the subsequent heat treatment in the drying apparatus, at temperatures above 80-85°C, characterized in that the rock dust is chosen from the products of crushing and particle size classification of the crystalline rocks, micro-grain structure, grain stone chips are spherical or ellipsoidal shape and a mesh surface microrelief with a cell size of 5-50 μm and a concentration of cells of at least 80% of the surface area of the grains, stirring was performed on a flat horizontal surface in a layer of stone chips with a thickness of 30-70 mm at room temperature for 3-7 minutes until completely enveloping the grains of the polymer film, which is controlled visually by the glitter and/or color, and heat treatment is performed to the termination of agglomeration.

2. A device for producing encapsulated stone chips according to claim 1, containing a base, on which are fixed feed hopper, mixer to cover stone chips liquid encapsulating substance disposed over the spout of the liquid encapsulating substances, drying machine, packaging unit, interconnected by a feed conveyor, characterized in that the mixer consists of a housing, a rotary table that has a mechanism for reciprocating motion at a speed 2-10 m/min and is equipped with clips for zakreplena� tray with flat bottom square shape, and mounted above the table horizontal shaft with vertical movement and fixed thereon for coupling with clamps blades of rectangular shape for mixing the crumbs with the forward movement of the table, the distance between which is ½ of the value of the lower short sides of the blades, and the thickness of the layer of stone chips, the size of the bottom sides of the blades and the speed of the translational motion of the table is chosen experimentally on the content of grains of a certain size in the composition of the stone chips.

3. A device for producing encapsulated stone chips according to claim 2, characterized in that the thickness of a layer of crumbs 60-70 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades of 120-150 mm and the speed of the translational motion of the table 8-10 m/min is chosen when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of the chips up to 1 wt.% and when the content of grains with a thickness less than 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm less than 10%.

4. A device for producing encapsulated stone chips according to claim 2, characterized in that the thickness of a layer of crumbs 30-40 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 50-70 mm, the speed of the translational motion of the table 2-5 m/min is chosen or when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of crumb more than 50 wt.%, or when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in crumbs 1-10 wt.% and the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size coat�AI a 1.25-1.6 mm over 50%.

5. A device for producing encapsulated stone chips according to claim 2, characterized in that the thickness of a layer of crumbs 40-60 mm, the dimensions of the lower sides of the blades 70-120 mm, the speed of the translational motion of the table 5-8 m/min is chosen or when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in the composition of aggregate in the range of 1-50 wt.%, or when the content of a grain size fraction of 0.1-0.5 mm in crumbs 10-50 wt.% and the content of grains in the thickness to 0.7 mm in size fractions of 1.25-1.6 mm in the range of 10-50%.

6. A device for producing encapsulated stone chips according to claim 2, characterized in that the sides of the trays have a height of 150 mm and is inclined at an angle of 50 to 65° to the bottoms, which is mixing with the crumbs blades when lowering the shaft, the blades are fixed at an angle to the bottom of the tray is equal to the angle of inclination of the flanges, and the size of the long sides of the blades is not less than 250 mm.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to powder-like composition and to method of its production. Powder-like composition, which does not contain hydrocarbon X and contains as main components a) from 5 to 40 wt % of, at least, one fatty acid derivative and/or fatty alcohol derivative, which are not hydrocarbon X, b) from 0.5 to 10 wt % of, at least, one silicone oil and c) from 20 to 85 wt % of, at least, one substrate material, where components a) and b) were applied on substrate material c). Method of said composition obtaining, includes preliminary mixing of components a) and b), spraying obtained homogenised liquid mixture onto dry component of substrate material c) with obtaining product in form of powder, preferably containing not more than 1 wt % of moisture. Application of said composition as anti-foaming agent for dry mortars. Invention is developed in dependent items of invention formula.

EFFECT: improvement of coating quality, obtaining powder-like composition, suitable for application as anti-foaming agent for dry mortars.

17 cl, 2 ex, 5 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing the concrete aggregate includes preparation of mass based on low-melting clays, capable to swell under conditions of heat treatment, its hydration up to 17-23%, formation of granules, melting into the surface of moulded granules of the crushed cement clinker sieved through mesh No. 5, drying, calcining at a temperature of 1100°C, cooling.

EFFECT: increase of the bond strength of aggregate with cement stone.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to dry concrete or mortar composition, containing porous granules and to concrete or mortar, manufactured from said composition. Dry concrete or mortar composition, containing particles-cores, to the surfaces of which particle of hydraulic binding substance are fixed, and separate particles of hydraulic binding substance, particles-cores consist of inert or pozzolanic material and together with binding substance attached to them form porous granules, which, in their turn, are fixed to the surface of dry filling agent. Concrete or mortar, manufactured from said dry composition, mixed with water, is described. Invention is developed in dependent items of the invention formula.

EFFECT: increase of strength and fire resistance of concrete, obtained from claimed dry composition.

25 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in a method of producing a porous aggregate, which includes preparation of a ceramic casting mixture, immersing aggregate particles into the mixture, drying said particles and firing, drying is carried out to moisture content of no more than 6%, firing is carried out at temperature of 850-1200°C and the aggregate used is natural vermiculite with particle size of 5-10 mm, wherein the mixture has the following composition, wt %: natural vermiculite 20-25, clay 24-30, water 45-50, colouring additive1-5. The method includes impregnating the porous aggregate with sodium ethyl siliconate or sodium methyl siliconate, followed by drying.

EFFECT: obtaining a light-weight, high-strength decorative porous aggregate.

2 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for production of coarse aggregate shell contains, wt %: Portland cement 30.0-35.0; casein glue 4.0-7.0; fly ash 28.0-31.0; water 30.0-35.0.

EFFECT: increase of bonding strength of shell with the surface of the coarse aggregate.

1 tbl

Filler for concrete // 2528809

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: filler for concrete is made in the form of grain of round shape, having a cavity 3, formed by means of adhesion of two parts 1 and 2, made from clayey raw materials by moulding with subsequent baking, with a porous body 4 placed in the cavity 3, produced in process of baking of adhered parts 1 and 2 by foaming of foam glass charge including the following components, wt %: ground silicate glass 93-97 and gasifier - chalk or marble or coke 3-7, besides, at least one of parts is perforated 5.

EFFECT: production of a light strong filler having heat insulation properties, simplified technology of its manufacturing.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mix to make a shell of a coarse filler used to decorate flower gardens and flowerbeds contains the following components, wt %: liquid glass with density of 1300-1500 kg/m3 30-35, urea 5-15, water 30-35, mineral filler 20-30.

EFFECT: making a shell suitable for application onto surface of coarse filler used for decoration of flower gardens and flowerbeds in spring and summer, with its subsequent decomposition in autumn and winter and soil fertilisation.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: from a ceramic mass they form granules with subsequent drying and baking. Glazing suspension is applied onto surface of granules, where they add fine quartz sand and/or fine corundum sand in the amount of 5-30% of its mass. The layer of glazing suspension is melted.

EFFECT: increased adhesion of haydite gravel with glazing coating to cement stone.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production porous aggregates for concrete. In the method of producing a porous aggregate, which involves preparation of a ceramic casting mixture, immersing aggregate particles into the mixture, drying said particles and firing, drying is carried out to moisture content of 1-8 %, firing is carried out at temperature of 1100-1200°C and the aggregate used is natural schungite, wherein the mixture has the following composition, wt %: natural schungite 10-15, flue ash 10-15, clay 25-30, water 45-50.

EFFECT: obtaining light and strong porous aggregate.

2 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for manufacturing of coarse aggregate envelope contains the following components, wt %: portland cement 36.5-43.5; urea 0.2-0.3; casein adhesive 2.5-3.0; quartz sand or marshalit 15.0-20.0; phenylethoxysiloxane 0.2-0.3; water 36.0-40.0.

EFFECT: improving water resistance of coarse aggregate envelope.

1 tbl

Mixing cutter // 2547494

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mixing and cutting means and can be used in horizontal bowls for mixing loose materials and whatever fluids. This mixing cutter is fitted on the shaft arranged at least partially in cylindrical bowl to run therein. Mixing cutter, shaft and tool holder make a rotary device. Tool comprises cutting-spinning blade and at least one straight lever located aslant and/or made broken. This tool is provided with at least one hole. Note here that at least said one hole is arranged between the lever and cutting-spinning blade.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of mixing.

8 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for usage in meat processing industry and relates to a mixing device for treatment of cattle slaughtering by-products. The mixing device (1) for mixing cattle slaughtering by-products with a preserving agent contains a by-product collection vessel (3) with a lower part (4) containing an outlet hole (5) designed so that to enable connection to a closing outlet, a mixer (8) extending into the by-product collection vessel inside ,and a pump unit (9) designed so that to enable functional connection to the outlet; the device additionally contains the preserving agent reservoir (7) installed on the upper part of the assembled vessel (3).

EFFECT: created is a collection and preservation system where addition of the preserving agent may be strictly controlled; the system may be easily and quickly mounted and connected when to be used and easily dismantled and cleaned after usage.

17 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: rotor disc is to be fitted in intake bin for processing of polymers by disc body. Disc body top side has mixing and/or grinding working members while some transfer ribs are made at opposite bottom side to extend from inside to outside. Said ribs displace polymer particles outside or bring force to polymer particles caught by said ribs directed from rotor disc centre outward. Said transfer ribs are concaved in direction of displacement.

EFFECT: efficient prevention of ingress of polymer particles in between disc and intake bin bottom or their removal from said area.

18 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: mixer comprises a mixing chamber with a loading port in the upper part and unloading port in the lower part and a working member in the form of blades fixed on a driving shaft. The mixing chamber is made as a sector of torus and is installed with the longitudinal sector axis being placed in the vertical plane and the lower end wall being vertically oriented, the driving shaft oriented horizontally and shifted downwards from the longitudinal sector axis is set in the said wall. The blades are set up in the plane transverse to the rotation axis in respect to the radial position in the rotation direction.

EFFECT: decrease of loads at the driving shaft, prevention of dead zones during material mixing, increased intensity of mixing processes and more efficient use of the mixing chamber space.

7 cl, 4 dwg

Rotor disc // 2537494

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disc of rotor to be used in intake vessel for polymer processing with disc body. Disc top side can be provided with mixing and/or grinding tools. Its opposite bottom side has several feed ribs extending from inside to outward. Said ribs feed polymer particles outward. Or, said ribs exert forces directed from rotor centre outward acting on polymer particles trapped by feed ribs. Note here that disc body depth decreases in outward direction.

EFFECT: ruled out ingress of polymer particles in critical area between disc and intake vessel bottom.

19 cl, 7 dwg

Mixing device // 2535698

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: essence of the invention consists in the provision of reciprocating and simultaneously swinging motion of working members which cover the whole mixed medium volume when move, together with the possibility of adjusting the working members' travelling according to manufacturing process requirements. The drive of the working members in the mixing device is made as a crank-and-rocker mechanism with the rocker being provided by a radial groove where the pivot shaft of the connecting rod is installed and can move radially along the rocker axis, and additionally it is fitted by a rigidly fixed toothed section engaged with a rod having a toothed section, the rod is mounted in the guides; at least two disks are installed at one of the rod ends placed in a reactor between the stop elements, the disks are made as blade wheels able of rotating in respect to the rod axis and their blades are inclined in respect to the wheels' planes; the inclination angle of the blade plane at each wheel is made mirror-like in relation to the inclination angle of the blade planes at the adjacent wheel, the said blade wheels are mounted on the rod with the interval covering the whole mixed medium volume, and the outer blade ends are rigidly fixed on the wheel rim, and the blade inclination angle in respect to the wheel plane falls within ( 30 ÷ 60)°.

EFFECT: higher homogeneity of produced mixtures and lower power inputs in the mixing process. 2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device to mix and grind bulk materials contains frame, loading/unloading device, horizontal drive drum, the drum has on the internal surface the helical guides, shaft installed in the drum parallel to its axis, the radial elastic elements are secured to the shaft. The new feature is that the helical guides on the internal surfaces are made from separate alternating in axial direction areas, the grind discs are secured on the shaft in zone between areas, the discs have on surface the helical grooves, at that diameter of the grind discs increases in direction from the materials loading device to the materials unloading device, and in area of the helical guides the radial elastic elements are installed alternating with the grind discs.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of grinding process.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hammer comprises casing (1) with inlet and outlet pipes (2) and (3), working chamber (15), inner rotor (4) with rotary pump blades (5) and cylindrical ring (6). Slotted diffusers (8) are arranged over the edges of cylindrical ring (6). Outer rotor (10) of countercurrent rotation concentrically covers the inner rotor (4). Outer rotor (10) is equipped with confusers (13) arranged over edges of its cylindrical ring (11). Said hammer is equipped with extra cylindrical rings (7, 12) on inner and outer rotors with diffusers (9) and confusers (14) arranged over their edges. Cylindrical confusers on outer rotor feature smaller diameter compared with cylindrical ring diffusers on inner ring. Extra effects of hydraulic shock on ground material in one pass and series of resonance loads in compression-rarefaction cause fast destruction of grinding material particles.

EFFECT: perfected operating performances.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for mixing granular materials comprises loading and unloading devices, a fixed housing, a spray nozzle located inside said housing and consisting of two coaxial cavities linked with radial spray channels, a conic chamber, drives for rotating the spray nozzle and the conic chamber. The outer side surface of the conic chamber is fitted with an auger made of elastic material and the lower part is fitted with gripping blades with windows. The apparatus provides the so-called "dilution" effect, when weight fraction of processed materials in the mixture increase over time during processing.

EFFECT: high quality of mixing granular materials prone to aggregation and materials whose weight fraction differs by an order or more.

3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generators of acoustic vibrations in fluid flows and may be used for intensification of physicomechanical, hydromechanical and heat-and-mass exchange processes in systems "liquid-liquid" and "solid-liquid". Rotor-type apparatus comprises casing with intake and discharge branch pipes to accommodate rotor and stator with channels in cylinder lateral walls arranged concentrically, and insonify chamber. Cylindrical resonators connected via inlet channel and located one above the other and opposite rotor channel outlets accommodate reciprocating rod, on the cover side end. Fluid is fed into resonator via inlet channels arranged tangentially to inner surface while fluid outlet channel is arranged radially. Number of channels in rotor in one of the rows is 8-12 times larger than on the other row. Frequency of intrinsic oscillators of resonator equals that of the device generated by maximum number of rotor channels.

EFFECT: higher intensity of cavitation.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mixing fluid media by dispersing and emulsifying.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used for intensive mixing of reagents (I,II) in production of emulsions in dispersion device (10)which is provided with rotor/stator system (40, 50) located in container near its lower part. Hot initial product (containing wax for example) may be dispersed with proportioned partial flow (RI') of cold carrier in preliminary mixing chamber (60) through feeder (30, 38) below rotor (50). Mixture thus obtained is again mixed with cold main flow (RI) or with its part (RI") fed from above. As distinguished from known standard dispersion methods when mixing and cutting of components in zone of maximum cutting gradient are performed simultaneously, proposed method is performed at separate time and at separate position of mixing and cutting by delivery of components to preliminary mixing chamber (60). Optimal emulsion is obtained through preparation of homogeneous phase mixture. Main flow and partial flows have different densities of energy, thus enhancing optimal dispersion and emulsification at minimum sizes of particles or drops.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

33 cl, 18 dwg, 6 ex

Up!