Method of ion-exchange purification of sewage waters and technological solutions from metal ions
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in industry at the stage of fine or additional purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions, in the purification of vapour condensate in boiler houses and TPP plants in the creation of closed technological water circulation. To realise the method of ion-exchange water purification sewage waters and technological solutions are passed through a sorbent, containing hydrazide groups. as the sorbent used is activated carbon, preliminarily processed with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in volume ratios of 1:2-2.5, at a temperature of 350-450°C. The method provides the removal of ions of metals with a variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, as well as ions of metals: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+ from water, with the preservation by the sorbent of the sorption activity in a wide range of the water solution pH values.
EFFECT: purification of water from traces of heavy metal ions.
1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to a waste water treatment technology and can be used in the industry on stage or thin with additional water purification from traces of heavy metal ions, in the purification of steam condensate to boiler houses and CHP enterprises, including the creation of a closed technological cycle.
The known method of water purification from metal ions at their joint presence by filtration through a copolymer sorbents containing ethylendiamine grouping (copyright certificate EN NO. 966023, IPC 7, CL C02F 1/42, 1982 ). The method is selective only with respect to ions of trivalent iron (Fe3+) that is his fault, as it is limited to its application and performance when the concentration of other ions in the water.
Known methods of extraction of heavy metal ions sulfonated lignite coal [Ibarra J. R. Moliner Fuel for the Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater with lomano sulfonated lignite. 1984, 63, N3, p.377], the sorbent based on peat [Ludwig Simon G. J. Purification of industrial wastewater from heavy metals using filters with granular sorbent based on peat. "Jahrb Geol", 1983, N6a, p.365].
The disadvantages of these cleaning methods is the low absorption capacity of the sorbents, the high cost of regeneration, low strength of the sorbent and, sledovatel�till then, high losses when filtering.
The known method of purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions by extraction sorbent based on magnesia-ferrous slags [Zosin A. P. Gurevich B. I. Milovanova I. B. On the sorption properties of lakoseljac. In proc. "Chemistry and technology of silicate materials". L. Nauka, 1971, p. 100 105], [A. P. Zosin, T. I. Primak. Treatment of industrial waste water from ions of Nickel, cobalt, copper, sorbent on the basis of magnesium-iron slags of non-ferrous metallurgy // Chemistry and technology of inorganic sorbents: the Ministry of higher education. Sat. scientific. Tr. Perm. Politiche, inst. Perm, 1980, p. 92 97].
Sewage treatment from ions of metals is carried out by passing the solution through a bed of sorbent. The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency, the impossibility of regeneration of the sorbent due to the low strength of the granules.
The known method of purification of the solution containing copper, zinc and iron from ferric ions by sorption on the anion exchange resin obtained by the amination of hydrazine copolymer of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene [Copyright certificate EN NO. 528310, IPC 7, CL C08F 226/02, C08F 8/32 1975].
The disadvantage of this method is the low degree of purification of the solution from the ferric ions.
The known method of purification of copper-zinc solutions from ferric ions by sorption on the anion exchanger obtained �mining hydroxylamine copolymer of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene [Copyright certificate EN No. 529178, IPC 7, CL C08F 226/02, C08F 8/32, B010 15/04, 1975].
The disadvantage of this method is the low degree of purification of the solution from the ferric ions.
Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of ion-exchange purification of sewage and waste waters from ions of metals of variable valence by passing it through a mixture aminocarboxylic of cationite and onto weak-base resin curing type, taken in cationic and anionic form, wherein the mixture is used a copolymer of methyl methacrylate, diphenylsulfide, divinylbenzene and poly (methacrylic acid hydrazide, when the ratio ethylendiamine and hydrazide groups in the copolymer is 1:1 [Patent RU No. 2434811), C02F 1/42, IPC 7, 01J 43/00, B01J 20/26, 2011].
The disadvantage of this method is its limited efficiency in the purification of wastewater containing ions of metals such as Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+.
The technical result of the invention is the removal of water from ions of metals of variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+Fe3+and metal ions: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+while maintaining the sorbent in the sorption capacity, wide pH aqueous solution and number of cycles "purge - regeneration".
Delivered technical�technical result is achieved in that a method of ion-exchange purification of waste waters and technological solutions from metal ions by passing it through a sorbent containing a hydrazide group, according to the invention in the activated carbon sorbent is used, the pre-treated gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in the ratio of 1:2-2,5, at a temperature of 350-450°C.
In the proposed method the effect of improved water treatment is achieved by the improved structure of activated carbon. This process was carried out under the following conditions: a temperature of 350-450°C, the processing gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in volume ratio of 1:2-2,5, the processing time was 2-5 minutes. Such process conditions allow you to modify the porous structure of coal and to increase the porosity, which gives conditions for the acquisition of coal properties on sorption from the aqueous phase not only ions of metals of variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+Fe3+and ions of the following metals: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+.
The technical result achieved by the above set of essential features, due to the fact that this method of cleaning is manifested integrated activity of the sorbent using, in addition to available active carbon structures, amino groups-NH2and Hijazi�governmental groupings-NH-NH 2.
The sorbent does not lose mechanical strength in a cycle of work - regeneration. The set of active groups allows you to hold a wide variety of metal ions: Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+without compromising with the degree of purification from ions of metals of variable valence: Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+Fe3+. In this case, the water removed from, among others, contamination of the ionic character, it is clean, usable water cycle. The method was tested in laboratory settings.
The test results are shown in the table.
500 ml of an aqueous solution containing ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+and Fe3+when the content of 1.40 mg/l and metal ions of Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+when the content above 0.01 mg/l (traces) (see table), by gravity flow through the column with a height of 100 mm and a diameter of 11.3 mm, filled to 80% activated carbon is pretreated with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, in the ratio 1:2 by volume at a temperature of 350°C. In purified water solution according to the results of liquid chromatographic analysis of ions of Cr3+and Fe3+no, ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+do not exceed permissible values, environmentally hazardous metal ions Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2 , Co2+no, that is the quality of water treatment is greatly improved.
500 ml of the technological solution used in the metal produced by "Volgogradneftemash", containing ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+Fe3+, Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+and Co2+(see table), by gravity flow through the column with a height of 100 mm and a diameter of 11.3 mm, filled to 80% activated carbon is pretreated with a gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, in the ratio 1:2 by volume at a temperature of 350°C. In purified technological solution according to the results of liquid chromatographic analysis of ions of Cr3+and Fe3+no, ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+do not exceed permissible values, environmentally hazardous metal ions Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+no, that is the quality of the cleaning process solution is significantly improved. Results in comparison with the prototype presented in the table.
500 ml of wastewater produced by "Metalware plant" containing ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+Fe3+, Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+and Co2+(see table), by gravity flow through the column with a height of 100 mm and a diameter of 11.3 mm, filled to 80% activated carbon, pre-obrabotannoi mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in the ratio 1:2.5 by volume, at a temperature of 450°C. the Treated waste water contains ions of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+in concentrations not exceeding the permissible values of environmentally hazardous metal ions Bi3+, Zr4+, Sr2+, Co2+no, that is the quality of wastewater treatment is greatly improved.
|The proposed method|
|Composition (mg/l) and parameters||Example 1||Example 2||Example 3||Prototype|
|Metal ions (|
|more than 0.01 mg/l)|
|the pH of the solution||3,5-5||3,5-5||3,5-5||3,5-5|
|The volume of purified water ml/ml �Anita||300||300||300||300|
|the pH of the treated water||7,0||7||7||7|
|The change in volume of the sorbent, %||0,0÷+0,4||0,0÷+0,4||0,0÷+0,4||0,0÷+0,4|
|The number of cycles "work-regeneration" without deterioration of the treated water||22||22||22||22"|
Thus, the developed technical solution provides the features, sufficient to obtain a new technical result specified by the claims.
Method of ion-exchange purification of waste waters and technological solutions from metal ions by p�lowering through the sorbent, containing a hydrazide group, characterized in that the activated carbon sorbent is used, the pre-treated gas mixture of ammonia and hydrazine, taken in the ratio of 1:2-2,5, at a temperature of 350-450°C.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water purification by crystallisation and can be used in everyday life, food industry and medicine. The water purification apparatus includes a temperature-controlled heat-exchange vessel 1, means of feeding source water for purification and means 2 of draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants, means 3 of cooling and freezing water and means 5 of melting ice with cooling 4 and heating elements 6, a control unit 7 connected to the means of feeding source water for purification and draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants 2 from the heat-exchange vessel 1 and means of cooling and freezing water 3 and melting ice 5. The heat-exchange vessel 1 has a flat slit-type internal cavity or an annular slit-type cavity 15, and one of the walls of the heat-exchange vessel 1, which is free from the cooling 4 and heating elements 6, is made of transparent material and has one or more internal air cavities 17.
EFFECT: invention improves the quality of water purification and enables to monitor the purification process.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in mixing cyano-containing solutions and pulps with hydrogen peroxide and a gas ozone-oxygen mixture with the ozone concentration of more than 160 g/m3, in the ozone/hydrogen peroxide ratio of 1.5:1, pH 11-12, temperature of 45-50°C in the presence of copper ions. The cyano-containing solutions and pulps are deactivated in the copper ion concentration of not less than 1:8 to the cyanide and rhodanide concentration.
EFFECT: higher rate and effectiveness of deactivating the cyano-containing solutions and pulps, lower consumption of agents and power costs, improved economical efficiency of the process.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: biohybrid composite material for sorption and degradation of crude oil and petroleum products is proposed. The material is a thermoplastic polymer with fibre-forming properties - acrylonitrile copolymer with methyl acrylate. It comprises incorporated phosphorus-containing cationites and/or nitrogen-containing anionites, the cell walls of aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (Lemnaceae) and immobilized cells of bacteria-oil destructors.
EFFECT: composite material has high adsorption capacity and a higher degree of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of natural water purification for economic-drinking and industrial water supply, including slightly muddy coloured low-temperature water. The method includes the reagent processing of water with a coagulant and a flocculant, carrying out volume coagulation under the conditions of mechanical mixing, clarification in horizontal settling tanks, equipped with floatation chambers at the output, filtration, decontamination of the purified water, collection of washing water into a balancing reservoir with its further mixing with initial water.
EFFECT: provision of the drinking water quality independent on seasonal fluctuations of the initial water quality and temperature conditions, increased degree of clarification of water to be coagulated before filtration, reduction of the washing water consumption.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for processing sewage waters and conditioning sludge before its dehydration. A lime-based composition for processing waters and sludge contains, at least, one mineral agent, which contains at least lime and at least one linear, branched and/or transversely cross-linked hydrophilic organic polymer of a non-ionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric origin. The mineral agent contains slaked lime in the solid phase, with the organic polymer being includes on the surface and inside the said solid phase of slaked lime, where the said lime-based composition represents a solid composition. The method of preparing the composition for processing waters and sludge includes the introduction of the mineral agent and a water solution, dispersion or an inverse emulsion, which contains the organic polymer and water, in contact. The method includes the realisation of a partial reaction of quicklime with all or a part of water, which contains the organic polymer, obtaining slaked lime in the solid phase, including the organic polymer.
EFFECT: inventions provide the effective conditioning of sludge to be dehydrated due to the distribution of the polymer in a smaller amount relative to the mineral agent.
15 cl, 7 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device makes it possible to treat not only water but other liquids close in viscosity to water, for instance, benzenes, diesel fuel, sunflower seed oil, wine material, etc. The water treatment device comprises chambers installed at the distance from each other that are open from top with a layer of filtering material, pipelines with hydraulic locks, supply and drain nozzles. Supply nozzles are installed under the layer of filtering material. Chambers are divided into filtering elements with multi-layer filtering materials, which are retained tightly along the perimeter with multi-section frames. Each chamber for effective operation in regeneration mode is provided at least by one vibrator with parameters, which are determined by formulas, and a radiator for ultrasonic frequency for disinfection at impact capacity of at least 2 W/cm.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve ten times and more the main process characteristics of a filter and perform simple regeneration of filtering material and its disinfection.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment device includes settling tanks with thin synthetic nets for levelling of speeds of treated water, in the whole clear section of the settling tank, and also with the help of filtering chambers with substantially improved structure, with new filtering materials from polypropylene, with the possibility of performance of simple regeneration, disinfection.
EFFECT: device provides for improvement of main process characteristics ten and more times.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device of water treatment by pressure flotation comprises a flotation chamber, where flocculated water is added, being mixed with microbubbles, formed by a device for mixing of water with air, a discharge tank arranged upstream the flotation chamber, according to the invention, the device for mixing of water with air is installed between the flotation pump and the discharge tank and comprises a flow meter for water connected by water flow, at least with one mixer, which represents a pipe with stop valves, with nozzles with flanges for supply and drainage of water, inside of which there is a filtering cylindrical cartridge with a nozzle for compressed air supply, which is connected by air flow via a valve and a counter of gas flow with a compressor.
EFFECT: creation of optimal composition of air and water mixture for flotation.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: objective of the invention is to convert an operable periodical biogenerator plant with manual charging-discharging for production of low-pressure biogas into an industrial continuous plant for production of biogas (biohydrogen) of high pressure (10-12 MSh) by installation of a bioreactor in the ground at the depth of around 2000 m, which will provide for optimal temperature conditions of reactions of anaerobic conversion of biomass, will develop conditions for self-flowing charging of a bioreactor with biomass, gaslift discharging of biogas and residual biopulp. For production of biohydrogen the following systems are provided: for biomass acidification up to pH=5.49: sowing of biomass with hydrogen-producing microorganisms; supply of biological catalyst into a zone of reaction of the bioreactor. Standard drilling equipment and materials may be used for arrangement of continuous underground generators of biogas (biohydrogen).
EFFECT: invention is ideally energy-saving and environmentally safe.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment and disinfection device comprises a casing 1 fitted with a cover 2, a filtering element 3, an inlet connecting pipe 4 and a sediment tank 6. An outlet branch pipe is mounted in the cover 2. A ring 7 with its outer surface contacting with the inner surface of the casing 1 is mounted in the upper part of the casing 1. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes 8 are installed on the inner surface of the cover 2. The sediment tank 6 is made as a hollow semisphere with its centre turned downwards. The inlet connecting pipe 4 is installed in the centre of the sediment tank 6. A tube 9 connected to the inlet connecting pipe 4 is vertically installed in the casing. A baffle 10 in the form of a coil is mounted on the tube 9. A slot with its length being equal to the baffle 10 length is provided in the tube 9. The upper slot edge is set at the level of the upper edge of the baffle 10. A circular plate 11 with its diameter being equal to the outer diameter of the baffle 10 is mounted on the baffle 10. The ring 7 is mounted above the plate 11. The inner surface of the cover 2 is fitted by ledges 12. The filtering element 3 is installed between the ring 7 and the ledges 12 and is made as a cylinder with its diameter being equal to the inner diameter of the casing 1.
EFFECT: improved quality of water treatment and disinfection.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a moulded sorbent with the antibacterial properties for treating endometritis, representing nanodispersed mesoporous carbon having a specific adsorption surface of no more than 50 m2/g and a crushing strength of not less than 20 kg/cm2, containing polyvinylpyrrolidone in an amount of not less than 5.0%, characterised by the fact that it is presented in the form of cylinders 2-4mm in diameter, 15-25mm long with one inner circular passage, to a method of treating it, as well as to a method of treating endometritis.
EFFECT: higher clinical effectiveness.
3 cl, 10 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: inert inorganic substrate is soaked with solution of lithium aluminium hydride in diethyl ether. Ether is removed by vacuuming and pyrolysis of lithium aluminium hydride, applied on substrate, is realised at temperature 100-500°C in vacuum.
EFFECT: obtaining sorbent, effective for purification of inert gases and reducing gases from admixtures of Lewis acids, hydrocarbons, oxygen or volatile oxides.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to application of hydrogen form of palladium-doped zeolite ZSM-5 for absorption of volatile organic compounds (VOC), formed from organic substance. Ratio Si:Al in zeolite ZSM-5 is lower or equals 100:1. Palladium-doped zeolite ZSM-5 is applied in the environment, including less than 10 volume % of oxygen.
EFFECT: improvement of absorption.
25 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical gas chromatography, particularly to methods of producing sorbents for analysing organic substances, including environmental pollutants. Disclosed is a method of producing a sorbent for gas chromatography, involving deposition of a binary composition, consisting of bis-(phenyl-arsinic)acid and β,β'-oxydipropionitrile, onto a solid Chromaton carrier.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent having high selectivity of separation of organic substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to improve membrane and sorption techniques, in water treatment, in techniques for recycling ions of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and waste water. The method is realised by contacting aqueous solutions for 1-20 minutes with cellulose-based polymer sorbents which are modified with microwave radiation with power of 300 W and frequency of 2.45 GHz, with solution/sorbent ratio of 50-200. The sorbents are modified by pre-immersion in aqueous caprolactam solution or caprolactam distillation residue with concentration of 2-20 g/l with modulus of 15-50, followed by pressing and microwave exposure for 1-5 minutes at temperature of 150-200°C. The modified sorbents are brought into contact with aqueous solutions at solution pH 3-7.
EFFECT: method increases degree of extraction of heavy metal ions from weakly acidic solution with pH below 5 by about 20%, while maintaining a high degree of extraction of heavy metal ions from neutral aqueous solutions, and also increases sorbent stability when stored on open air to one year and reduces the number of steps when modifying sorbents.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthesis of inorganic sorbents to be used in water treatment, radio-chemistry and processing if liquid radioactive wastes. Proposed method comprises processing of porous carrier selected from glass powder, active coal or silica gel by water suspension of sorption active insoluble compound selected from the group including nickel ferrocyanide, aluminium hydroxide and copper sulphide at ultrasound radiation of 50-200 W and 22-60 kHz and at temperature of 70-90°C.
EFFECT: mechanically active inorganic sorbents with high content of active substance.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of producing sorbents for extracting silver from waste water and process solutions. The sorbent is obtained using a dispersion of fibrillated cellulose fibres as lead sulphide carriers. Lead sulphide is precipitated with sodium sulphide in an aqueous dispersion which contains lead acetate or nitrate and said fibres. A sorbent containing 50-300 pts.wt lead sulphide per 100 pts.wt fibre is obtained.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent with capacity of 300-675 mg silver per 1 g sorbent.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing a sorbent, mainly for removing arsenic from drinking water. The method involves the following steps: saturating a water-absorbent wettable organic carrier material with an aqueous solution of a water-soluble iron salt, filtration thereof and drying to constant weight, saturating the carrier material with a stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid and/or a water-soluble salt of oxalic acid, followed by filtration thereof and drying to constant weight, with conversion of iron ions to a water-insoluble iron oxalate, converting the saturated carrier material to activated carbon by anaerobic heating, subjecting the saturated carrier material to anaerobic cooling with decomposition of iron oxalate to iron and carbon dioxide, pre-oxidation of iron particles of the activated carbon with a water-soluble peroxide compound, filtering the activated carbon and washing until complete removal of salt therefrom, followed by filtration and drying thereof once more, converting iron hydroxide formed on the surface of iron particles to magnetite by anaerobic heating of the activated carbon, followed by anaerobic cooling of the sorbent to room temperature.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient and cheap removal of arsenic.
20 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sorption and filtration materials for cleaning water from, mainly, manganese and iron. For production of sorbent, basalt fibers are used as a carrier. Said fibers are premixed in aqueous medium at mixing to sixes of 1 to 25 mm and chemically activated by inorganic acid. Said carrier is subjected to chemical treatment by bivalent manganese salt of concentration of 0.5 to 2%, medium pH is increased to 8 to 12 and hydrogen peroxide of concentration varying from 0.15 to 2% is added. Then, treated material is dried at 120-200°C and thermally treated at 250-350°C.
EFFECT: longer life, higher sorption capacity.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to a method for preparing a carbon sorbent with the antibacterial properties, and to the carbon sorbent with the antibacterial properties prepared by this method. The declared method involves impregnation of the carbon hemosorbent granules in an initiator solution in N-vinylpyrrolidone at pH 7.0-7.5 and a residual pressure of 15-20 mm Hg. The hemosorbent : initiator solution in N-vinylpyrrolidone ratio is 1:1.4-2.0. Then the temperature is raised to 65-75°C, kept at that temperature for 0.5-8 hours in an inert medium and washed in water from the residual monomer at room temperature.
EFFECT: carbon sorbent with the antibacterial properties prepared by the specified method represents the round granules, contains polyvinylpyrrolidone in an amount of 4,5-5,5% and is characterised by a specific surface adsorption of less than 50 m2/g and total pore volume of less than 0,30 cm3/g.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: gas and liquid drier containing moisture-absorbing substance contained in pores of a matrix with open pore system and connected to the surface of matrix is prepared by impregnating matrix with moisture-absorbing substance solution, to which alkali solution is added to pH as high as 10. Alkali solution can be selected from solutions of alkali and alkali-earth metal hydroxides and ammonia. Moisture-absorbing substance is a high-hygroscopic salt such as alkali-earth metal halides, sulfates, and nitrates. Open-pore system-containing matrix is selected from inorganic oxides, porous coals, naturally occurring sorbents, porous metals, and their mixtures.
EFFECT: increased dynamic water-adsorption capacity and avoided leakage of hygroscopic salt solution from matrix pores.
4 cl, 7 ex