Obtaining biogenic fuel gas in geological hydrocarbon deposits
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to development and accumulation of biogenic gas in anaerobic geological formation containing carbon-bearing material. According to the method of increase of biogenic gas blowdown in anaerobic geological formation with carbon-bearing material the access to this anaerobic formation is provided. The rate of blow down of biogenic gases in this anaerobic formation is increased, for example, by holding of accumulated biogenic gases and their keeping in the anaerobic formation. The flowing of reservoir water into the anaerobic formation is provided after increase of biogenic gas blow down. Flowing of reservoir water comprises the circulation of reservoir water between the anaerobic formation reservoir and carbon-bearing material and back into the reservoir.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of biogenic gas production.
23 cl, 6 dwg
Cross-reference to related applications
For this application, priority is claimed in concurrently pending patent application U.S. No. 12/639483, filed December 16, 2009. The contents of the above application in its entirety incorporated herein by this reference.
This application is a related application U.S. No. 12/129441, filed may 29, 2008 and which is a continuation in relation to the application U.S. No. 11/343 429, filed January 30, 2006, which is a continuation of international application PCT/US 2005/015259 with the date of filing of the international application on may 3, 2005. The contents of the aforementioned applications in their entirety are included in this description by this reference.
The level of technology
The presence of formation water in underground geological formations of oil, coal and other carbonaceous materials in the extraction of raw materials from such formations is usually seen as an obstacle. For example, in mining of coal to make coal available for mining equipment, you often have to pump formation water from the formation in distant waters. Similarly produced water must be separated from extracted from underground deposits of crude oil and is usually subjected to disposal under the ground. Extraction, separation and disposal of produced water increase the cost of processes to�ice and produce by-products, considered as low-value.
Further investigation, however, showed that even the extracted formation water can support the livelihoods of communities that are present in the layers of microorganisms. The presence of these microorganisms in the environment of the reservoir was known from previous extraction methods, such as microbiological method of enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), in which the microorganisms naturally produce surface-active substances, such as glycolipids, which help the recovery of oil entrapped in porous substrates. In General, however, applications in MEOR was assumed that the microorganisms are concentrated in the boundary layer between the oil and aqueous phases. It was believed that the volume of produced water is relatively unpopulated due to the lack of necessary for microorganisms nutrients. More recent studies have shown that actually the volume of produced water there are stable populations of microorganisms and may even stay alive after extraction from geological formations under the right circumstances.
The opening of the active populations of microorganisms in the produced water volumes occurred at a time when it was assumed that the possibility of new applications for these microorganisms. For many l�t fossil-fuel companies have observed evidence of that materials such as methane, apparently, are formed in the layers of biogenic way as a result of the activities of microorganisms metabolizing the carbon-containing substrates. Until recently, these observations were only of academic interest because of the efforts of the commercial production is mainly focused on the extraction of coal, oil and other fossil fuels. However, because of the easily accessible reserves of natural gas and oil continue to dwindle and increasing interest in the use of more environmentally friendly fuels such as hydrogen and methane, biogenic methods of production of these fuels are attracting increasing attention.
Unfortunately, the methods and infrastructure that have been developed over the past century in the field of energy production (e.g. drilling for oil and gas, mining coal, etc.) that may not be easily adaptable to produce biogenic fuels on an industrial scale. Conventional methods and systems for extracting formation water from underground formations focused on how to remove water quickly and at the lowest cost. This special clearly in the case of extraction of coal bed methane (CBM). Methods of extraction of water, preserving the living microorganisms in the water or conservation of water resources, znachitelnoj� attention. So small was the development of methods and systems involving the use of microbiologically active water reservoir for increasing biogenic production of hydrogen, methane and other metabolic products of the cleavage of carbon-containing rocks by microorganisms. Thus, there is a need for new methods and systems of extraction, treatment and transportation of produced water within, between and/or repayment in a geological formation such that microbial activity in the water could be preserved and even increased.
Also needs new technologies to stimulate microorganisms to a greater amount of biogenic gases. The natural communities of consuming hydrocarbons microorganisms usually include many different types that can involve many different metabolic pathways. If you change the surrounding community environment properly, it may be possible that changes in the relative abundance of different members of such a community, which would facilitate greater development of combustible gases. It may also be possible to effect the preferred metabolic pathway community members to promote education as an end product of their metabolism of combustible gases. Thus, there is also a need � ways, which could change the environment in the reservoir in order to stimulate the community of microorganisms for the production of large quantities of combustible biogenic gases.
Brief description of the essence of the invention
Describes techniques applicable to aqueous liquids such as ground water flowing through the carbonaceous material in an anaerobic geologic formations. Flowing the liquid can provide, which is similar to the circulatory system in a living body, delivering nutrients and removing waste products of microorganisms, which interact with the moving fluid. The moving fluid may also act as a transfer mechanism, which spreads the microorganisms to new areas of carbon-containing material, which may increase as the rate of growth of population and the production of biogenic gas. These methods can include performed on a regular or semi-regular basis actions for inducing fluid flow in anaerobic reservoir to maintain or increase the rate of production of biogenic gas. The liquid for these actions to create a fluid flow may be provided by fluid injected into the reservoir from an external source, or the fluid may already be present in the formation (e.g., formation water).
Embodied�I of this invention include methods of increasing the generation of biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation, containing carbonaceous material. Such methods can include a step of providing access to the anaerobic formation. They may also include a growing rate of production of the biogenic gases in the anaerobic formation and movement of formation water within the anaerobic formation after increasing the production of biogenic gases.
Embodiments of the invention also include methods of redistribution of produced water in an anaerobic geologic formation containing carbonaceous material. Such methods can include a step of placing the reservoir formation water within the anaerobic formation. Methods can also include creating at least one channel between the reservoir formation water and at least one site of carbon-containing material, and the transport of formation water from the reservoir to the carbonaceous material via this channel.
Embodiments of the invention also include methods of accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation to increase the production of biogenic gas. The methods can include a step of holding the accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic formation to increase gas pressure in at least part of the anaerobic formation. The methods may also include the promotion of the formation water through the carbonaceous material in the anaerobic formal� in response to the increase of gas pressure. The flow of formation water through the carbonaceous material may, in addition, to increase the speed of generation of biogenic gas in an anaerobic formation.
Additional embodiments and features are partially formulated in the following description, and will partly be obvious to specialists in this field from the description of the study or the practice of this invention. The characteristics and advantages of the present invention may be realized and attained by means of the combinations and methods provided in the description.
Brief description of the drawings
Further understanding of the merits and advantages of the present invention can be obtained by referring to the other parts of this specification and the drawings, in which same components in different drawings are the same item numbers. In some cases, positions are equipped with sub-items, which are presented in the form of following the hyphen to denote one of a number of similar components. When you make an appeal to the position number specified subparagraph, this means that we address in this case the entire set of such component.
Fig. 1A IS present IN the block diagram with the different stages of ways of increasing the generation of biogenic gas according to the embodiments of the invention;
Fig.2 shows a block diagram of � individual steps of the methods of redistribution of formation water according to embodiments of the invention in an anaerobic geologic formation;
Fig.3A and shows a simplified cross section of geologic formations containing reservoirs of formation water according to embodiments of the invention; and
Fig.4 is a block diagram with steps of the methods of accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation to increase production of biogenic gas according to the embodiments of the invention.
Detailed description of the essence of the invention
There is increasing evidence that the circulation of water in an anaerobic geologic formation increases the rate of production of biogenic gas in the formation. While the water itself may not be a nutrient or an activating agent for producing gas of microorganisms, properties of moving water as a transport medium for nutrients, activating agents and other compounds, and also as a transport medium for the propagation of microorganisms play an important role in increasing the production of biogenic gas. Moving water can also help in the removal and dilution of waste and other compounds capable of exerting an inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolism of microorganisms.
A source of moving water can be external to the anaerobic layer, or can be found within the reservoir. External to the light source layer�Ki can include purified water, loaded into the reservoir, and a reservoir of water supplied from one or more separate geologic formations. Sources within the reservoir can include a reservoir formation water within the anaerobic formation, which have limited contact or no contact with a carbonaceous material capable of providing a nutritious substrate for methanogenic microorganisms.
Next, with reference to Fig.1A shows the individual steps of the methods 100 increased generation of biogenic gas according to embodiments of the present invention. Methods 100 can include a step of providing access to a carbonaceous material 102 in an anaerobic geologic formation. The carbonaceous material may include, among other carbonaceous materials bituminous coal, sub bituminous coal, anthracite, oil, carbonaceous shale, bituminous shale, tar sand, tar, lignite, kerogen, bitumen, and peat. Anaerobic geologic formation, which comprises a carbonaceous material, can be investigated in advance of the formation, such as, among other formations, coal field, oil field, natural gas reservoir or an accumulation of carbonaceous shale. In many cases, the formation can be obtained using the previously developed or drilled access point used for the extraction of carbonaceous�of material. In case not previously explored layers providing access may include performing surface mining or drilling through the surface layer to gain access to the underlying parcel containing carbonaceous material.
Geological formation may be underground anaerobic layer. Since surrounding the buried formation environment typically contains less free atmospheric oxygen (e.g., O2) than was found in tropospheric air, the conditions in the reservoir can be described as anaerobic. Such anaerobic environmental conditions in the reservoir may support microorganisms that can survive and grow in an atmosphere containing less free oxygen than tropospheric air (e.g., less than about 18 mol.% free oxygen). In some cases, the microorganisms can function in an atmosphere with low oxygen content, where the concentration of O2is less than about 10 mol.%, or less than about 5 mol.%, or less than about 2 mol.%, or less than about 0.5 mol.%.
After gaining access to the anaerobic layer can be actions taken to increase production of the biogenic gases in the reservoir 104. These actions can include the introduction into the formation of the chemical refining agents or nutrients, such as, among others, compounds containing acetates, compounds containing phosphorus, yeast extract, compounds containing hydrogen (e.g., H2), and combinations of different compounds. These actions may also include an introduction into the reservoir of the community of microorganisms, such as a community, are capable of anaerobic production of biogenic gas (e.g., methanogenesis). These actions may also include an introduction to anaerobic formation water.
After following the steps to increase the intensity of biogenic activity can be measured by the rate of biogenic gas in order to determine if such action is to increase the pace of formulating a successful. For example, in a periodic basis (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, etc.) to the measured rate of production of natural gas (e.g. methane or other light hydrocarbons) to have access to the reservoir wellhead. An indicator of successful actions to increase production of biogenic gas is a significant increase in the rate of production after the above actions.
After increasing the speed of generation of biogenic gas produced water can be set in motion within the reservoir 106. Moving formation water can maintain or further increase the rate of biogenic gas in the formation. Produced water is supplied from external to the source layer, or it may come from to�lecturer within the reservoir. Sources of produced water out of the reservoir can include formation water provided from one or more separate layers (for example, transport between the layers), and/or formation water, extracted and generated from the same stratum (e.g., in-situ circulation).
Produced water may be anaerobic formation water. "Anaerobic" formation water is characterized by the presence of a small amount or complete absence of dissolved oxygen, in General not exceeding 4 mg/l, preferably less than 2 mg/l, most preferably less than 0.1 mg/l in terms of measurements at 20°C and barometric pressure of 760 mm Hg.PT. In the application of the present invention without significantly impacting the performance of the microorganisms can tolerate higher levels of dissolved oxygen greater than 4 mg/l, for limited periods or in certain locations, such as the surface layer in a storage or settling tank. The concentration of dissolved oxygen can be measured by known methods, such as using the available market of oxygen electrodes or a known reaction Winkler.
Produced water can also be tested and/or cleaned with the purpose of further increasing the generation of biogenic gas. For example, the formation water may �be subjected to research evaluation, among other properties, such as levels of nutrients for microorganisms, pH, salinity, oxidation potential (Eh) and the concentration of metal ions. To correct the imbalance, deficiency or excess of one or more such properties may be necessary improving additives. Also can be made such improving additives, which are the spontaneous result of the tests. Purification of produced water may also include filtering and/or processing for the purpose of reducing the concentration of one or more chemical and/or biological substances in the reservoir water.
Fig.1B shows the individual steps of the methods 150 increased generation of biogenic gas according to the embodiments of the invention. Ways 150 may include the steps of providing access to a carbonaceous material 152 in an anaerobic geologic formation and passing the produced water through the reservoir 154. The flow of produced water may include circulation of the reservoir water between the collector under anaerobic layer and a carbonaceous material, which is also found in the reservoir. Circulation of the reservoir water may include continuous or nearly continuous movement of water between the collector and carbonaceous material. Alternatively can be provided by circulation of the reservoir water between �ollection and carbonaceous material in an intermittent mode (for example, after certain periods of time). For example, one portion of water from the collector can be moved to a carbonaceous material in a short period of time, which is accompanied by a longer period during which the produced water remains in contact with the material before its return to the reservoir. At the end of a longer period of time produced water can be re-directed to a carbonaceous material.
When the flow through and/or carbonaceous material formation water carries microorganisms, chemical improving additives, nutrients and other materials through the large amount of carbonaceous material. This increases the contact surface (e.g., surface area) between the carbonaceous material and migrating microorganisms 156. Because microorganisms are exposed to a greater number of nutrients and activators at lower crowding with other microorganisms, the rate of production of biogenic gases may begin to increase 158. The increasing generation of biogenic gas may also facilitate the removal of waste products and other inhibitory substances from the environment of the microorganisms. When formation water is circulated through the carbonaceous material to re�Blarney or continuous basis, the ability of the circulating water to ensure the supply of nutrients, distribute the microorganisms and to remove waste may further increase the rate of biogenic gas in the formation.
Fig.2 shows the individual steps of the methods 200 of redistribution of formation water according to embodiments of the invention in an anaerobic geologic formations. As noted above, one source water reservoir is a reservoir inside the anaerobic layer. Methods 200 include the placement stage of formation water in the reservoir in a geological formation 202. As further described with reference to Fig. 3A and 3B, the collector can be placed above or below the carbonaceous material in the stratum. As an alternative, the collector can cross the carbonaceous material along the length, so as to permit the upper portion of the reservoir above carbonaceous material and/or a lower section of the manifold below the carbonaceous material.
The reservoir formation water may have little or no interfacial contact with carbon-containing target material in the reservoir that can ensure a positive result of the application of produced water stream to increase the biogenic production of methane. Methods 200 include the step of providing one or more channels between the collector and carbonaceous Mat�the Omani 204. The channel can be created using drilling equipment that drills the channel through the barrier in the formation (e.g., bedrock), which prevents the contact or the flow of formation water between the collector and carbonaceous material. Alternatively, the barrier can be destroyed by mechanical action or by explosion for the formation of holes or cracks acting as a channel. The channel can function as a pipeline to transport produced water from the reservoir to the carbonaceous material 206.
At optional step, partially or completely emptied the reservoir can be refilled by feeding into the reservoir 208 of additional water. Added to the water collector can support the transportation of produced water and/or carbon-containing material. Added water can also spread the microorganisms, nutrients, and other larger volume of carbonaceous material, also providing the opportunity for further penetration of these materials into the cracks, clevage and microchannels carbonaceous material. This water can be formation water, which is transported from another part of the same geological formation (i.e., in-situ transport) or from another formation(i.e., inter-layer transport). The water may also be supplied from outside the geological formation, for example, from a surface water source.
Also establishes the means of re-filling the channels in the reservoir water. In some cases, the channels are in hydraulic communication with the reservoir formation water. In other cases, the channels are not connected to the collector and may be formed (e.g., drilled) in the carbonaceous material in the formation. Examples of such channels may also include boreholes, which were used for extraction from the reservoir of natural gas or other carbonaceous material. Used for filling of these channels, water may be produced water or water from another source.
When the collector is located above carbonaceous material, as shown in Fig.3A, can be formed by one or several channels, to allow gravity to move the formation water from the reservoir to the underlying carbon-containing material. We can say that in this example, the reservoir is punctured to allow the formation water waterfall draining (or spilled) on the carbonaceous material. This example may also include the transportation of produced water back into the reservoir by a mechanical pump or other precocious�x devices, that water could be recycled to the carbonaceous material through one or more channels.
In another example, the manifold may be located below the carbon-containing material, as shown further in Fig.3B. The channel can be formed by drilling through the carbonaceous material and the barrier between the material and the underlying collector. With the help of drilling may be obtained from one or more channels in the barrier that allows formation water to move through the channel and to get in contact with carbonaceous material. For example, can be created a number of channels, and at least one channel or hole can be connected with a source of pressure that can force formation water to move through other channels on the carbonaceous material. Alternatively, one or more channels may be equipped with a mechanical pump designed to transport water against the force of gravity from the collector to lying above carbonaceous material.
If the above carbonaceous material has a free space to the underlying manifold can be applied a sufficient excess pressure in order to lift formation water above carbon-containing material before it can spill on the upper surface of the carbonaceous material. Then the reservoir water before�have the ability to return down into the reservoir before how to be re-injected on top of the carbonaceous material.
The methods 200 and provide a source of circulation of the reservoir water from the inside of the reservoir, which may have advantages over the supply of water from external to the reservoir sources. This requires significantly less energy to transport produced water from the reservoir to the carbonaceous material compared to water from the outside of the formation. Before reaching the external water reservoir can be pumped and/or be transported over significant distances (e.g., from tens to hundreds of miles, at great expense of energy. In addition, underground manifold provides a natural reservoir for produced water, the playback of which on the surface may be difficult and costly. For example, increasingly stringent environmental regulations hamper the creation of pools for water accumulation or reservoir on the earth's surface, especially if this water is contaminated with hydrocarbons.
Fig.3A presents a simplified representation of cross section of the geologic formation 300, which shows the reservoir 304 with a water reservoir located above the deposits of carbonaceous material 308. The relative positions of the manifold 304 and carbonaceous material 308 makes possible�first drop of the reservoir water under the force of gravity, when the layer 306, which separates the manifold from the carbon-containing material is formed by one or more channels. Fig.3A is shown formed in the layer 306 channel 312b, which provides a way of passing the produced water from the reservoir 304 to the carbonaceous material 308.
Channel 312b can be obtained by drilling through the layer 306 before reaching the surface or solid carbonaceous material 308. Such drilling can be carried out in the form of a further continuation of the wellbore 310, which also has a first channel section a, extending from the earth's surface geological formations to the top of the collector layer 304.
In shown in Fig.3A embodiment is presented only channel 312b between the collector 304 and carbonaceous material 308. Embodiments can also include many formed between the collector 304 and carbonaceous material 308 channels (not shown). We can say that many channels perforeret collector 304 to ensure that caused by the force of gravity drop formation water to the carbonaceous material 308.
Fig.3B is a simplified view showing another cross section of a geological formation 350, containing 360 collector reservoir water below the layer of carbonaceous material 356. Collector 360 and carbonaceous material 356 separated by a layer 358 to�th prevents the contact of the underlying reservoir of water located above carbonaceous material. Carbonaceous material 356 buried under a layer 352, whose upper surface is the surface formation 350. One plot layer 352 is in direct contact with the underlying carbonaceous material 356, while another section is separated from the carbonaceous material pocket 354.
Shown in Fig.3B embodiment has two channels 362 and 364 formed through several layers formation 350, which includes a layer of carbon-containing material layer 356 and 358, which separates the manifold 360 from carbonaceous material. These channels can be used to transport produced water from the reservoir to 360 carbonaceous material 356. For example, in the channel 362 with gas or fluid may build up pressure to create increased pressure in the manifold 360 brine water. This may cause the portion of the produced water to be pushed up through the channel 366 at least until coming into contact with carbonaceous material 356. In some embodiments of the formation water can be pushed above the upper surface of the carbonaceous material 356 and start filling the pocket 354. When the flow of reservoir water through the upper surface of the carbonaceous material 356 it can permeate and seep down into the material under the force of gravity.
The upper end of the channel 64 may include a node 366, designed to facilitate the transport of formation water from the reservoir to 360 carbonaceous material 356. Node 366 may be a pump or other device, ensuring the creation of a negative pressure gradient up the channel 364, which contributes to raising the reservoir water through the channel. As an alternative, the node 366 may be a cap or other device designed to stop the flow of fluid from formation 350. A stub can create a positive pressure gradient in the channel 364 which causes the formation water from the channel radially spread on the material of the host rock, including carbonaceous material 356.
Further with reference to Fig.4 describes how 400 accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation with the aim of increasing the generation of biogenic gas according to the embodiments of the invention. Methods 400 can include a step of retaining accumulating biogenic gas in a geological formation 402. These accumulated gases can be produced by natural microorganisms in the formation without the assistance and/or with a stimulating action that initiates or increases the rate of biogenic gas in the formation. Accumulating biogenic gas can in itself act as a catalyst to speed the generation of biogenic gas. For example, in�relatively through methanogenesis gases such as methane and hydrogen, can change the composition of gases in the reservoir towards a more anaerobic, which may contribute to greater activity of anaerobic microorganisms, such as methanogenesis.
Held in the reservoir accumulating biogenic gases can also increase the total pressure of gases in an underground formation. Increased gas pressure may, in turn, facilitate the promotion of the formation water through the carbonaceous material 404. The movement of formation water through the carbonaceous material can have a stimulating effect on the production of biogenic gas (e.g., methanogenesis), which may further increase the rate of production of biogenic gas. As noted above, a moving formation water can carry pathogens, nutrients, chemical additives, and other materials on a broader array of carbon-containing materials. The proliferation of microorganisms may increase the contact between the microorganisms and the carbon-containing material, which may increase their growth rate and/or rate of generation of biogenic gas. Moving and/or circulating ground water may also facilitate the removal of waste products of microorganisms, toxins and inhibitors of methanogenesis from a habitat of microorganisms.
The ability of higher�tion of the gas pressure to promote the formation water through the carbonaceous material may depend on the nature of carbon-containing material, and the composition of the formation. When the carbonaceous material is a relatively porous solid substance (for example, brown coal, formation water can more easily penetrate the material. When the carbonaceous material is more rigid (e.g., anthracite), produced water penetration through the material may be more difficult, but, nevertheless, can be detected cracks, crevices, clevage, etc., through which it can pass through the material. In some cases, the carbonaceous material may be so solid and without pores that produced water will only be able to wrap around the exposed surface of the material. For the purposes of this application, the promotion of the formation water through the carbonaceous material may include a penetration through a porous material, pushing water in cracks, crevices, clevage, etc. in the material and the wrapping or the spreading of water on the exposed surface of the material. In addition, promotion of the formation water through the carbonaceous material does not require that the water is completely pushed through the material. Promotion of formation water in the material or distributing it over the surface of the material can also be considered as examples of the movement of formation water through the material.
In some embodiments of the methods 400, at least one portion of biogenic gases �can be extracted from the reservoir 406 after the retention period. For example, these gases may be removed at the wellhead that is connected in a fluid environment with the natural gas pipeline. Extraction of biogenic gases can cause changes (e.g., decrease) the pressure of the gases in the reservoir. Reducing the gas pressure in the reservoir can be large enough to result in changes to the flow of formation water through the carbonaceous material 408. In some cases, the reduction of pressure can completely change the direction of flow of formation water.
After extraction of biogenic gas emissions from the reservoir may be provided with the possibility of accumulation of biogenic gas in the formation. Held in the reservoir accumulated gases can cause the gas pressure in the reservoir will change again (e.g., increase). Gases can be contained until, until the gas pressure reaches a threshold value, returning to the pressure in the reservoir up to the previous release of biogenic gases. The increase in gas pressure may again change the flow of formation water and in some cases can completely change the direction of flow back to the original direction that was present until the moment of extraction of biogenic gases. In some embodiments, the extraction and re-uptake of biogenic gases can be reused many times. As a result, may occur repeatedly changed�I gas pressure in the reservoir, the consequence of which may be appropriate to change the direction and/or flow rate of formation water through the carbonaceous material. In some cases, the extraction and re-uptake of biogenic gases can lead to cyclic and possibly continuous changes of the produced water stream, creating a circulation of water in the carbonaceous material, which can increase the production of biogenic gas.
Specialists in this field it is clear that on the basis of several of the described embodiments, without departing from the spirit of the invention, can be applied to various modifications, equivalents and variations of designs. In addition, many known processes and elements have not been mentioned in the description in order to avoid unnecessary cluttering of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.
In cases when provided by a certain range of values, it should be understood that each intermediate value between the upper and lower boundaries of this range is also disclosed in a certain way with accuracy up to a tenth of the magnitude of the lower limit unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Every narrower range between any of the prescribed value or intervening value in a stated range and any other us�yavlennoi or intervening value in that stated range is also covered by the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may be independently included or excluded from such a wide range, and each range where any, neither or both limits are included in the smaller ranges is also encompassed by the invention, except any specifically excluded limit values in the determined range. When an established range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included.
For the purposes of the present invention and the attached claims the singular also includes the indication of the plural, unless the context explicitly requires otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a method" includes a variety of such methods and reference to "the well" includes reference to one or more wells or cash equivalents, known to specialists in this field, etc.
In addition, the word "contain", "containing", "include", "including" and "includes" when used in this description and the following further claims are intended to determine whether an installed signs, single integers, components, or steps, but they do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, unified whole, components, et�POV, activities or groups.
1. Method of increasing the generation of biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation containing carbonaceous material, wherein the method includes:
access to this anaerobic formation;
increase the speed of production of the biogenic gases in this anaerobic formation; and
ensuring the flow of formation water within the anaerobic formation after increasing the production of biogenic gases,
in which the flow of formation water comprises the circulation of the reservoir water between the collector in anaerobic formation and carbonaceous material and back into the reservoir.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein accumulating biogenic gases hold in the anaerobic formation to increase the speed of production of the biogenic gases.
3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the carbonaceous material is brought into contact with water to increase the speed of production of the biogenic gases.
4. A method according to claim 3, in which water increases the contact between the microorganisms and the carbon-containing material in the anaerobic formation.
5. A method according to claim 3, in which water transports nutrients to microorganisms in the carbon-containing material.
6. A method according to claim 3, in which water removes inhibiting materials from the environment of the microorganisms in the carbon-containing material and in which such inhibitory mater�Ala is selected from the group composed of waste products of microorganisms, inhibitors of growth of microorganisms and inhibitors of microbial methanogenesis.
7. A method according to claim 3, wherein water is fed from a source outside the anaerobic formation or from the reservoir formation water within the anaerobic formation.
8. A method according to claim 1, wherein the anaerobic formation improving additives added to increase the speed of production of the biogenic gases.
9. A method according to claim 1, wherein enhancing additive comprises a compound containing acetate containing phosphorus compound, yeast extract or hydrogen.
10. A method according to claim 1, wherein the flow of formation water contains build-up of pressure in the anaerobic formation with accumulation of biogenic gases to promote the formation water through the carbonaceous material.
11. A method according to claim 1, in which the circulation of the reservoir water further increases the speed of production of the biogenic gases.
12. Method of redistribution of produced water in an anaerobic geologic formation containing carbonaceous material, wherein the method includes:
the placement of the reservoir formation water within the anaerobic formation;
creating at least one channel between the collector and at least one site of carbon-containing material;
transportation of produced water from the reservoir to plantsthere�required material through the channel; and
re-filling the reservoir with water after transport produced water from the reservoir to the carbonaceous material through the channel.
13. A method according to claim 12, in which the collector is located above or below the carbonaceous material in the anaerobic formation.
14. A method according to claim 12, in which the establishment of a channel between the collector and the carbonaceous material includes drilling a channel through the rock formations to provide hydraulic communication between the reservoir and carbonaceous material.
15. A method according to claim 12, in which a series of channels between the collector and carbonaceous material.
16. A method according to claim 12, in which the produced water transportation includes the movement of formation water from the collector to which is located below the carbon-containing material by gravity under the action of gravity.
17. A method according to claim 12, in which the transportation of the produced water includes irrigation of carbonaceous material formation water from the reservoir located below the carbon-containing material.
18. A method according to claim 12, in which the water contains additional formation water.
19. Method of accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic geologic formation to increase production of biogenic gas, wherein the method includes:
hold accumulating biogenic gas in an anaerobic formation �La increasing the gas pressure in at least part of the anaerobic formation;
promotion of formation water through the carbonaceous material in the anaerobic formation under the action of increasing the gas pressure at which the flow of formation water through the carbonaceous material further increases the rate of production of biogenic gas in an anaerobic formation;
removing accumulating biogenic gas from the anaerobic formation after leading the formation water through the carbonaceous material, while the extraction of accumulating biogenic gas from anaerobic formation at least partially reverses the direction of flow of the formation water through the carbonaceous material.
20. A method according to claim 19, in which the method includes repeatedly removing at least part of the accumulating biogenic gas so that the gas pressure in the anaerobic formation were changed depending on time.
21. A method according to claim 20, in which changes in the gas pressure depending on time change the direction of flow of the formation water through the carbonaceous material.
22. A method according to claim 21, which changes the direction of flow further increase the speed of production of the biogenic gases.
23. A method according to claim 19, which contains:
the measurement of gas pressure in the anaerobic formation; and
removing at least part of the accumulating biogenic gas from anaerobic formation for pressure control and shutoff.� gas pressure in the anaerobic formation to a predetermined value.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of high-viscosity oil well development and operation involves landing of tubing string with well pump with power cable to the well, and landing of capillary tube parallel to the power cable and attached to external surface of the tubing string by clamps. Oil or oil-containing reservoir fluid is produced. Chemical reagent is injected to the well from a tank by a metering pump through the capillary tube. Power cable is inserted to the well through cable gland. Power cable and capillary tube are protected against direct contact with internal well surface by protectors. Electric heater with extension unit, well pump with power cable and sleeve with radial hole to which the capillary tube is connected are inserted into the tubing upwards from the bottom at the wellhead. Electric heater extension unit is connected to the power cable of well pump. The tubing is landed to the well so that its shoe is located at least 2 m lower than bottom of high-viscosity oil reservoir, and electric heater is facing perforation interval of the high-viscosity oil reservoir. At the wellhead, power cable is connected to well pump and electric heater control stations and inserted to the well through cable gland. Capillary tube is inserted to the well through sealed side tap of the well X-mas tree. Electric heater is actuated, and a process break is made for 8 hours to heat bottomhole zone of reservoir in the perforation interval and high-viscosity oil heating at the inlet of well pump. After the process break, well pump is launched simultaneously with the metering pump supplying high-viscosity oil flux via the capillary tube through the radial hole in the sleeve to inner space of the tubing above the well pump.
EFFECT: enhanced well yield, reduced load in the well pump.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of high-viscosity oil or bitumen field development involves construction of two horizontal wells, one above the other, steam injection to the reservoir, reservoir heating by steam pocket formation, steam and hydrocarbon solvent injection to horizontal injector, and product sweeping from horizontal producer. Associated gas is used as hydrocarbon solvent. Steam and associated gas are injected in sequence in cycles. Steam is injected to the reservoir until extracted product viscosity is 3-5 times higher than initial viscosity at the cycle start, associated gas injection is started along with product extraction until extracted product temperature is reduced by 10-25%, then steam and associated gas injection cycles are repeated.
EFFECT: expanded reservoir coverage, higher level of high-viscosity oil and bitumen production along with material and power cost reduction.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the heavy oil extraction from underground field. Method of the heavy oil extraction from underground field includes: nanoemulsion (oil-in-water) injection to one or more injection wells, extraction of the specified heavy oil from one or more operation wells, where the specified nanoemulsion is produced using the method including: production of the uniform mixture (1) water/oil product with interfacial tension 1 mN/m maximum, containing water in quantity from 65% to 99.9% by weight, with a view to total mixture weight (1), and at least two surface-active substance (SAS) having different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), selected from not-ionic, anionic, polymer SAS, preferably not0ionic; these SAS are in such quantity that to make the mixture (1) uniform mixture (1) dilution by the dispersion medium containing water with added at least one SAS selected from the specified SASs; this dispersion medium and SAS quantities are such that nanoemulsion is produced (oil-in-water) having HLB exceeding HLB of the mixture (1). Invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: increased extraction efficiency.
34 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to production of heavy hydrocarbons. In the in situ multistage solvent extraction method of heavy oil from oil pools at first liquids and gases are extracted from zones of contact with heavy oil in order to increase interfacial area of unextracted heavy oil subject to contact with solvent. Then solvent is injected in the form of steam to the above zones in order to increase pressure in the pool up to accumulation of sufficient quantity of solvent in the form of liquid to ensure contact with enlarged interfacial surface of heavy oil. Then the pool is isolated for the period sufficient to ensure diffusion of solvent to unextracted oil through the interfacial surface at ageing stage so that the mixture of solvent and oil with low viscosity is obtained. One or more parameters of the pool are measured to determine the degree of unextracted oil liquefaction in the pool by solvent. Oil extraction from the pool is commenced by gravity drainage when viscosity of oil becomes rather low to flow through the pool to the production well.
EFFECT: maximising liquefaction of heavy oil and maximising its extraction as a result.
19 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves displacement of the first fluid on a hydrocarbon basis, which is present at a non-cased interval of a well shaft, with the second fluid, contact of the second fluid to acid natural formation fluid so that the third fluid is formed, where the second fluid contains aqueous liquid dispersed as a disperse phase in oily liquid, and surface active substance (SAS) based on amine and chosen so that the above contact performs protonation of at least some part of SAS with formation of the third fluid included in an emulsion containing oily liquid reversely dispersed as a disperse phase in aqueous liquid, where at least 40 vol % of any solid substances that do not refer to a proppant and are present in the fluid are water-soluble at pH that is lower than or equal to 6.5, and SAS has the above said structure. An underground well treatment system. The fluid containing a reversible invert emulsion containing an aqueous liquid dispersed as a disperse phase in oily phase and the above SAS.
EFFECT: improving destruction efficiency of a filter cake.
20 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: under the method of development of oil deposits with nonuniform permeability comprising successive injection via the injection well of the water suspension containing polymer, mud powder and SAS solution, prior to the suspension injection in the deposit the initial intake of the injection well is determined under pressure in water line ands water mineralisation; in water with salinity level 0.15-40 g/l complex action SASs with pour point not exceeding minus 30°C and kinematical viscosity 35-50 sSt are used, i.e. water-alcohol solution of non-ionic SAS-monoalkyl esters of PEG at the following ratio wt %: specified SAS 0.001-1.0, specified water rest, suspension and SAS solution are injected in volume ratio (1-3):1 depending on initial intake of the injection well - at intake 200-400 m3/day - 1-2:1, 400-500 m3/day - 2-3:1, over 500 m3/d - 3:1, between suspension and SAS solution water with salinity level 0.15-40 g/l or water suspension of polyacrylimide with concentration 0.0001-0.1 wt % is injected. Under another option during this method in water with salinity level 40-300 g/l the complex SAS with pour point minus 40°C max is used, containing complex action SAS with pour point minus 30°C max. and kinematical viscosity 35-50 sSt - water-alcohol solution of non-ionic SAS - monoalkyl esters polyoxyethylene glycol 90 wt % and alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride 10 % at following ratio of components in wt %: specified SAS 0.001-1.0, specified water - rest, suspension and SA solution are injected to the deposit in volume ratio (1-3): 1 depending on initial intake of the injection well at water line pressure - at intake 200-400 m3/day - 1-2:1, 400-500 m3/day - 2-3:1, over 500 m3/day - 3:1, and between suspension and solution the water with salinity level 40-300 g/l or water suspension of polyacrylimide with concentration 0.0001 0.1 wt % are injected.
EFFECT: increased oil recovery of the deposit.
2 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: under method of oil deposit development comprising determination of the injection well intake, oil recovery via the production wells, and injection via at least one injection well of the water dispersion of the water-soluble polymer and alkali metal hydroxide, this dispersion contains in wt %: water-soluble polymer 0.01-0.05, alkali 0.5-1.0, at definite intake values of the injection well the specified dispersion is injected until injection pressure increasing by 20-30%, its flushing in the deposit by the injected water in volume of tubing plus 1.0 m3, alkali composition in volume 10-30% of volume of injection of the specified dispersion is injected until specific intake decreasing by 10-20% and achievement of the injection pressure not exceeding the maximum permitted pressure on production string and production deposits, the specified compositions at specified water salinity under each of three options, and flush by water in volume 10-15 m3.
EFFECT: increased oil recovery of deposits and watercut reduction of production wells, spreading of process abilities.
3 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages the usage of aqueous solutions of binary mixtures - inorganic or organic nitrate or hydrate of alkali metals, which are injected through individual channels. The method includes the mounting of equipment in wells at the selected area of a deposit. Each well is equipped with devices to control the temperature, pressure and composition of reaction products in a real time mode. Formation areas in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 20 m3 are heated preliminarily up to a temperature of at least 100°C by injection of at least 2 t of binary mixture reagents. Cyclic heating of the formation area in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 100 m3 and weight of 250 t is made up to a temperature of at least 140°C due to a reaction of at least 12 t of the binary mixture reagents. At that the first level of explosion safety is ensured by the alternation of injection of saltpetre solution portions, 1 t each, with portions of industrial water of at least 0.05 t each. The second level of explosive safety in the borehole is ensured by the continuous control and monitoring of the reaction process with the temperature limitation in the well bore below the pre-blasting temperature. This temperature is determined against signs of the reaction self-acceleration at recorded charts of time-temperature and time-pressure curves. In case of these signs the injection of a saltpetre decomposition initiator is stopped to the well. Further injection of the saltpetre solution with the weight of at least 10 t is made to the preheated formation. At that the third level of explosive safety is implemented in the reaction process in the formation, which is catalysed by the heat accumulated during the previous cycles. The third level of explosive safety is ensured by a ratio of the weight of the saltpetre injected to the pores and fractures of the formation to the weight of the rock. The ratio is equal mainly to 1 to 20. Low explosive probability, close to zero, is ensured by a mixture of 95 wt % of rock and 5 wt % of saltpetre. The injection of reagents at all cycles is made at continuous temperature control in the reaction zone and pressure and temperature control in the zone near the packer and in the process of the reagents injection for the purpose of timely cessation of the reaction when the parameters of the reaction exceed limits of permitted modes.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil production at worked-out deposits with an increased production safety.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: this invention is related to production of oil-in-water emulsions with low viscosity during operations with oil. The method for reduction of apparent viscosity for hydrocarbon fluids occurring at oil extraction and transportation includes contact of the above hydrocarbon medium with effective quantity of composite containing at least one polymer with at least 25 mole percent of cationic monomers. The invention has been developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: increase in oil production.
15 cl, 9 ex, 4 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: treatment method of underground hydrocarbon-containing formations involves the following: a) provision of a composition including a thickening initiator measuring pH, and a polymer capable of hydration in a certain pH range; b) pumping of a composition with pH value beyond the limits of the above pH range; c) activation of an action of pH thickening initiator for displacement of pH composition to the above range of its values, and d) provision of a possibility of increasing viscosity of the composition and shaping of a plug. According to another version, a processing method of underground hydrocarbon-containing formations involves the following: a) provision of a composition containing a polymer capable of hydration in a certain pH range; b) pumping of the composition with pH value beyond the limits of the above pH range; c) provision of a pH changing thickening initiator; d) activation of the action of the thickening initiator for displacement of pH composition to the above range of its values, and e) provision of a possibility of increasing viscosity of a composition and shaping of a plug. The invention has been developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of initiation and control of plug formation.
15 cl, 5 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides a method of developing oil pool allowing production of oil from water-rich oil reservoir under difficult geological-tectonic conditions in the last development stage. In the method, neutral salt of carbonic acid and acid solution are forced into formation through injecting well with water generated in gas-liquid fringe created in formation. After pumping of neutral salt of carbonic acid, acid solution is pumped by portions alternating with water pumping. Before pumping of acid solution portions beginning by at least second portion, selective insulation of high-permeable formation intervals is performed. Aforesaid neutral salt of carbonic acid utilized is sodium carbonate aqueous solution or aqueous suspension of calcium carbonate and aforesaid acid solution is aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. Selective insulation of high-permeable formation intervals involves use of freshly prepared controllable viscoelastic composition containing water-soluble acrylic polymer, cross-linking agent, thermal stabilizer, surfactant, and water. Summary concentration of acid solution is determined from concentration of neutral salt of carbonic acid on the base of stoichiometric proportions.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of maintaining formation pressure and thereby oil recovery of formation due to leveled displacement front and reduced probability of the rupture of formation rock backbone, and simplified control of phase state of gas-liquid fringe by changing pressure of pumped acid solution portions.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention aims at increasing productivity of oil- and gas-producing and injecting wells exposing high-temperature low-permeable oil reservoirs. In the treatment method according to invention including forcing enzyme substrate and separate enzyme into formation and creating conditions to enzymatically convert substrate into acid, geologic and productive characteristics for each interval of bottom zone are determined in order to pick out low-permeable intervals of oil reservoir for treatment, whereupon properties of enzyme substrate and separate enzyme as well as conditions for their pumping are chosen. Substrate utilized in the method is head fraction of methyl- and/or ethyl-, and/or butyl acetate production, to which aliphatic alcohols are added, and enzyme is an acid solution. Substrate is pumped simultaneously and/or before, and/or after pumping of enzyme, after which well is closed for some time and then opened and placed under predetermined operational conditions.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of acid treatment due to increased phase permeability for oil and deepness of active acid-treated zone of low-permeable oil reservoirs.
25 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use during development of oil pools at different waterflooding phase for intensifying functioning of producing wells and increasing current oil recovery of formation. Composition contains, wt %: liquid hydrocarbon 10.0-20.0, oil-soluble surfactant 0.3-5.0, water-soluble or water-oil-soluble surfactant 0.1-1.0, superfine hydrophobic material 0.1-2.0, and water (the rest). Composition may further contain 0.3-5.0% calcium chloride. Oil recovery is increased owing to hydrophobization of formation structure, reduction of surface tension in water/rock/oil phase boundary, increase in detergent power of polluted surface, increase in composition viscosity, and increase of relative permeability of the formation for hydrocarbon phase as compared with water phase.
EFFECT: increased oil recovery.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 0.05-2.5% of hydrophobic power, 0.05-10% of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, and organic solvent. Composition intensifies oil production owing to increased effective radius of formation bottom area treatment, prevention of moistening inversion effect upon fall of hydrophobic agent concentration, and, consequently, decreased volume of simultaneously produced water.
EFFECT: increased oil production, prolonged overhaul period, improved environmental safety, and lowered production expenses.
2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling product and force wells, forcing gas and water through force wells into separate zones of productive bed and extraction of hydrocarbons from product wells, forming separate gas, water and hydrocarbon saturated areas with major contents of respectively gas, collected therein for later use, water and hydrocarbons, periodical pumping of collected gas from formed gas saturated zones to water saturated zones, periodical pumping of water to gas saturated zones is performed. It is possible to pump collected gas to water saturated zones in form of gas-water mixture. It is possible to pump in passing gas of current deposit. It is possible to pump hydrocarbon or non-hydrocarbon gas from other sources. It is possible to pump water with admixture of specifically selected chemical reagents or compositions thereof. When gas content in water saturated zones reaches from 0.1 to 28% from water content in water saturated zones it is reasonable to generate resilient waves with frequency within range from 0.0001 to 45 KHz and amplitude within range from 0.02 to 2.8 MPa. It is reasonable to pump gas and water to separate areas of productive bed with concurrent generation of resilient waves in there with frequency within range from 0.0001 to 45 KHz and amplitude within limits from 0.02 to 2.8 MPa.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes pumping of Sulfacella water dispersion into bed through force well and extraction of oil through extracting well, said dispersion additionally containing non-ionogenic surfactant AF9-12 with following ratio of components, in percents of mass: Sulfacella 0.5-1, AF9-12 0.01-0.1, water- the rest, while, before pumping of said dispersion mineralized water is pumped with total mineralization until 290 g/l in amount of 10% from volume of said dispersion, when pumping said dispersion prepared in fresh water, drain water is previously pumped, and when pumping said dispersion made from drain or bed water, bed water is previously pumped. For preparation of said dispersion fresh, drain or bed water is used with mineralization till 290 g/l.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes examination of operation well for gas-condensation and periodical cleaning of face-adjacent well area from precipitating hydrocarbon condensate by pumping hydrocarbon condensate solvent into bed, exposure of well for period of condensate dissolution and following removal of received solution from face-adjacent area during well launch, as solvent binary mixture is used with unlimited mutual solubility of components, while at least one of them has unlimited mutual solubility with hydrocarbon condensate, and relation of binary mixture components is determined from previously built phase diagram of three-component system, formed during dissolution of hydrocarbon condensate. As binary mixture with unlimited mutual solubility of components a mixture of acetone and methanol is used, or chloroform and methanol, or chloroform and aniline, or chloroform and acetone.
EFFECT: higher productiveness.
2 cl, 3 ex, 6 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes placing water solution of carnallite ore, either modified, concentrated, or mixtures thereof, said solution is used at maximal for well temperature conditions concentration and is pumped in amount, necessary and enough for forming a hydraulic column in well shaft above ceiling of productive bed and along remaining shaft height well is filled with water up to mouth. Carnallite ore used has composition, in percents of mass: potassium chloride 20.5-21.5; sodium chloride 19.5-22.5; magnesium chloride 24.0-27.0; crystallization water 29.5-30.5. Modified ore has composition, in percents of mass: potassium chloride 23.0-29.5; magnesium chloride 31.8-46.0; crystallization water - the rest. Said water solution is prepared by dissolving ore in fresh technical water, drained from oil preparation plants, or in bed water. In case of dissolving in bed water, the latter is pumped from well at temperature 60-90°C. During perforation of well, value of technological liquid hydraulic column above productive bed ceiling is taken equal to (1.03-1.07)-(1.05-1.1)Pb, where Pb - productive bed pressure. Water solution of carnallite ore is used at density 1.23-1.37 t/m3. During use of said solution as working body of force wells it is used at density 1.05-1.20 t/m3, and solution also contains swelling inhibitor for argillaceous component of oil and gas bearing bed, like oxyethylenedendiphosphone acid, in amount 0.05-0.15% of used dissolved ore mass.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of face area of oil bed by hydrophobic agent in organic solvent and pressing oil from collector with following delivery of oil from face area of product well for treatment of oil terrigenic bed, in form of hydrophobic agent solution of ethylene copolymer with vinylacetate in ethylbenzol or fraction thereof is used in relation 1:1 - 10, treatment of face area is performed with following ratio of components, in percents of mass: ethylene copolymer with vinylacetate 0.05-2.0, ethylbenzol or fraction 0.05-20.0, organic solvent - the rest.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: mining industry and alternative fuels.
SUBSTANCE: coal is affected by methanogenic consortium of microorganisms with culture medium utilizing continuous pumping of culture medium through wells and tank wherein methanogenic consortium of microorganisms with culture medium is placed. Tank is installed on the surface above wells and pumping of culture medium from the bottom of tank through methanogenic consortium of microorganisms. Process produces biogas and coal-water fuel.
EFFECT: increased yield of biogas to continuously effecting culturing of microorganisms.
1 dwg, 2 tbl