Water outlet from channel with steep slope

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: water outlet comprises the inlet 1 and transit 2 channels, associated with water intake gallery, having the water inlet opening in the upper part, covered with grid 11. Grid 11 also covers the V-shaped threshold 10, which separates the sediments before the bottom slot of gallery into coarse fractions. The side walls of the supply channel 1 are provided with guide elements with possibility of their displacement towards the threshold. Guide elements are designed with L-shaped vertical walls 13 with shelves 14, placed above the bottom of the supply channel 1. The lower edges of vertical walls are installed relative to the bottom of the inlet channel 1 with gap. Gallery is made with intake portal in the form of tube, the upper part of the case of which with oblique cut 6 is located above the slotted hole of the gallery. Due to the fact that the cross-section portal of tube with the inlet portion 5 is located slightly above the bottom of the chamber, the water flow to the discharge pipeline is increased, and flow regime through the portal into the transit channel 2 occurs without splashing and all sediments go down. In the presence of bending, the flow speed profile is more uniform in the pipeline, which reduces the tendency of flow separation from the inner curved wall and reduces the energy losses along the length of the pipeline, caused by the vortex turbulence. Pressure losses in the inlet portion at the presence of tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, as in the outlet portion of the pipeline, are reduced.

EFFECT: construction of water outlet as a whole provides its protection against the sediments, as well as in case of the absence of water inlet and simplification of the design at the increased discharge capacity, besides the length of the discharge pipeline is reduced respectively.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used for the abstraction of water from canals have steep slopes, which are characterized by substantial fluctuations in water levels, as well as in conditions of abundant sediment.

Known the outlet of the channel with a steep slope, including supply, transit and outlet channels and sector-bucket valve with a drive that is installed with the possibility of advancement in the inlet channel on the vertical axis of rotation, located on horse back wall of the outlet channel, and pie-bucket provided with a shutter rusticates, made in the form of vertical plates arranged inside the sector-bucket valve in its Central angular area over the entire height of the internal cavity of the shutter with the overlap width of the flow path of the bolt and provided with a trash rack device, made in the form of a lattice (SU 1312138, CL. EV 13/00, 1987).

The disadvantage of this structure is due to its complex structure, including rastically inside the cavity of the shutter, made in the form of vertical plates and radially mounted in its Central angular area over the entire height of the internal cavity of the valve. Water enters the cavity of the shutter due to the structure of rustically different lengths in the rotational motion and acts in the direction of the outlet channel. Rast�kateli air fill the inner space of the rotation movement of water from the Central corner of the form.

The use of rastically from the point of view of economy of space has some drawbacks. The bucket size of the bolt increases, the pressure inside the cavity of the shutter is reduced, resulting in a tendency to the separation of the flow from the curved wall at the outlet of the penstock, which leads to energy losses caused by turbulence. Flow separation may also partially cause cavitation on the inner wall at the outlet of the valve, capable of damaging the wall of the outlet channel and reduce service life. In addition, can be reduced curvature of a covering shutter, but it may lead to disruption of the structure of the flow in the cavity of the shutter and lower throughput.

Also known outlet-stabilizer of a water discharge channel with turbulent flow regime, including the supply and transit channels, control gate and bottom water intake gallery, having in the upper part of the water-intake hole covered by a grate, and in the downstream side of the separation wall adjacent to the bottom of the transit channel, and bottom water intake gallery is connected with the outlet pipe through the outlet hole, and by changing the hydraulic resistance gallery is equipped with a turning vane system in the form of the separation of the curved walls, and is also provided along the length of the gallery ledge � flat plate, forming a separate section, and the gallery is made in the form of zigzag conduit (patent RU 2 484 203, CL. EV 13/00, 2013).

A disadvantage of the known structure-stabilizer is its complexity due to the presence of protrusions and plates placed inside the cavity of the gallery, etc., These devices create a complex plot of speed at the turn, creates difficulty in operation. Lead to big energy losses due to friction along the length of the gallery.

It is known from literature sources that the outlets work better with "rounded" plot velocity or possibly smooth, and beveled velocity of the flow coming from a bent pipe, wastes bandwidth and causes failing in the discharge channel. For damping of the stream build extinguishing wells and other extinguishing facilities on a straight section, which also increases the overall length of the mounting of the outlet channel is all leads to large power losses.

Task to be solved by the present invention is to simplify the design and increase efficiency in the work.

Technical result achieved when implementing the present invention is to improve throughput, providing a specified flow of water and increase crop yields.

The specified technical result is achieved by those�, the outlet from the channel with a steep slope, contains supply and transit channels, a control gate, a water intake gallery, having in the upper part of the water intake hole, covered with a lattice gallery, completed by the input cap in the form of a pipe, the upper part of the body which with an oblique cut is located above slot gallery, slot before additionally is V-shaped and the side walls of the inlet channel is provided with a turning vane elements is movable in the direction of the threshold, and turning vane elements are l-shaped vertical walls with shelves, placed above the bottom of the inlet channel, and lower ends of the vertical walls mounted with respect to the bottom of the inlet channel with a gap.

Moreover, the gallery, made in the form of a tube, contains the outlet pressure pipe, tubular portion which is curved in three dimensions and has an essentially constant cross-sectional area throughout its length.

The first aspect of the invention is to provide an outlet from the discharge conduit with an input part of the cap in the form of a tube, an enclosure with an oblique cut is located above slot gallery. Additionally there is a V-shaped threshold and turning vane elements, wherein the tubular portion is associated with the outlet ka�scarlet in the form of the discharge pipe, curved in three dimensions.

The presence of the tubular portion, curved in three dimensions (closer to the coil), contributes to the development of a vortex flow and helps maintain the velocity of the water at the turn, to ensure the rapid removal of atmospheric air with water in the outlet channel. Discharge pipe may be made of a composite, of the same diameter, the retaining device, curved in three dimensions. Under these conditions a plot of the axial velocity of the flow passing through the tubular portion, becomes more even or "rounded", the speed of the flow outside of the bent portion is less than the rate of similar flow in the pipe, curved in two dimensions, and the velocity inside the curved part more. Thus, the velocity near the walls around the tubular portion when it is not flat geometry tends to be more uniform around the circumference than in planar geometry. Such a flow with respect to the pressure pipe and the outlet channel has a number of advantages.

This reduces energy losses caused by eddy turbulence. Thus, can be reduced loss of pressure in the pressure pipe in the presence of the tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, and improved recovery of differential pressure in a discharge channel in the presence of such tubular parts, respectively, for�specifically, increases the capacity of the outlet. Thus, it is possible to use a short section in the gallery of a rotary tube, and a pressure discharge line may be located closer to the side of the outer wall of the channel, which reduces the overall length of the outlet pipe (not the well-extinguisher), coupled with an open discharge canal, with shutter. In this case, the input side of the discharge pipe may be essentially a short section of larger diameter than the tubular portion, wherein the flow from laminar, is converted into the tubular portion of the turbulent. This arrangement simplifies the design in a discharge channel.

It is known that the water outlets, made in the form of a single knee at 90°, the separation can lead to cavitation on the internal walls of the curved parts. Cavitation is possible outside of the curved parts where rapid flow creates low pressure, and the possible destruction of the flow in the intake and damage the output tubes.

The stream can be saturated dragged along the bottom of the channel with sediment, or to have a small filling front part of the discharge pipe. On this basis further arranged V-shaped threshold (hanging) in the conduit of the front part of the discharge pipe. To create the required level of water above the inlet part of the discharge pipe with a minimum napolneni� water in the supply channel, and skip sediment along the channel, the bottom layer of the stream-sediment passes under the lower end of a vertical wall (plate), by rotating around its axis by the actuator in the side wall of the inlet channel, i.e., extends in the direction of the V-shaped threshold and a rainwater inlet portion of the discharge pipe, ensuring that the fence is the maximum water flow with minimal filling in the conduit (minimum water level). It also provides the user water with a given security to increase yields on irrigated land.

This approach to the design of buildings can increase the water flow rate not less than 15-20%. The combination of pressure and helical mode and has served to create new technical solutions, as under the bending velocity of the flow is more uniform, thus a reduced tendency to flow separation at the inner wall of the curved part. This reduces energy losses caused by eddy turbulence. In turn, obviously, can be reduced the pressure loss in the inlet portion of the cap when the continuation of its tubular part, curved in three dimensions in continuation with the outlet pipe, respectively, the reduction of the pressure in the output pipe sections in an open channel that is cost-effective, possibly reducing the outlet tubular �Asti at her mate with a channel i.e. space saving, parallel and reduction in pipe cavitation.

Based on the foregoing, the author considers it possible to assert that the proposed technical solution meets the criterion of "substantial differences".

Fig. 1 shows the outlet from the channel with a steep slope, a plan; Fig. 2 - a section a-A in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a curved pipe, shown in Fig. 1, on a larger scale; Fig. 4 - schematic view of a curved pipe on the end of the discharge pipe shown in Fig. 1, on a larger scale; Fig. 5 is a schematic side view of the pipeline shown in Fig. 1.

The outlet from the channel with a steep slope contains located between the inlet 1 and a transit channel 2 chamber 3, with a water intake galleries 4. Input part 5 gallery 4 height cross-section with an oblique cut 6 is made slightly above the bottom of the inlet channel 1, center channel, and connected to the discharge conduit 7, while the cross section for the entire length constantly. Discharge pipe 7 is coupled by means of a bolt 8 with a lifting mechanism to open the outlet channel 9.

Each tubular portion of the duct 7 forms part of a spiral. Usually the angle of rotation of part of the helix is less than 360°, and in this case the center line of the entrance to the tubular portion and the Central line out of it lie in R�slichnih planes. The helical shape may have a constant or variable radius.

In the conduit 1, center, is rigidly secured on the bottom of the V-shaped threshold 10 front part of the camera 3 gallery 4, covered by a grating 11, the upper end of which is connected with threshold 10. The threshold of 10 is used to protect the input section of the gallery 4 from being hit by a large stone. To the side walls of the inlet channel 1 adjacent turning vane elements 12 made in the form of an l-shaped vertical wall (plate) 13 with a horizontal flange 14 can be rotated in a horizontal plane on a vertical axis 15 that is associated with the actuator 16 above horse wall of the inlet channel 1, and the lower end of the vertical stacks 13 is placed above the bottom of the inlet channel 1 in size, drawn on the bottom of the large stone (structurally determined), i.e. fixed with respect to the bottom of the inlet channel with a gap.

Turning vane elements 12 secured in the wall of the channel 1, located in front of the walls of the sill 10 at an angle, functionally dependent on the degree of rotation around the axis 15 with the l-shaped vertical wall 13 with a horizontal flange 14, providing free passage of large stones and additionally preventing the grating 11 from the dam, big stone and removing it static loads, the ends of which are secured to the ledge 10.

Pic�ol'ku, the water level in the conduit 1 can be reduced, the water in the discharge pipe 7, respectively, is reduced, by using the drive mechanism 16 with the axis 15 moves horizontally turning vane elements 12 in the direction of the projection 10. Therefore, the input side gallery 4 with an oblique cut 6 has a height of the cross section in the plan above the bottom of the inlet channel 1, which allows to increase in a downstream direction of the flow of water into the pipeline 7.

The outlet from the channel with a steep slope is as follows.

High-speed flow, saturated sediments, via the inlet channel 1 is supplied to the input part 5 gallery 4, wherein the protrusion (threshold) 10 creates a backwater in the channel 1, resulting in through the bars 11 clarified water enters the discharge pipe 7, and the last ones in the outlet channel 9. Moreover, the high-speed stream, the raids on the ledge 10, is divided in three streams, the average comes to the gallery 4 the discharge pipe 7, and simultaneously the two side water flow turning vanes extend between the element 12 and the projection 10, with free space between them helps to pass large stones in the transit channel 2, due to pushing off from the dam, the grating 11 to the side walls of the channel 1 from the Central axis.

With minimum content of water in the conduit 1 through the rotation axis 15 turning vane element 12, consisting of a vertical flat wall� 13 with a horizontal flange 14, by reducing the free space between the wall 13 and the protrusion (threshold) 10 the water level in front of the projection 10 is increased and a portion of the flow through the gaps of the grating 11 enters the discharge pipe 7. Consequently, with minimum content of water in the conduit 1, it can get in the discharge pipe 7. Large the bed load can pass through the free space between the lower edge of the wall 13 and the bottom of the inlet channel 1, due to the fact that the turning vane element 12 is fixed rigidly to the actuator 16 with the axis 15, the bottom end wall 13, which is slightly above the bottom of the inlet channel 1, i.e. fixed freely, like the console.

In the absence of a fence with a minimum water level in the conduit 1, the turning vane element 12 occupies its original position parallel to the side wall of the channel 1. Thus, the rate of flow of water is not disturbed in the direction of transit of the channel 2, and all the sediment goes down, preventing the blockage of large drifts in front of the ledge 10.

The presence of the horizontal flange 14 of the vertical wall 13 and its location in the conduit 1 before the input part 5 gallery 4 at the minimum flow rate in channel 1 increases the ratio of water withdrawal to discharge pipe 7. Round pipe works full cross section. Device responsibilities:�horizontal shelf 14 has a small size in width and cheaper in comparison, if instead it introduced any fence elements (enough to turn the vertical wall 13).

As described above regarding the operation of the discharge pipe 7, under these conditions, the rate of the purified water stream inside the pipeline it becomes more even or "rounded", just like the velocity. Thus, the velocity near the walls around the tubular portion when it is not flat geometry tends to be more uniform around the circumference than in planar geometry. This thread has several advantages.

Since, in the presence of the bending velocity of the flow is more uniform, thus a reduced tendency to flow separation from the inner curved wall. This reduces energy losses caused by eddy turbulence. Thus, can be reduced the pressure loss in the inlet pipe 7 in the presence of the tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, and reduce the pressure loss in the outlet portion of the duct 7.

Thus, the presence or in the input or in the output pipe of its tubular part, curved in three dimensions, can lead to more efficient use of the outlet and to the economic benefit. To achieve the maximum benefit of the device structure in a channel with a steep slope in the center of the channel preferably 1, when vhodna� and outlet nozzles had such tubular portion.

The reduction of tendency to flow separation reduces the likelihood of damage from cavitation. This applies both to the input and to the outlet nozzle of the discharge pipe 7. This in turn increases the full efficiency of the outlet in the work and allows you to place the gallery in the form of a tube with an oblique cut in the center of the inlet channel 1, and above the slot of the gallery, without using any complicated partitioning of the intake elements.

Discharge pipe 7 has a spiral configuration, and to form a better understanding on the side and top views are shown by cross point (Fig. 5).

Trash rack 11 has a convex shape and minimizes the ingress of solid particles of sediment in the discharge pipe 7, and at the end of the pipeline 7 is mounted to a control gate 8 (can be set to swivel or throttle valve). Thus, in General, reduced the total length of the discharge line when pairing with an open discharge channel 9.

Application of the invention is to solve the problem of increased bandwidth for open channels with steep slopes consisting of structures. When the discharge canal is not required extinguishing construction of wells, working with the free mode expires, it promotes uniform movement of water flow by Shea�ine and the length of the outlet channel.

The device allows you to take a steady flow of water in the irrigation period of operation and does not require complex partitioning of the elements of the structure, for example, for the purpose of purification from large stones.

1. The outlet from the channel with a steep slope that contains the supply and transit channels, a control gate, a water intake gallery, having in the upper part of the water intake hole, covered grating, characterized in that the gallery made the input cap in the form of a pipe, the upper part of the body which with an oblique cut is located above slot gallery, slot before additionally is V-shaped and the side walls of the inlet channel is provided with a turning vane elements is movable in the direction of the threshold, and turning vane elements are l-shaped vertical walls with shelves, placed above the bottom of the inlet channel, and lower ends of the vertical walls mounted with respect to the bottom of the inlet channel with a gap.

2. The outlet according to claim 1, characterized in that gallery, made in the form of a tube, contains the outlet pressure pipe, tubular portion which is curved in three dimensions and has an essentially constant cross-sectional area throughout its length.



 

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6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology, environment protection and rational nature management and can be used for purification of river water, climate regulation in drought and also contributes to creation of a reserve of fresh water for the economic and social needs of the population. The essence of the technical solution is that the water reservoirs with the depth of 2.5-3 m, the width of 120-150 m, the length of 250-280 m, the surface area of water of 3-3.5 ha are formed in interstream areas on the river banks at a distance of 150-200 m from the mainstream. The water reservoirs are connected to the river bed by input and take-out channels. At the bottom of the water reservoirs the zeolite-containing clay - irlites are placed with the layer of 10-15 cm.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the level of pollution of river waters, to create optimal climatic conditions for human living, flora and fauna, the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and the whole lowland interfluvial landscapes, while simultaneously providing reserve of ecologically clean fresh water for domestic, household and other needs of the population.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.

EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a supply 1 and a transit 2 channels, coupled with a water-receiving chamber, a draining pipeline with a flat gate in its inlet part and a dirt-collecting lattice 9. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber there is a wall face. The wall face is made on top with a hollow pipe 8, having air outlet holes 10, connected by flexible hoses 12 with perforated tubes 13, separated on a garbage protection device in the form of the lattice 9. Perforated pipes are fixed on the lattice 9 at the side of the flat gate that closes the inlet hole of the draining pipeline. Perforated pipes 13 are connected to a source of compressed air supplied momentarily with a compressor 14, connected with a time relay 16, along an air duct 15 into a hollow pipe 8.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation of a device on channels with high inclinations and prevented clogging of a lattice.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: proportionate water separator includes a supply channel 1 and a drain channel 2, where an elastic partition 3 is installed, equipped along the external contour with a rigid belt in the form of a movable shell 4, fixed on top to a flow divider in the form of a vertical plate 5 as capable of interaction with it along the drain channel axis. The bottom of the drain channel is coupled with the bottom of the supply channel in the form of a drop. The supply channel is coupled with a distribution chamber 6 expanded in plan of rectangular cross section. The distribution chamber 6 by its other end is installed on top onto boards of the drain channel in the form of a cantilever part with a gap in a coupling unit relative to the bottom of the drain channel and with coverage of the upper part of the throughput section to the specified channel. On the opposite wall of the drain channel board there is a vertical wall 7 of the chamber 6 fixed rigidly. The bottom of the distribution chamber 6 is equipped with a board - a threshold 9 in front of a vertical plate 5, facing the flow with reverse inclination. The flow divider is made as composite of the vertical plate 5 with a central hole installed on the horizontal axis, a movable shell 4, capable of horizontal-reciprocal displacement along the axis of the drain channel within the limits of the working position along width of the cantilever part of the chamber. At the same time the ratio of the length to the width of the board - the threshold makes at least 1 with the angle of inclination 10…15° relative to the bottom of the distribution chamber.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of water separation by reduction of forces for displacement and control of speed structure of a flow in a water separation zone.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.

EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.

4 dwg

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