Method of deflecting charged particle beams using flat silicon plate

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. The method of deflecting charged particle beams using a flat silicon plate is based on using the three-dimensional reflection phenomenon. Bending of successive silicon strips on the surface of a plate is achieved through internal stress in the crystal material as a result of the Twyman effect and not through external torque. The silicon plate has a thick flat substrate, owing to which more accurate alignment of the bent silicon strips and better effectiveness of deflecting the beam than in a device with bending of separate strips using a mechanical holder are achieved.

EFFECT: high efficiency of bending particle beams.

5 dwg

 

The present invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used in the extraction and collimation of the proton beam.

At proton synchrotrons increasingly used in systems of extraction and collimation are bent crystals due to high values of electric field intensity inside the crystal. Such crystals were used mainly in the planar channeling regime. In 2006, it has been experimentally discovered a new physical phenomenon - a reflection of a beam of high energy protons from the curved atomic planes of a crystal of silicon and began work on the use of this phenomenon in accelerators /W. Scandale, D. Still, A. carnera offers colourful rooms et al., "High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal", Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 154801 (2007)/.

Volume reflection caused by the interaction of the incident proton with the potential of curved atomic lattice and occurs on a short length in the field tangent to the curved atomic planes. The deflection angle of the particles upon reflection from crystallographic planes is limited to 1.5 θcwhere θc=(2Uc/pv)1/2- the critical angle for channeling, Uc~20 eV - the value of the planar channel (111) in silicon, p, v - momentum, and velocity of the incident particle. Protons with energy E=70 GeV, 400 GeV And 7000 GeV are rejected single strip in the direction opposite to the bending�Testino at an angle of 36 μrad, 15 μrad and 3.6 μrad. The probability of a single reflection and high at energies around 100 GeV approaches unity. To increase the angle of reflection and the practical application of volume reflection in the extraction and collimation of beams necessary to increase the value of the angle of deflection of charged particles.

Using successive crystals, it is possible to increase the angle of deflection as the deflection of protons of each crystalline stripe increases the range of angles of capture is proportional to the number of strips. Applying n≤10 consecutive oriented crystals, it is possible to increase the deflection angle of a particle in a ~ (5-10) times. Further increase in the number of crystals leads to the loss of process efficiency due to the increase in the number of nuclear interactions.

The closest prototype of the present invention are crystalline deflectors, the device which is presented in the works / A. G. Afonin, V. T. Baranov, V. Gorlov, N. et al., "the use of the reflection of particles in bent crystals to improve the collimation of the beam in a circular accelerator", AE, 2009, vol. 106, no.6, p. 328, W. Scandale, A. Vomiero, E. Bagli, et al., "Multiple volume reflections of high-energy protons & in a sequence of bent silicon crystals assisted by capture volume.", Phys. Lett., B688 (2010) 284-288/. In these prototypes, the increase of the deflection angle is achieved by sequential location� crystals.

In experiments at accelerators IHEP and CERN have shown that proton beams with energy service between 70 and 400 GeV effectively deflected by reflection and channeling in the crystal structures consisting of several mutually-oriented crystals. They separate bending silicon strips is performed using the external holder. These crystals are installed at the stations of crystal deflectors with the mechanisms of movement in the coordinate and angle. When conducting physical experiments with crystals depending on the proton energy required to provide a different angle of bending of the crystals. Volume reflection in the crystals will take place under the condition that the bending angle

α=L/R>1,5θcn+ψ,

where L is the length of the crystal in the beam, R is the bending radius of the crystal, n is the number of strips, Ψ - divergence of the beam.

So, for proton synchrotron at IHEP 70 GeV bending angle shall be 600 μrad for SPS at E=400 GeV, this angle is equal to 250 μrad, and for energy 7 TeV this angle is ~ 60 μrad.

The disadvantage of the structures of crystals stacked strips, curved mechanical holder is the misorientation of individual strips in�the mask of about ±50 μrad. Therefore, the application of, for example, at the Large hadron Collider (LHC) such a device is beyond the scope of the system requirements localization TANK, where the desired crystals, disoriented not more than 2-3 microradian from each other, bent on a few dozen microradian with a bend radius of about 100 meters.

The problem to be solved by the claimed invention is to provide a method for manufacturing a chain of successive crystals with close parameters, the bending of each of them. To solve this problem on a monolithic flat plate silicon was applied mechanical grooves with a uniform pitch and equal depth. The bending of the strips caused by the deformation of their surface layers, caused by the effect of Timana, and thick flat substrate provides high accuracy of relative orientation of curved strips.

Deep grooves ~1 mm triangular shape is applied on one side of a thick silicon wafer with a thickness of ~5 mm. the depth of the grooves and the distance between the grooves determine the bending radius of the crystal and are selected based on the energy of the proton beam. The technical result of the implemented method of bending was the fact that, as shown by optical measurements, such grooves can create a series of identical, curved, well-oriented relative to each other.�of core strips with the bending angle of ~100 µrad.

The produced samples were tested at the proton beam at E=50 GeV on the U-70 accelerator. Although the conditions of rotation for such energy is not optimal, there was a noticeable rotation of the beam, the corresponding theory. Targeting circulating beam at the absorber was carried out using the bump magnets. The efficiency of the crystal at this energy the protons was about ~70%.

The principle gain of the deflection angle on the chain crystals with a photograph of the prototype with an external device of the bending shown in Fig.1. The essence of the invention for the deflection of a beam of high energy particles is shown in Fig.2. As can be seen from Fig.2, the grooves bend crystallographic plane in the areas between them. One of such plates is shown in the photograph of Fig.3. The results of the experiments are illustrated in Fig.4 profiles of the beam at the absorber U-70 in disoriented and oriented state of the crystal.

The calculations showed that this method of deflection of the protons can be used effectively for rotating particle beams teraelectronvolt energies (e.g. at LHC). The rotation can be carried out by multiple reflection of particles on the bars or capture into the channeling mode in several strips. The results are presented in Fig.5. The calculation of the deviation of particles with energy 1 TeV performed by Monte To�the SART. Here dots are the particle density, φ is the rotation angle of the crystal, θ is the deflection angle of the incident particles. In the zone corners (-0.05 mrad<φ<0 mrad) observed a deviation angle θ=60 μrad by reflecting on the 8 strips. In the zone corners (0 mrad<φ<0.05 mrad), the beam is deflected by channeling approximately the same angle but in the opposite direction.

The method of deflection of charged particle beams of a flat silicon plate coated with her consistently transverse grooves with triangular profile cutters, characterized in that the bending of the surface layers in the crystal for the deviation of the incident beam of the accelerator is achieved without the use of external bending device due to internal mechanical stresses caused by these grooves.



 

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FIELD: medicine.

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FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session. Conducting the conformal irradiation session is combined with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parameters, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the gastric tumour during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the radiation therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.

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FIELD: medicine.

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FIELD: medicine.

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The invention relates to accelerator technology

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FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: power engineering.

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9 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

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1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: physics.

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11 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to radiation therapeutic apparatuses. An apparatus comprises an X-ray source with an electronic gun, a target and a electrode potential source of an electronic gun cathode, a resonator arranged along an electron ray and connected to a microwave signal source allowing frequency tuning, a detector of passed pathological radiation material, a frequency recorder. A conductor is introduced to couple a resonator and said target. The resonator is toroidal and has a gap to pass the electron ray, while a distance of the resonator gap and the target is specified provided 1.3>UINπfd/v0|Up|>1.1 wherein UIN is a microwave signal amplitude in the resonator gap, f is a microwave signal frequency, d is a distance of the gap and the target, v0 is an electron flow, Up is a cathode potential of the electronic gun cathode with respect to the resonator.

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2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer tomography. Device for collection of data of tomographic projections in multitude of angular positions relative to an object, located in the examination area, contains radiation source, detector, source and transversal centre of detector being transversally displaced relative to the centre of transversal field of view during collection of data of projections and direction of transversal displacement being tangential with respect to transversal field of view. Methods of computer tomography contains stages, at which first irradiation is emitted from position which is transversally displaced from the centre of transversal field of view, detector of irradiation is used for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections, stages of first irradiation emission and application of irradiation detector for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections are repeated and first set of CT data is reconstructed to form first three-dimensional data. Computer-tomographic device contains roentgen source transversally displaced from rotation axis, roentgen detector, also transversally displaced from rotation axis and rotating relative to rotation axis in state of constant mechanical connection with roentgen source. Roentgen source emits irradiation, characterised by transversal angle of fan beam, and complete taking of angular readings of transversal field of view requires collection of data of projections in larger angle range than 180° plus the angle of fan-beam. Device also contains unit of reconstruction of data of projections for formation of three-dimensional data, characterising transversal field of view.

EFFECT: increase of device efficiency.

39 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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EFFECT: invention enables to obtain resultant ion deviation which is proportional to the total number of cells passed, which can reach any necessary value when the sufficient length of the deflecting resonator is chosen.

1 dwg

FIELD: optical instrument engineering.

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EFFECT: increased power density.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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