System for control over contamination in steam-forming water cleaning system

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means for protection against contaminants introduced by gravity draining at steam pumping and/or those peculiar thereto. This system is used at the plant based on gravity draining at steam pumping for production of heavy oil. This control system allows the simultaneous control over silicon dioxide, hardness and oil contamination existing in evaporator feed water.

EFFECT: ruled out heat exchange surface fouling, higher reliability.

9 cl, 16 dwg

 

Area of technology

Recently evaporators adopted as an alternative means of water treatment in heavy oil production for the purification of water derived from the installation of gravity drainage at the injection of steam (GZP). The present invention relates to means of pollution control, the insertion process GXP and/or specific for this process.

The level of technology

Water is used in many industrial processes for a variety of purposes, such as producing steam, cooling, washing, dilution, rinsing, etc., I enclose herewith all the big effort to save water by maximizing reuse of process water and thus reduce the amount discharged as waste water and fresh water make-up that will bring in the result of both economic and environmental benefits. However, reuse of process water has its own problems, since its original use of process water is usually contaminated and before reuse requires additional treatment, such as filtration, sedimentation, flocculation, purification, evaporation or chemical cleaning. Cleaning of process water for re-use in itself should be efficient and economical, � the degree of cleaning is determined by the intended use of process water.

One such method is the evaporation with mechanical vapor compression (termocompressive distillation) in which to create a differential pressure and temperature to drive the heat exchanger of the falling film of liquid using a compressor. The compressor creates the pressure drop and temperature to drive the heat exchanger of the falling film of liquid to obtain the product in the form of distilled water of high purity and product in the form of a concentrated salt solution. In the diagram of Fig.14 shows a typical system evaporator with mechanical vapour compression.

Evaporators are widely used in mining and pulp and paper industries as a means of concentration of solids in brine or recovery of water from wastewater. In these cases, the use of solid polluting substances are usually soluble in water. However, the process GZP can contribute pollutants that are not normally present or are present in great concentrations, due to steam injection into an underground reservoir, then extracted in the form of hot water from the produced fluids. At any given time the oil and water soluble solids present in the reservoir, can cause changes in water quality that the standard constructions of the evaporators can lead to operation�operating problems.

In the process of gravity drainage at the injection of steam produced water extracted from fluids produced by a process GZP, and makeup water is added to compensate for losses must be cleaned to remove various contaminants to ensure that this water meets the requirements of feed water for boilers. These contaminants include salts of hardness, silica, minerals and oil residue/asphalt. If, prior to the evaporation of water to remove salt water hardness, silica and minerals, they will okazyvatsya in the boiler, causing the deterioration of heat transfer, lower productivity, higher temperature of the boiler tubes and, ultimately, the output of the boiler failure or extended downtime of the boiler for cleaning and repair. If, prior to the evaporation of water to remove oil residue/asphalt, problems of foaming and plugging in the boiler drum and tubes, which again will lead to disruptions and shutdowns.

In most production systems based on technology GZP extracted for cleaning and make-up water use of hot and warm lime softening in combination with ion-exchange systems using weak acid cation exchanger. However, this process does not allow to obtain high-kolovou feed water and causes the necessary�efficiency of the use of once-through steam generators, which only partially boil the feed water (75-80%) so as to prevent the deposition of scale by maintaining solids in solution in not boiling water. This leads to energy inefficiency and excessive water consumption. Steam generators are made on special orders for the mining of oil Sands, making them very expensive compared to conventional boilers.

Recently some operators technology GZP adopted evaporators falling film of liquid that produce high-quality distilled water for boiler feed water, allowing the shift to a more conventional drum boilers. The combination of evaporators falling film of liquid drum and boilers results in a higher degree of reuse of water in the installation GXP that is becoming more critical environmental aspect.

However, operating companies are finding that the current practice in industry and constructions systems evaporators plant-based GZP had many disadvantages. To improve the current state of the design of the evaporators falling film of liquid to clean water for plants based on technology GZP focus on five Naib�more problematic technical issues, observed in the industry:

- to prevent the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the sump evaporator;

to ensure that the silica, calcium and other water-soluble contaminants were maintained in the solution in order to prevent the formation of scale on heat transfer tubes evaporator;

- choose the materials of construction suitable for the operating conditions, such as high levels of chlorides in the sump evaporator due to the use of non-potable saline make-up water, pH in the pan or the necessity of concentration of salt solution to maximize water reuse;

- to minimize the energy consumption in the water treatment plant in which all the water is evaporated and re-condensed;

- to minimize the possibility of transfer of fluid in a compressor designs with mechanical vapour compression.

The struggle with the accumulation of hydrocarbons

One unique drawback, which is not given attention in the current designs is the trend of residual oil (including hydrocarbons, heavy oil and the emulsifiers/emulsifier technology GZP) to accumulate in the sump evaporator. In typical constructions of the flow of concentrated salt solution is withdrawn from the sump evaporator at parties� injection pumps recirculation evaporator. Due to its lower density oil will slowly grow on the surface of the water in the sump evaporator. In order to deal with the accumulation of pollutants in the sump evaporator, on the discharge side of the pumps circulating salt solution is removed from the system adjustable water volume. However, the oil that accumulates on the surface of the water in the pan, can not enter the recirculation pumps the salt solution, since the suction line of the pump draws from the bottom of the pan evaporator. The accumulation of oil on the surface in the pan will lead to the phenomena of "foaming" in the pan, clogging of heat transfer surfaces and the need to stop evaporation apparatus for the selection of the accumulated oil. The evaporator due to the phenomena of foaming reduces the overall reliability of the installation GZP and reduces the production. One of the purposes of the present invention is the continuous removal of oil that accumulates on the surface in the tray to prevent foaming phenomenon.

The fight against water-soluble pollutants

Work evaporator is a time consuming and laborious work, which must be carefully managed before, after and during it. A typical control scheme for evaporation APPA�ATA consists of the following:

- setpoint purge flow is changed by the operator in response to the result of laboratory analysis of the concentration of solutes in the pan evaporator, i.e., the concentration of dissolved substances (silica, chloride, etc.) is manually adjusted;

the feed water flow rate evaporator is controlled automatically by a level control in the sump in response to level changes in the sump;

- speed and/or position of the guide vanes of the compressor adjusts in response to the water level in the tank distillate;

- the performance of the evaporator in the part of the distillate slowly change in response to the level of the next downstream tank and, eventually, in response to the nutrient level in the tank;

- start and stop evaporator manually with considerable time pressure on the operator; the change of the regime, and especially the triggers and response times immediately after turning off/failure are the most dangerous times in the process plant;

- operators perform manual adjustment costs in order to manage the stocks are higher in the processing chain of the extracted water tank, which feeds the evaporator, and in which is located further downstream of the boiler feedwater tank containing the distillate product�t evaporator.

The aim of the present invention is to provide a control circuit of the technological process, providing management system in a wide range of conditions with minimal need for operator intervention. A typical control scheme requires significant operator intervention as when changing the mode of operation (start, stop, etc.) and periodically during the work for manual adjustment of the feed flow and the partial discharge of recycled water. Improved management will reduce the need for personnel without increasing risk or operating costs and, in fact, can simultaneously reduce risk and labor costs and increase efficiency.

Automatic control of the composition of the contents of the pallet allows the evaporation apparatus to maximize the efficiency of water use or energy depending on what is the most effective limiting factor.

Another objective of the present invention is the continuous removal of oil that accumulates on the surface in the tray to prevent foaming phenomenon.

Another objective of the present invention is a coordinated control of various process units, which would eliminate the need for linear tanks to reduce ripple and noise�and flow, that will reduce capital and operating costs compared to other processes.

Another objective of the present invention is to reduce the risk of damage, injury, decline or environmental incident by reducing the workload of the operator in the most critical moment of time.

These and other objectives of the invention will become apparent to a specialist after reading followed by a brief description of the invention and more detailed description of preferred embodiments illustrated herein.

Summary of the invention

Control circuits and the design of the equipment included in the present invention can easily be adapted to different designs of evaporators with mechanical vapour compression available on the market. The invention is intended specifically to improve the performance of this technology in the installation process GZP.

The solution to the problem of foaming is the continuous removal of oil that accumulates on the surface in the pan. To achieve this, the point of diversion of the salt solution is transferred from the discharge side of the circulation pump brine into the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water, built-in pan evaporator. In the lower part in the form of pan evaporator add vertical�first partition or separating device, separating the tray evaporator or the main tray and a lower tray for partial discharge of recycled water. The main distinguishing feature of the invention is the ability to continuously remove oil from the evaporator through the pallet for a partial discharge of recycled water, and thereby to prevent foaming phenomenon.

In accordance with one primary aspect of the invention proposes a process of water purification in the system of gravity drainage at the injection of steam for the plant for the extraction of heavy oil, and in the process use evaporator and multiple regulators. Evaporator contains the lower part of the pallet is provided in its lower part and containing oil recovery partition, separating the tray to the main tray and a tray for partial discharge of recycled water, and water containing impurities, flows through the partition from the main tray in the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water. In normal operation, the evaporator receives water from the process and produces distilled water, at the same time releasing from the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water discharge saline solution.

In accordance with another alternative embodiment of the invention, the wall between the main tray and a tray for partial discharge of recycled water should �to win in the top of the partition V-neck, to allow the liquid level in the main sump to vary the height of the V-notch variable, but a continuous flow of saline solution into the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water. The location of the overflow partition provides continuous removal of the evaporator of any of the hydrocarbons floating on top of water in the main pan, together with waste brine, as well as the elimination of foaming problems associated with the hydrocarbon, and stops the installation related to the foaming problem.

These contain several controllers:

the flow of distilled water, provided at the output of the evaporator;

a partial reset flow meter recycled water, measuring the flow rate on the discharge side of the pump partial discharge of recycled water;

calculator cycles, intended for the calculation of the relationship between the flow rate of distilled water and the flow rate of the partial discharge of recycled water and the total flow rate controller.

In this case, the calculator cycles sets the setpoint for controller total expenditure; thus, the flow of water in the evaporator does not directly depend on the liquid level in the main sump. In addition, the work of the evaporator occurs in the closed circuit condition.

In accordance with another aspect nastojasih� of the invention used in the process tank distillate, in which take distilled water, and the distillate tank contains a level control designed to regulate the production of distilled water. This distillate tank is the only major capacity for damping flow pulsations in the process.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, these are some of the regulators also have a hardness regulator, the regulator of silicon dioxide and a pH regulator. The hardness slider controls the setpoint of the regulator cycles that affect the flow of makeup water to the process to maintain the target concentration of hardness salts in the sump evaporator and adjustable to suit changes in the concentration of salts in the feed water evaporator. The pH controller regulates the flow of caustic soda in the feed water evaporator in order to achieve the target pH values in accordance with the specifications. The target pH value in accordance with the technical conditions is calculated from the concentration of silicon dioxide in the controller that determines the set point for pH regulator, and regulate given the concentration in the sump due to the removal of the distillate. The goal is to have the pH in the sump to maintain adequate safe margin in relation to the point at which dioxide.�I will begin to precipitate from solution. Fig.13 illustrates the dependence of the solubility of silicon dioxide on pH.

Preferably, evaporator receives water from the plant to remove oil or otation with gas sparging, which specifies the flow rate of feed water to provide the required flow to the flotation gas sparging or from it.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the evaporator is characterized by two additional modes:

1) off mode;

2) the recirculation mode.

In idle mode, the flow in the evaporator or missing from it, while in recirculation mode the distilled water is recycled to the evaporator inlet, and these modes run at start-up evaporator, when you stop evaporator, the loss of flow, and in response to a failure in the system, for example, a malfunction of the compressor, the failure of the pump or a malfunction of the boiler. Evaporator can be operated in these modes automatically or by the operator.

Preferably, the recirculated air is used during the stop and after a failure, e.g., failure of the boiler, and the off mode is used after a failure of the compressor.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the system includes the following stages: if disabled, the system switches to Arab�chii mode, then in the recirculation mode and, finally, in normal operating mode. In this approach, careful selection of modes reduces operational risks for the system and staff performance and smooth compared to evaporators with one mode.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention presented above, the system can be set to block mobile/mobile system GZP for heavy oil production.

Direct regulation of the water balance controller cycles is unique. It provides very fast integrated management area water treatment installation. Normal regulation of the mass balance usually leads to large fluctuations in levels and reduces the total reaction time of the process.

Recirculated air mode is new and unique. It reduces operational risk during starts, stops and after disconnection. After a significant event in any place in the installation, for example, after you turn off the boiler, evaporator can be converted to recirculation mode. After disconnecting the compressor evaporator can be translated into idle mode in a hot condition. Similarly, the start menu displays the evaporator from the stop in idle mode in a hot condition, then in the recirculation mode and then to normal operation. These intermediate modes reduce �providing time for the operator and provide smoother starts.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig.1 is a diagram of the flow of water in the water purification plant.

Fig.1A presents a schematic view of the evaporation apparatus.

Fig.1B presents a schematic view of a partition with V-neck and without a V-neck.

Fig.2 is a diagram of a level control in the sump evaporator.

Fig.3 is a diagram of regulating the hardness.

Fig.4 is a diagram of pH regulation.

Fig.5 is a diagram of a level control in the tank distillate.

Fig.6 is a diagram of a level control in the boiler feedwater tank.

Fig.7-10 presents the block diagram of boiler feedwater regulation.

Fig.11 shows a block diagram of the partial regulation of the discharge of recycled water.

Fig.12 presents a block diagram of the regulation of silicon dioxide in the pan evaporator.

Fig.13 is a graph illustrating the dependence of the solubility of silicon dioxide on pH.

Fig.14 shows a schematic view of a typical system evaporator with mechanical vapour compression, known in the art.

Detailed description of the invention

The solution to the problem of foaming of oil in the pan lies in the continuous removal of oil that accumulates on the surface in the pan. To achieve wook�ƈ effect the point of diversion of the salt solution is transferred from the discharge side of the circulation pump brine into the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water, built-in pan evaporator. In the lower part in the form of pan evaporator adds a vertical wall or partition structure dividing it into the tray evaporator or the main tray and a lower tray for partial discharge of recycled water.

Preferably, the partition contains also V-neck, as shown in Fig.1B. The goal of this cut is to create a flow of salt solution and collected oil, continuously overflowing from the main tray in the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water. V-neck on the partition provides a more smooth control of the level in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water, because when you change the speed of transfusion when you move the level up and down within the height of the V-shaped neckline, the level in the main sump may vary slightly, while continuing to maintain the flow in the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water.

Continuous removal of oil will prevent the phenomenon of "foaming" in the evaporator. When oil accumulates on the surface in the pan, she acts like a surfactant and may�esti to contamination by hydrocarbons of the heat exchanger tubes or foaming on the water surface. Foaming increases the probability of transfer of liquid droplets in the suction line of a steam compressor evaporator that could cause tripping or damage to the steam compressor. When the foaming operators will add extra anti-foam chemicals. However, this is at best a temporary solution, and eventually evaporator still have to stop in order to remove accumulated oil and/or clean evaporator. Regular the need to stop the evaporator reduces the reliability of the installation GZP and reduces the volume of production. While ensuring the continuous flow of oil and brine in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water, the current design will prevent the buildup of oil in the main sump. Continuous flow will occur with the oil, which over time will slowly accumulate a small amount of residual oil in the feed water evaporator. In addition, it will occur immediately with large amounts of oil in the feed water evaporator which may be present in case of failure to in the evaporator system of removal of oil from produced water.

As already noted, in the current design in lower part in the form of a pallet �Hypernova apparatus is added, a vertical septum or partition structure, as illustrated in Fig.1A, dividing it into the tray evaporator or the main tray and a lower tray for partial discharge of recycled water. The oil that accumulates on the surface in the main tray, continuously flows into the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water and is removed from the system as part of a partial reset flow of circulating water. The level in the main tray is not adjustable on a continuous mark, but slightly "floats" within the height of V-neck depending on the flow rate at the inlet of the evaporator and the flow rate of the salt solution on the issue. The level in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water to regulate very strictly in order to provide a direct indication of flow from the main sump evaporator tray in the partial discharge of recycled water.

Regulators evaporator

Control of the rate of evaporation is relatively new. Mode of the compressor is controlled through level control in the tank distillate. The level in the distillate tank is the main tank for damping flow pulsations in the process and therefore needs to be carefully controlled in order to maximize the damping of pulsation flow between the evaporator unit and the boiler (boilers). The level control will not be used conventional proportional-integral-differential and�of gorithm, and he will be a nonlinear controller with speed limit. Regulation of feed water is different from the usual. The level in the sump evaporator is not directly manages the flow of feed water. In fact, there is no direct control by the pallet or even a mandatory measure. The level in the sump evaporator is the result of a control circuit, described below. The level in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water to regulate very strictly. This provides a direct indication of flow from the main sump evaporator tray in the partial discharge of recycled water.

In addition, measure the distillate stream in a distillate tank. These two streams allows direct calculation cycles of the evaporator, which is the ratio of distillate flow to the flow of the partial discharge of recycled water. The level in the pan can be deduced indirectly from the stream of partial discharge of recycled water, as the flow in the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water from the main sump is a function of the level in the main sump.

The calculation cycles evaporator used soft-sensors for pH in the pan, silicon dioxide in the pan and hardness salts in the pan. In the results of the soft-sensors amended for laboratory re�ulttam if any.

The calculation of the stiffness in the pan is used by the controller stiffness in the pan to control the setpoint of the regulator cycles. Fewer cycles will lead to a lower concentration of hardness salts in the pan, and a larger number of cycles will raise the hardness level.

The concentration of silicon dioxide in the pan will be used to determine the setpoint of the pH regulator in the pan. The pH regulator in the pan, in turn, will determine the setpoint of the pH regulator, which will regulate the consumption of caustic soda in the pan evaporator.

The controller cycles will directly regulate the water balance of the installation by setting the setpoint for the total discharge in the water treatment section of the installation. The total flow rate regulator under normal conditions will regulate the flow rate of feed water in above downstream otation with gas sparging, and only in terms of failure to send the water into the tank produced water or out of it. This design eliminates the need for linear capacity for damping flow pulsations.

Level in the flotation gas sparging will be very hard to regulate by regulating the flow in the evaporator. It will successfully pass the adjustment performed by the controller in cumulative expense CP�zu after their implementation.

Changing mode

Automatic procedures will be defined for start, stop, reaction to shut off the compressor, disconnect the pump brine, boiler/waste heat boiler and the loss of feed to the plant. Although to automate all the stages, many of them will be automated, while others will be checked automatically controlling and measuring devices in order to ensure that the operator has implemented the right manual action.

In particular, the evaporator is characterized by two operating modes located between the stop and normal operation that can be maintained indefinitely. These two modes allow for evaporator "safe Parking place", if the operator need to check other problematic aspects of the installation. This is off mode in the hot condition and recirculated air mode.

Off mode in the hot condition

In this mode, the flows in the evaporator and it stopped, brine recycle, compressor off, and to maintain evaporator add hot vapor under low pressure. Most authorities are also in the standby mode, mainly in auto, but with zero flows.

Recirculated air mode

In this mode itself is evaporating devices� works fine. Streams flow and partial discharge of recycled water is normal, the compressor runs and retrieves the distillate. The distillate recycle pressure-side feed pumps boiler tank in the extracted water. Feed water evaporator are selected from the extracted water tank.

The main advantages of this control scheme:

(a) reducing operating costs due to the cooling and re-heating of water flowing through the tanks for damping flow pulsations;

(b) in addition, further advantages of various aspects of the scheme of management;

c) off mode in the hot condition and mode of recycling: reduce risk, since the smaller the workload on the operator and the voltage during periods of malfunction of the installation/process;

(d) automated procedures: reducing the risk (for the same reason);

(e) closed-loop control of the concentration of solutes in the pan: reliability, duration, time of installation and operating costs: the installation can stably operate closer to the limit without deposition of solids on the heat exchanger; and

(f) direct regulation of water balance in plants: efficiency, since in normal operation, the installation will not have an excess or shortage of water. Only in case of failures in RA�OTE or abnormal modes of operation will be a need for capacity for damping flow pulsations. The exception of linear capacity for damping flow pulsations is unique to this process, and to work with the high costs of the process requires direct control of the water balance. Without this, there will be continuous fluctuations in levels and flows in the installation.

The control circuit (Fig.2, 3, 4)

This part of the apparatus receives purified water from oil from the section of removal of oil from produced water installation and fresh make-up water from water wells. The intent of this section removal of oil from produced water is:

(a) adding to the process the required amount of make-up water;

b) decrease of the concentration of hydrocarbons in produced water with 500 million-1up to 30 million-1;

c) providing a desired flow of feed water to the evaporator unit;

(d) treatment of the extracted water (decrease of the concentration of silicon dioxide, salts and hydrocarbons); and

(e) the production of boiler feed water of high purity.

Main equipment:

(a) evaporating the extracted water drum, 13-V-03 (preferably, carbon steel);

(b) a flotation gas sparging, 13-X-01 (preferably wetted parts: two-phase stainless steel, vessel: carbon steel);

(c) the extracted water tank, 13-T-01 (preferably, carbon steel);

(d) efflux pumps of flotation unit with gas�enjoyed bubbling, 13-P-02A/B (body: carbon steel, wetted parts: two-phase stainless steel);

(e) transfer pumps from the tank produced water, 13-P-04 (body: carbon steel, wetted parts: two-phase stainless steel);

f) a set of evaporator, 14-X-01, including:

(g) nutrient linear mixer, 14-MX-01;

h) evaporator, 14-V-01, preferably made of two-phase stainless steel or alloy AL6XN;

(i) the circulation pump brine, 14-P-01A/B, preferably made of two-phase stainless steel or alloy AL6XN;

(j) a steam compressor, evaporator, 14-C-01;

k) distillate tank 14-V-02;

l) block chemicals for water treatment, 14-X-02 (caustic soda, antifoaming agent and an inhibitor of scale formation);

(m) pumps product distillate, 14-P-02A/B;

n) pumps brine, 14-P-03A/B, preferably made of two-phase stainless steel or alloy AL6XN;

o) chiller partial reset evaporator, 14-E-01;

(p) industrial water chiller, 14-E-02.

The purpose of this section:

(a) provide high-level technological overview of the system components removal of oil from produced water and water treatment systems;

(b) to explain how the system adds the feed water to maintain a constant water flow in the installation flotec�and with gas sparging and evaporator;

c) explain how to determine the costs of feed water and a soft reset in order to maintain the desired concentration of hardness salts in the evaporator (which will prevent contamination of equipment);

(d) explain how in the evaporator will regulate pH for holding silica in solution.

The overall objective of this part of the installation is to maintain the water balance of the installation and to maximize the concentration of pollutants in the water evaporator, which minimizes the partial reset flow evaporator and the flow of feed water, but to maintain the concentration below the point at which the salt will begin to precipitate in the evaporator and the chiller and cause contamination problems.

There are four basic controller, discussed in detail in this statement:

(a) the level control in the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water (Fig.2): the purpose of this controller will be to maintain the level in the tray by regulating the flow of saline solution dispensed from the pallet;

(b) the hardness slider (Fig.3): the purpose of this controller will be to maintain the concentration of the salt solution in accordance with the setpoint low enough to prevent precipitation of hardness salts on the inner portion of the evaporator, but still fairly small�chno high, to optimize the characteristics of the evaporator. Required value of the setpoint concentration will be determined during the development of the working documentation and test process implementation;

(c) feed water regulator: the purpose of this controller will be to maintain a steady flow of water into the flotation gas sparging and maintaining the water balance of the installation. Under abnormal conditions of operation, this regulator will take away water from the tank produced water 13-T-01 or to apply the water;

(d) a pH regulator (Fig.4): the purpose of this controller will be to maintain the pH of the brine evaporator at a level high enough to prevent deposition of silicon dioxide on the inner part of the inlet.

In this part of the installation there are other major control loops, which will not be considered.

Evaporative drum produced water

The extraction of water from the vessel of sand removal/separation of oil and water/purifier enters the system of removal of oil from produced water. This stream is mixed with makeup water from the makeup water pumps (42-P-01/02) and with the resulting liquefied waste gas from the condenser (15-E-02). Then this mixed stream enters the evaporator drum produced water (13-V-03) together with partial discharge of recycled water from the cat�and (15-B-01) block and partial discharge of recycled water from the steam drum of the waste heat boiler (40-V-01). These streams are vaporized at a constant pressure of -5 kPa for cooling the vapor and ensure that the equipment further evaporation will not occur.

Flotation with gas sparging

Then the fluid flow enters the plant flotation with gas sparging. The purpose of flotation with gas sparging to reduce the concentration of oil in produced water with 500 million-1(coming from the cooling system and separation at the entrance) to 30 million-1(the concentration required for water treatment system). It is expected that concentrations of oil at the inlet will vary from 500 million-1to 1150 million-1. The concentration of oil at the inlet 500 million-1will indicate normal operation, and the concentration of oil 1150 mn-1will be calculated case of malfunction. A flotation gas sparging uses microbubbles natural gas for lifting oil in the upper part of the chambers of the receptacle 13-V-01 flotation with gas sparging, where it is collected and discharged into the drum 13-V-02 collected oil. Collected oil/water pumps 13-P-03A/B oil back to the inlet of the vessel, removal of sand/oil separation and water/cleaner. The removal of oil is carried out in several consecutive chambers inside the flotation unit with gas sparging.

If additional sub-cooling, is in�possibility to additionally submit the feed water to the inlet of the flotation gas sparging. If this thread add make-up water, adding make-up water to flow into the evaporative drum produced water will be reduced by an equivalent amount to maintain mass balance constant.

Feed water evaporator

Clean, with a remote oil water coming out of the otation with gas sparging, is divided into two streams: the main stream and 35% of the recirculating flow. The recirculation flow is used to generate a source of bubbles for flotation with gas sparging and sent back to the entrance and into the chamber of the flotation unit with gas sparging.

Cleaned from oil produced water is fed to a suction pump 13-P-02A/B otation with gas sparging. Then purified from oil produced water flows into the evaporator unit 14-X-01. Tank 13-T-01 produced water is used as capacity for damping flow pulsations only under abnormal conditions. Signal to the transmission of water extracted water into the tank or out of it will come from the regulator of water balance. The controls in the tank produced water will reduce the rate of extraction, if the level in the tank becomes too high.

Evaporator

The evaporator unit handles the flow of feed water containing dissolved solids and produces a distillate of sufficient quality for use in �otle block. In addition, the unit creates a stream of concentrated waste water. The extraction of water efflux pumps 13-P-02A/B otation gas bubbling is supplied to the block boundary. In the feed water evaporator, different chemical substances are added. For pH regulation in order to ensure the retention of silica in solution, add caustic soda (NaOH). Caustic soda is supplied from the tank 14-T-01 storage of caustic soda pumps 14-P-04A/B/C caustic soda. To reduce foaming in the evaporator, and reducing fluid carryover into the steam compressor add antifoaming agent. Antifoaming agent supplied from the tank 14-T-02 defoaming means of pumps 14-P-05A/B defoaming means. To minimize scale build-up in heat exchanger evaporator can add the inhibitor of the formation of deposits. Inhibitor formation of deposits stored in the tank 14-T-03 of inhibitor formation of deposits and fed by pumps 14-P-06A/B inhibitor formation of deposits. Tanks defoaming means and inhibitor formation of deposits made with the possibility of withdrawal. To ensure adequate mixing these chemicals with a nutrient water nutrient use linear mixer 14-MX-01.

Then the feed water fed into the sump evaporator. Circulation pumps 14-P-01A/B hydrochloric�solution is pumped brine from the sump evaporator in the upper part of heat exchanger evaporator. The salt solution flows through the tube side of heat exchanger evaporator falling film of liquid, where a small mass of evaporates. The remaining liquid flows back to the sump. Pairs, separated from the falling salt solution fed into the steam compressor 14-C-01 evaporator. Steam compressor evaporator raises the temperature and pressure of steam and will require a variable frequency drive motor. Compressed vapor is condensed in winetroube area of heat exchanger evaporator, and the steam generated from the falling liquid film on the tube side. The distillate from winetroube zone of the heat exchanger evaporator drains by gravity into the tank 14-V-02 distillate, the distillate will also be used as flush water for the mist eliminator. Flowing the distillate stream will be cooled to ~48°C in the cooler 14-E-02 service water and service water header. The temperature will be controlled by the control loop of temperature, regulating the quantity of cooling glycol flowing through the heat exchanger.

Concentrated brine will flow through the baffle in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water. The material partial reset is pumped by pumps 14-P-03A/B salt solution through the cooler 14-E-01 partial reset in�pair of the apparatus and passed into tank 43-T-01 water to remove. The temperature controller will maintain the temperature of the water for removal by adjusting the flow of glycol through the cooler. The process is designed so that the evaporator is characterized by one non-working mode in the hot condition and one recirculation. In the idle mode in a hot condition is recirculation of brine through the evaporator at idle the steam compressor. To compensate for any heat loss order to maintain the evaporator is warm, use technical pairs. The water resulting from condensation of steam goes into the tank distillate. Recirculated air mode provides for the production of distillate when operating the steam compressor evaporator and the distillate back to the sump evaporator. The distillate will be sent on the discharge side of the pumps 15-P-01A/B boiler feed water high pressure in tank water and extracted back to the sump on the power supply line evaporator. To prevent increasing the temperature and pressure evaporator, requires the vent from the tank produced water and/or the outlet of the compressor evaporator. To compensate for the water lost to the ventilation flow, the addition of salt make-up water.

In the subsequent sections describe�Xia controls, associated with the evaporator unit:

(a) the level control in the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water (Fig.11);

(b) the controller stiffness;

(c) feed water regulator;

(d) a pH regulator.

Regulation of feed water is different from the usual. The level in the sump evaporator is not directly manages the flow of feed water. In fact, there is no direct control by the pallet or even a mandatory measure. The level in the sump evaporator is the result of the following control scheme.

The level control in the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water (Fig.2)

In the pan evaporator, the liquid will flow through the partition section circulation section for a partial discharge of recycled water evaporator. The ratio of height of the liquid to the liquid flow through the partition with straight edge is very limited and difficult adjustable. Therefore, to help this regulation, will be used to partition with V-neck. The level in the pan for a partial discharge of recycled water will be maintained by the controller 14-LC-001 level (or XXX). The output signal of the regulator is to control the control valve in the line partial discharge of recycled water leading into the tank 43-T-01 water to remove. The level in the pan to partially reset �borotou regulate water is very hard. This provides a direct indication of flow from the main sump evaporator tray in the partial discharge of recycled water and, consequently, the direction of level in the main sump evaporator.

Start, stop, and shutdown

The start of this controller should be executed when the level control in automatic mode. Pumps the salt solution should not run while in the pan evaporator is not installed level. For most conditions, the level control may then remain in automatic mode.

The hardness slider (Fig.3)

For the purpose of ensuring execution of the immediate calculation cycles evaporator, measure the flow rate of the distillate in the distillate tank and the flow rate of the partial discharge of recycled water. The calculation cycles of the evaporator in turn used to develop hardness salts in the pan together with the specific conductivity of the feed water, 14-AI-xxx. In the derived value amended on laboratory results, if any in stock. The calculation of the stiffness in the pan 14-AY-xxx is used as the technological value of hardness regulator in the pan 14-AC-xxx to control the setpoint of the regulator 14-FFC-023 cycles. Fewer cycles will lead to a lower concentration of hardness salts in the pan, and a higher number of cycles pods�et level of stiffness. Controller 14-FFC-023 cycles will control the setpoint of the regulator 13-FC-037A total flow rate.

Start, stop, and shutdown

There are a number of input signals to the control circuit for the partial discharge of recycled water. Before putting the system into operation, the operational staff will be required to ensure proper operation of all associated instrumentation. In case of instrumentation showing incorrect values, in the digital control system will have pre-programmed default values. Provided that all instrumentation is functioning properly and the tray evaporator filled, this controller can be switched to automatic mode. When you stop or disable this control scheme, it is recommended to withdraw from automatic mode.

The feed water regulator

The controller cycles will directly regulate the water balance of the installation by setting the setpoint for the total flow section of the water treatment installation, 13-FC-037A. The total flow rate regulator under normal conditions will directly adjust the flow rate of feed water and only in the context of failure to send the water into the tank produced water or out of it. The flow rate of the makeup water will be equal to the setpoint of the regulator total R�vanishing minus water and extracted partial discharge of recycled water. Thus, the total flow rate controller regulates the total flow section of the water treatment installation. The first installation of water treatment is the installation of a flotation gas sparging or WFGB. Level in the flotation gas sparging will be very hard to regulate by regulating the flow in the evaporator. It will successfully pass the adjustment performed by the controller in cumulative expense immediately after their implementation. In the flotation gas sparging there is no significant capacity for damping flow pulsations.

The extracted water tank (airborne) will be used only in two exceptional cases:

a) due to the shutting down of the boiler or evaporator or a short-term outage of the produced water entering the process, more than it takes in feed water quality evaporator for purification for use as boiler feedwater. In this case, the water will be directed into the tank produced water;

(b) the water from the separator of oil and water does not meet the technical conditions and from water wells can be extracted insufficient amount of water. In this case, the water will be taken from the tank produced water.

If the level in the tank produced water becomes too high, the regulator 13-LC-018 level will begin to decrease the production from the wells by increasing the pressure input�th separator (10-V-01). In the case of the low level alarm will alert the operator about the need to respond accordingly by reducing the fuel consumption of the boiler before you turn off the transfer pump 13-P-04 tank produced water.

PH (Fig.4)

the pH of the feed water evaporator will be a critical parameter to prevent clogging of the internal parts evaporator silicon dioxide. Silicon dioxide will remain in solution, provided that the pH in the vessel will maintain quite high. The concentration of silicon dioxide in the pan will be used to determine the setpoint of the pH regulator in the pan. As the concentration of silicon dioxide in the pan, and pH in the sump will be calculated similarly to the calculation of the stiffness in the pan. The pH regulator in the pan, 14-AC-xxx, will in turn determine the setpoint pH controller input, 14-AC-002, which will regulate the consumption of caustic soda in the pan evaporator.

The target pH value in accordance with the technical conditions is calculated from the concentration of silicon dioxide in the controller that determines the set point for pH regulator, and regulate given the concentration in the sump due to the removal of the distillate. The aim is to maintain the pH in the sump at a level that provides a safe margin in relation to the point at which d�silicon oxide will begin to precipitate from solution. Fig.13 shows the dependence of the solubility of silicon dioxide on pH.

Start, stop, and shutdown

Like the partial discharge of recycled water, there are a number of input signals to the control circuit. Before putting the system into operation, the operational staff will be required to ensure proper operation of all associated instrumentation. In case of instrumentation showing incorrect values, in the digital control system will have pre-programmed default values. Provided that all instrumentation is functioning properly and the tray evaporator filled, this controller can be switched to automatic mode. When you stop or disable this control scheme, it is recommended to withdraw from automatic mode.

The preferred mode of operation of a water treatment plant

Equipment in these areas of the unit and, in turn, covered by the description of management that includes:

(CPV stands for "boiler feed water")

(a) distillate Tank - 14-V-02;

(b) Steam compressor evaporator - 14-C-01;

c) Pumps product-distillate - 14-P-02A/B;

(d) Vaporization:

e) Backw-15-T-01;

f) Pumps CPW high pressure - 15-P-01A/B;

(g) Auxiliary pump 15 CPW-P-0;

(h) Discharge capacitor - 15-E-02;

(i) the boiler is 15-X-01 unit, consisting of the following:

(j) Steam drum - 15-V-01;

k) Boiler-15-B-01;

(l) Heater - 15-E-01.

The purpose of this section:

(a) provide high-level technological overview of the components of the CPW feed system;

(b) explain how CPW directly served from the distillate tank to the boiler using the tank CPW as the volume of the buffer.

This part of the setup will extract the water from the distillate tank as needed to deliver water directly to the boiler. In the case of a small sharp increase or decrease in requirements, the system will respond with speed control or position the inlet guide vanes of a steam compressor evaporator. If need change occurs faster than it can answer the compressor, evaporator, the system will direct or divert water from the tank CPV until the compressor catches up. The controls on the foredeck, in the end, will return the level to the setpoint, slowly feeding and taking water from the system. The controls associated with the equipment in the evaporator, 14-V-01 and before him, will implement regulation to maintain a reliable supply of distillate.

General management goal for this part of the installation is to feed into the boiler required CMP to ensure that he could produce� pairs in the desired injection quantity.

There are two primary regulator, as detailed below:

the level control in the tank distillate and the minimum flow rate controller for pumps (Fig.5): the purpose of this controller is to maintain the level in the tank distillate in accordance with the setpoint for all failure conditions of work (large or small), providing the minimum flow rate for pumps;

the level control in the tank CPW (Fig.6): the purpose of this controller is to maintain the level in the tank, without affecting the rest of the system.

Process description

The distillate produced in the block 14 X-01 evaporator. Water condensate flows by gravity into the tank of distillate. The rate of evaporation and the subsequent production of distillate is determined mainly by the speed of the steam compressor evaporator, the position of the inlet guide vanes and the amount of heat added to the system. Water is pumped from the tank distillate into the boiler by two groups of pumps mounted in series: pumps product distillate and pumps boiler feedwater high-pressure (HP). Pumps CPW VD raise the pressure to CPW 5 790 kPa and the distillate is pumped through the inlet coolers 10-E-01A/B for heat recovery. Normal temperature CPW output input coolers would be approximately 145°C. the preheated �PV VD will be sent directly to the boiler unit, based on the needs established by the control valve level of the steam drum. With increasing and reducing the need for boiler about what is served evaporation apparatus, the water will be directed into the tank CPW and out of it. The level in the tank CPW will be maintained at the level of approximately 80% of the range.

The boiler is characterized by drum design and produce steam under pressure 4 200 kPa and superheated at 25°C to prevent condensation in the steam line extending in the grounds of the well. The combustion air is heated to 90°C by means of heat recovery from return flow of glycol to the heater 15-E-01.

The steam drum is characterized by a medium level of partial discharge of recycled water, component 2%, and a specified amount recycled in the process through a flash drum 13-V-03.

Part of the steam under pressure 4 200 kPa is lowered to a pressure of 500 kPa and cooled with heat overheating of boiler feed water high pressure for use as a technical pair. Most of this steam is used in water treatment system for start-up evaporator. A steam header receives steam from the heat recovery boiler 40-X-01, utilizing heat from a gas turbine to generate electricity for the needs at the site.

Management philosophy

This section�l devoted to the following authorities:

(a) the level control in the tank distillate and minimum flow rate for pumps and

(b) level control in the tank CPW.

The level control in the tank distillate and minimum flow rate for the pumps (Fig.5)

The controls for the boiler are standard and included by the supplier in the delivery. The consumption of CPV in the steam drum will be regulated by the valve drum level. CPW will be fed from the distillate tank to the boiler by means of pumps installed in series. Need change the boiler will directly affect the level in the tank distillate. The level in the tank will be regulated through two level controls, 14-LC-042 and 14-LC-043.

The output from the first regulator 14-LC-042 will be associated with the controller 14-SC-044-speed steam compressor evaporator and 15-FV-007 (through block 15-FY-007 high level) in the line going from the pressure side of the pumps of the product distillate tank in CPW. Controller 14-LC-042 will be configured sensitive, because the tank is small distillate and the reaction to perturbations have to be quick. The compressor will not be able to regulate its speed is very fast. In the case of a sharp rise in demand for CPV level in the tank distillate starts to rise. When the level of the regulator 14-LC-042 will require the compressor to slow down. If the compressor is not acreage�run fast enough, the output signal of the 14-LC-042 will then trigger the opening of the block 15-FV-007 for the distillate could be directed into the tank CPW.

In the case of sharp reduction requirements CPW level in the tank distillate will start to fall. In the fall of the level controller 14-LC-042 will require the compressor to increase the speed. If the level will continue to fall, 14-LC-042 triggered the alarm low level. This will signal the start for the auxiliary pump PDF. Then the second level controller 14-LC-043 will begin to open 15-LV-027 (through block 15-LY-027 high level) in the line going from the pressure side of the auxiliary pump CPW to the suction side of pumps CPW high pressure.

The minimum flow through the pumps of the product distillate will be maintained with the help of the regulator 14-FC-008. The output signal from this controller will control 14-FV-008 that will allow the distillate to circulate from the discharge side of the pumps of the product distillate back into the tank distillate. The minimum flow through the pumps CPW high pressure will be maintained by the controller 15-FC-007. The output signal from this controller will control 15-FV-007 (through block 15-FY-007 high level) that will allow CPW (distillate) leaking from the discharge side of pumps CPW high pressure in tank CPW.

The level control in the tank CPW (Fig.6, 7-10)

The level in the tank CPW will be maintained at the level of approximately 80%. If the level falls, the output signal of the level control will increase slowly in order to open the valve for feeding CPW in the tank. So as not to make a failure in the CPV system, the regulator will be upset in order to match the dynamics of the vapor compressor evaporator. If the level rises above 85%, the controller will not be used to start the auxiliary pump CPW to slowly lower the level in the tank.

The output signal from 15-LC-027 go to 15-FV-007 and 15-LV-027 through blocks 15-FY-007 and 15-LY-027 high level, respectively. 15-LC-027 will be configured to not allow the change of the flow into the tank CPW and it exceeded the response time of the speed controller steam compressor evaporator. When the measured level will match the setpoint, the output signal from 15-LC-027 will be at the level of 50% and, therefore, will not require the opening of 15-FV-007 or 15-LV-027.

If the level in the tank is above the setpoint by more than 5% automatically starts the auxiliary pump CPV, the output signal from the controller 15-LC-027 will start to grow, and 15-LV-027 (through block 15-LY-027 high level) will open. This will allow CPW to leak from the tank CPW on the suction side of the pumps CPW high pressure. After �level in the tank CPW drops to the level within 1% of setpoint, auxiliary pump CPW will turn off automatically. If the level in the tank will be below the setpoint, the output signal from the regulator will decrease, and 15-FV-007 (through block 15-FY-007 high level) will begin to open. This will allow CPW to leak from the discharge side of pumps CPW high pressure in tank CPW. After the level in the tank will match the setpoint, 15-LC-027 will close the valve.

Start, stop, and shutdown/crashes

In the event of a power boiler will the following events occur:

(a) programming minimum flow will direct CPV in tank CPW;

(b) the level will rise in the tank distillate, thereby causing a deceleration of the vapor compressor evaporator;

(c) the level will rise in the evaporator. This will cause the system to select the feed water and to send the extracted water extracted water into the tank;

(d) operating personnel must observe the level in the tank CPW, as it probably will be the first tank in which is reached the upper limit level. At this point, the evaporator must be provided in the recirculation mode, and the extracted water is sent directly into the tank produced water.

At start-up evaporator is usually to be launched in the recirculation mode, in which CPW circulating pump product distillate and pumps CPW high pressure in tank CPW and then back �and the suction side of the pumps CPW high pressure. After starting the boiler, the level in the tank CPW must be lowered before the oscillation of the distillate entering the CPV pumps high pressure. At this point, all controllers must be translated into automatic mode and the system will slowly increase productivity with increasing needs of the boiler.

These and other benefits of the disclosed system and its parts and especially the elimination of unnecessary heaters, coolers and storage tanks make it suitable for use in mobile and modular system GZP in which the size of the equipment is a primary factor.

Since in a preferred variant embodiment of the invention can be made many changes within the scope of the invention, all aspects included in the present description should be considered to illustrate the invention and not in the sense of limiting its scope.

1. The system of pollution control for evaporative purification process of water in the system GZP (gravity drainage at the injection of steam) for the installation for the extraction of heavy oil containing evaporator and multiple regulators;
moreover, the evaporator contains the lower part of the pallet is provided in its lower part and containing oil recovery partition, separating the tray to the main tray and a tray for partial reset circulating in�s, moreover, water containing impurities, flows through the partition from the main tray in the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water;
moreover, in normal operation, the evaporator receives water from the process and produces distilled water from the distillate tank and produces a discharge brine from the sump for a partial discharge of recycled water; and these contain several controllers:
the flow of distilled water, provided at the output of the evaporator;
a partial reset flow meter recycled water, measuring the flow from the main tray in the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water;
calculator cycles, intended for the calculation of the relationship between the flow rate of distilled water and the flow rate of the partial discharge of recycled water and the total flow rate controller;
and calculator cycles sets the setpoint for controller total expenditure; thus, the flow of water in the evaporator does not directly depend on the liquid level in the main sump; and the work of the evaporator occurs in the closed circuit condition.

2. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a distillate tank, which take distilled water, and the distillate tank contains a level control designed to regulate the energy that is served in �Epernay apparatus for the production of distilled water, moreover, distillate tank is the only major capacity for damping flow pulsations in the process.

3. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that said two or more controllers further contain a hardness regulator, the regulator of silicon dioxide and the pH controller and pH controller regulates the flow of caustic soda in the pan evaporator, the controller of silicon dioxide determines the set point for the pH and the hardness slider controls the setpoint of the regulator cycles that affect the flow of makeup water in the process.

4. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that the evaporator receives the above on a stream of water from the treatment plants, and the set flow rate of feed water so as to provide the flow rate required in the installation of water treatment.

5. A system according to any one of claims.1-4, characterized in that the evaporator has two additional modes: idle mode and recirculated air mode; wherein in the idle mode, the flow in the evaporator or missing from it, while in recirculation mode the distilled water is recycled to the evaporator inlet; and these modes run at start-up evaporator, when you stop evaporator, the loss of flow, and in response to a failure in the system, for example, a malfunction of the compressor, the failure of the pump or a malfunction of the boiler; p�eacham evaporator can be operated in these modes automatically or by the operator.

6. A system according to claim 5, characterized in that the recirculated air is used during the procedure stops and after a failure, e.g., failure of the boiler, and the off mode is used after a failure of the compressor.

7. A system according to claim 5, characterized in that the system includes the following stages: if disabled, the system switch in off mode, then the recirculated air mode and, finally, in normal operating mode, and the careful choice of modes reduces operational risks for the system and staff performance and smooth compared to evaporators with one mode.

8. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall between the main tray and a tray for partial discharge of the circulating water shall contain in the upper part of the septum V-neck, to allow the level in the main sump to vary the height of the V-notch variable, but a continuous flow of saline solution into the tray for a partial discharge of recycled water, the location of the overflow partition provides continuous removal of the evaporator of any of the hydrocarbons floating on top of water in the main pan, together with waste brine, as well as the elimination of foaming problems associated with hydrocarbon, and stops the installation-related problem www�desertication.

9. A system according to any one of claims.1-4, characterized in that the components are installed in a block of mobile/mobile system GZP for heavy oil production.



 

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EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: food and pharmaceutical industries; water filtration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of purification of liquids and is dealt with filtration, in particular with the methods of purification of liquids from impurities. It may be used in the systems of industrial and household water supply in food and pharmaceutical industries. The method of liquids purification includes a partial shutting off a trunk of the unpurified liquid, delivery of the unpurified liquid in a trunk of the unpurified liquid and to the filtration element - in a trunk of purified liquid. Before the unpurified liquid delivery into the trunks of the unpurified and purified liquids it is passing through an ejector. The technical result is an increased convenience in operation and productivity of purification due to simultaneous outflow of both purified and unpurified liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of convenience in operation and productivity of purification of liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

6 dwg

FIELD: water-supply engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing hardness salts from regenerates and can be used in water treatment processes in heat-and-power engineering, chemical, petrochemical, food, and other industries provided with ion-exchange water-desalting filters. Method is accomplished by precipitation of hardness salts involving recycle of precipitate treated by alkali solution followed by passage of supernatant through H-cationite filter. Treated precipitate accumulated in preceding settling cycles is recycled into regenerate and settling-subjected solution is passed through cationite filter to produce purified sulfuric acid further used for regeneration of H-cationite filters in water-treatment cycle. Precipitate is treated with alkaline regenerate from OH-anionite filters or with alkali solution obtained from electrolysis of regenerates with pH not below 11. Amount of regenerate introduced into accumulator-settler should be at least 20 kg/m3.

EFFECT: excluded liming procedure, preserved initial (after regeneration of filters) content of sulfate ions in sulfuric acid, reduced consumption thereof during preparation of regeneration solution, and excluded discharge of sulfate ions unto water objects.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: petrochemical and food and other processing industries.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for purification of sewage and is dealt with designs of sewage treatment plants for purification and averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and may be used for preliminary purification of sewage of the enterprises of processing industries from floating and settling insoluble impurities. The device contains a cylindrical body with a cone-shaped bottomed, a mounted along the axis of the body cylindrical partition, a located above the body reactive water distributor with branch-pipes, a floating device, a rotating rocker arm with a foam pushing plates mounted with the help of a half-coupling to the reactive water distributor at a maximum level of water in the device, a collecting tank mounted with possibility of delivery in it of the circulating water, a pump, a pressure tank-saturator linked by a pressure pipeline with the reactive water distributor. Inside the body there is a ring-type chute, in which the reactive water distributor branch-pipes supplied with diffusers on their ends are placed. The technical result is an increase of efficiency of sewage purification and realization of averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and its purification simultaneously.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of sewage purification and simultaneous realization of averaging of sewage consumption, composition and purification.

1 dwg

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

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