Brightness meter

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: brightness meter contains an opaque light filter attached to a piezoelectric element which is connected to a frequency divider output, a lens, a pyramidal mirror octahedron with four external smooth surfaces and four disk photodetectors, each with two photoreception sectors. Photoreception sectors are fitted with colour light filters. The output of each photoreception sector is connected to the input of an analogue-digital converter. Each analogue-digital converter comprises the pulse amplifier to the output of which pulse light-emitting diodes are connected. Radiation from each light-emitting diode enters the group of eight identical photodetectors, each of which has on the reception side a neutral light filter with a ratio respectively of the register digit weight to which the output of each photodetector is connected.

EFFECT: possibility of synchronous receiving of brightness codes of eight colour components of the spectrum.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to a cosine corrector, can be used for simultaneous measurement of the brightness of the color radiations included in the spectrum of the emitted stream.

The prototype accepted "luminance meter" [1] containing one to eight converters "brightness radiation code", made identical, each comprising an opaque casing in two parts, in the partition between them is fixed a microlens acts as a lens, in the front ends of the first parts of the hulls of eight transducers are color filters, the second housing parts are made identical to each each other on the optical axis of the microlenses and at an angle of 45° thereto are translucent micromirrors according to the number of digits in the code, and photodetectors that are located inside each building, optical United with their micro mirrors. Outside of each Converter according to the number of photodetectors are pulse amplifiers, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of photodetectors, connected successively register with the number of bits by the number of pulse amplifiers, the first code decoder and connected in series register numbers Converter and decoder number. Luminance meter includes a display unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the decoders code of the measurement result and outputs desirat�RA code number Converter. The results of the brightness measurement eight color radiations appear on your PC display unit to decimal code.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the result of the measurement of each color separate radiation Converter "brightness radiation code". The purpose of the invention is the simultaneous measurement eight color brightness radiation one Converter.

The essence of the proposed device, comprising a housing, a lens, a pulse amplifier and display unit, in obtaining the measurement results of brightness of radiation in eight colours one Converter "brightness of the colored radiation - codes", which introduced the pyramidal mirror octahedron, four identical disk photodetector and eight ADCS. Fig. 1 - Converter "brightness of the colored radiation - codes", in Fig. 2 - the process of separating the flux after the lens on the pyramidal mirror octahedron [2, p. 234].

Converter the brightness of the colored radiation - codes" includes an opaque housing 1, in front of which is placed an opaque filter 2 attached to the free end of the piezoelectric element 3, the second end of which is rigidly fixed in the housing 1 and through the diode connected to the output of divider 13 frequency, the input of which is connected to the output of the generator 14 clock pulses. For opaque sitefilter� 2, performing the role of the entrance door, opaque septum fixed lens 4. In the second part of the body after the lens is located and rigidly secured pyramidal mirror octahedron with four exterior mirror surfaces, the top of which in the focal plane of the lens 4 and the longitudinal axis coincide with the optical axis of the lens, on the left, right, top and bottom walls of the housing of ercomer exactly in places of arrival of reflected from the four mirrored sides pyramidal octahedron streams of radiation reflected by a mirror sides octahedron 6, and are rigidly secured first to fourth disk is identical photodetectors 51-4/Fig. 2/, each of a diameter less than the diameter of the reflected from the mirrored sides of the pyramidal octahedron 6 radiation. Each disk photodetector has two equal-area photodetector sector, isolated from each other. The first photodetector disk sector of the photodetector 51for receiving radiation yellow on the receiving side filter is yellow, the second photodetector sector of this disk photodetector for receiving a neutral /white/ radiation has on the receiving side sector neutral density filter with multiplicity density the same as all the filters. The first photodetector disk sector of the photodetector 52on PR�receiving side has an orange filter, second receiving the same sector of the disk 52to receive blue radiation has a blue color filter. The first photodetector disk sector of the photodetector 53has a purple filter, the second photodetector sector of the same photodetector 53has a green filter for receiving the green radiation. The first sector of the fourth photodetector disk photodetector 54has on the receiving side filter of the red color, the second photodetector of the photodetector 54on the receiving side has a blue color filter. The multiplicity density color filters are the same. Each photodetector sector has its output connected to the input of a pulsed amplifier being the input of your ADC, all pulse amplifiers 71-8have equal gains. Pulse output from each photodetector sector is input to its analog-to-digital Converter, the number of photodetecting sectors eight, made identical. Each ADC includes series-connected switching amplifier 7, the pulse led 8, irradiating my group of 9 of eight identical photodetectors, and eight-digit register 10. Each photodetector in the group 9 at the receiving side has the nd filter, the frequency of which corresponds to the weight of the category in Regis�re 10 1-8connected to the output of the photodetector: the multiplicity of filters are shown in table 1, when receiving from the outputs of the photodetectors of the group 9 of the signals in the bits of the register 10 in the code is formed of a colored radiation.

Eight-digit code from the output of each register 101-8represents the result of the brightness of the colored radiation in a binary code. ADCS are identical: the signal from the photodetector sector is input to the pulse amplifier of its 7 ADC1-8from which arrives in the switching power led 8, which irradiates the group of eight photodetectors 9, the signals from outputs of which are fed to the inputs of their bits in register 10. The outputs of each register 101-8connected to the inputs of the block decoder 111-8with the advent from the output of the divider 13 frequency signal UVYDto the control inputs of the registers 101-8/Fig. 1/ binary codes with them are issued in parallel to the decoder 111-8with outputs decimal codes which are received in the display unit 12 that displays eight lines of the measurement results to decimal code.

The work of Larcomar

In the divider 13 frequency, the operator sets the frequency of measurements. With the arrival of the control signal UVYDwith unit 13 to the input of the piezoelectric element 3 and it shifts opaque filter 2 /Fi�. 1/, the color comes after the irradiation lens 4 on the mirror side of the octahedron 6, the threads of the reflected radiation, which comes with four disk photodetectors 51-4/Fig. 2/, and in them to the corresponding photodetector sector. Respectively the values of the color flows with the photodetector sectors electrical signals arrive at the inputs of their pulse amplifiers 71-8, the amplified signals to cause illumination of the LEDs 81-8, irradiating each group of photodetectors 91-8accordingly the brightness of the exposure level of each register 101-8form their binary codes that signal the UVYDare issued in parallel form to the inputs of the decoders 111-8with the results of measurements in decimal code are displayed on the screen of the display unit 12. The proposed luminance meter performs the same tasks as a prototype, but one Converter performs synchronous eight dimensions and lower power consumption.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2465559 C1 CL G01 1/36, bull. 30 from 27.10.12.

2. B. N. Runners, NV P. Sakazov. Theory of optical systems. 1973, p. 234, M, "engineering".

3. V. I. Ivanov, A. I. Aksenov, A. M. Yushin. "Semiconductor optoelectronic devices", directory. M., 1984, p. 14.

Luminance meter, containing connected in series generator of clock pulses and a frequency divider, d�encoders measured by the number of color radiation, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of the indication unit, wherein the luminance meter contains one inverter brightness of the colored radiation - codes", which includes an opaque housing, in front of which is placed an opaque filter that is attached to the free end of the piezoelectric element, the second end of which is rigidly fixed in the housing of the Converter and through the diode connected to the output of the frequency divider, for an opaque filter in an opaque partition fixed lens, in the second part of the body after the lens is located and rigidly secured pyramidal mirror octahedron with four exterior mirror surfaces, the top of which in the focal plane of the lens and the longitudinal axis coincides with the optical axis of the lens, on the left, right, top and bottom walls of the housing of ercomer exactly in places of arrival of reflected from the four mirrored sides pyramidal octahedron radiation fluxes and are rigidly secured first to fourth disk is identical photodetectors, each of a diameter less than the diameter of the reflected from the mirrored sides of the pyramidal octahedron radiation, each disk photodetector has two equal-area photodetector sector, isolated from each other, all eight photodetecting sectors are at the receiving sides, the color filters of the same multiplicity �lots: the first photodetector sector of the first disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side yellow filter, the second photodetector sector of this disk photodetector has a neutral density filter with the same multiplicity density, the first photodetector sector of the second disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side orange filter, the second photodetector sector is at the receiving side a blue filter, the first photodetector of the third sector disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side purple filter, the second photodetector sector of the same disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side, the green color filter, the first photodetector, the fourth sector of the disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side the red filter, the second photodetector sector of the same disk of the photodetector is on the receiving side, the blue color filter, the output of each photodetector sector is connected to the input of your analog to digital Converter /ADC/, which are made identical, each analog-to-digital Converter includes a series-connected switching amplifier, the input of which is the ADC input, all of the pulse amplifiers have equal gain, the output of the pulse amplifier connected to the input of the pulse led, at an appropriate distance from the emitting side of which is a group of eight identical photodetectors, each of which has on proamnistia neutral density filter magnification respectively of the weight of the position of the register, connected to the output of each photodetector: a photodetector, the output of which is connected to the input of a senior first register bit ADC is on the receiving side of the nd filter magnification 128Xthe photodetector is connected to the second discharge register, is on the receiving side of the nd filter magnification 64Xthe photodetector , connected to the input of the third register bit has on the receiving side filter magnification 32Xthe photodetector is connected to the fourth register bit has a neutral density filter with ratio of 16Xthe photodetector, the output of which is connected to the input of the fifth register bit has a neutral density filter with a multiplicity of 8Xthe photodetector, the output of which is connected to the input of the sixth register bit ADC has a neutral density filter multiplicity 4Xthe photodetector, the output of which is connected to the input of the seventh register bit has a neutral density filter 2Xthe photodetector is connected to the eighth input of register bit ADC, no filter /multiplicity 0X/ first-eighth outputs the eight-bit register of each ADC is connected respectively to the first-eighth inputs of your decoder, control inputs UVYDeight-bit registers of the first to eighth the ADC combined and connected to the output share�I frequency.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to image compression systems and methods. The method of compressing a digital image in a computing device comprises steps of dividing an image into a plurality of image subregions; selecting from a catalogue which includes a plurality of predetermined template forms, wherein each template form comprises a plurality of elements, properties and image variables, such as colour, colour gradient, gradient direction or reference pixel, and wherein each said form is identified by a code, the template form of each subregion best corresponding to one or more image elements of said subregion; and generating a compressed data set for the image, wherein each subregion is represented by a code which identifies the template form selected therefor.

EFFECT: improved compression of image data, thereby reducing the amount of data used to display an image.

22 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: this method comprises memorising the input raster video image as a flow of frames in the line input buffer. Said frames are splitted to micro blocs. The latter are compressed and stored in external memory. For processing, said micro blocs are retrieved from external memory, unclasped and written to internal memory. Raster macro blocs are formed and processed by appropriate processors.

EFFECT: efficient use of internal memory irrespective of processing algorithm type.

22 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, photography.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an image processing device and method, which can improve encoding efficiency, thereby preventing increase in load. The technical result is achieved due to that a selection scheme 71 from a prediction scheme 64 by filtering selects a motion compensation image for generating a prediction image at a high-resolution extension level from key frames at a low-resolution base level. The filter scheme 72 of the prediction scheme 64 by filtering performs filtration, which includes high-frequency conversion and which uses analysis in the time direction of a plurality of motion compensation images at the base level, selected by the selection scheme 71, in order to generate a prediction image at the extension level.

EFFECT: reducing load in terms of the amount of processing owing to spatial increase in sampling frequency at the base level for encoding the current frame.

19 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method of compression of graphic file by fractal method using ring classification of segments, in which the graphic file is split into rank regions and domains, and for each rank region the domain and the corresponding affine transformation is found, that best approximates it to the appropriate rank region, and using the obtained values of the domain parameters, comprising their coordinates, the coefficients of the affine transformations, the values of brightness and contrast, the archive is formed, and classification of domains and rank regions are introduced, based on the allocation in them of the "rings" and the calculation of the mathematical expectation of pixel intensity of these "rings", which enables to reduce the complexity of the phase of correlation of the segments and to accelerate compression.

EFFECT: reduced time of compression of the graphic file by fractal method.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises making each array element in an image sensor from one "R, G, B radiation colour brightness to code" converter, which performs parallel synchronous conversion of radiation of three colours analogue video signals R, G, B into three codes. The frame image digitisation apparatus includes an objective lens, an image sensor comprising an array of elements, three switch units, three register units and a control signal generator, wherein each switch unit includes the same number of encoders as converters.

EFFECT: reduced cross dimensions of array elements in an image sensor, which enables to reduce the frame format size or increase resolution of the image sensor.

6 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a frame image digitisation apparatus. The disclosed apparatus comprises a lens in the focal plane of which there is an image sensor having an array of elements, a control signal generator and three register units, the outputs of which are the outputs of the digitisation apparatus. Each array element consists of a converter for converting radiation of colours R, G, B into three codes. Images are input into the sensor, the number of said images being equal to the number of array elements and the number of colours R, G, B of analogue-to-digital converters (ADC).

EFFECT: high image frame resolution owing to conversion of three colours R, G, B into codes using one converter.

4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises a lens, an image detector having an array situated in the focal plane of the lens, the array having elements which are converters for converting radiation to codes based on the frame resolution number 106, each having an opaque housing in the front part of which, in a partition wall, there is a microlens, on the optical axis of which and at an angle of 45° thereto semitransparent micromirrors are arranged in series and rigidly mounted based on the number of bits per code, each preceding micromirror transmitting to the next micromirror radiation flux with half the strength.

EFFECT: high speed of frame digitisation.

1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises a lens, an image detector which includes an array of elements based on the frame resolution number 106, situated in the focal plane of the lens and having three groups of outputs of colour codes R, G, B, includes three register units and a control signal generator which outputs from the first output pulses with frame frequency (25 Hz), connected to the control inputs in array elements, and from the second output pulses with code sampling frequency, connected in parallel to the second control inputs of the first through third register units.

EFFECT: high frame resolution by making array element converters of brightness of radiation of colours R, G, B - three codes, which synchronously output codes of three colours R, G, B.

5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of obtaining a structural image of a biological object in optical coherence tomography. The method includes breaking down a source colour vide frame into non-overlapping spatial blocks consisting of more than one pixel. A structural image is obtained via small-angle raster scanning in the arm of an optical coherence tomography sample. The obtained image with a size of Piskh bytes is broken down into non-overlapping spatial blocks only on columns; adjacent column blocks are averaged pixel by pixel to form a new image with a size of Pstl bytes; the new image is broken down into non-overlapping spatial blocks only on rows; adjacent row blocks are averaged pixel by pixel to form a resultant image with a size of Pres bytes, and the averaging process is controlled based on an exponential relationship Pstl from the number of averaging column blocks Ustl and Pres from the number of averaging row blocks - Ustr.

EFFECT: high quality of the structural image of a biological object in optical coherence tomography.

7 dwg

FIELD: physics, video.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to video encoding and decoding, which provides conversion between a spatial region and a conversion region. The method of encoding video includes breaking down a video image into encoding units having a maximum size. The images are encoded based encoding units according to depths obtained by hierarchically breaking down each maximum depth encoding unit, and based on the type of partition defined according to depths of the depth encoding units. The type of partition includes a data unit having the same size as the current encoding unit, and a partial data unit obtained by breaking down the height or width of the current encoding unit. Encoding units are determined according to encoding depths relative to each of the depth encoding units, and encoding units having a tree structure are therefore determined. The encoded data are output.

EFFECT: high efficiency of image compression and, as a result, high efficiency of encoding and decoding video.

15 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method for analogue-to-digital conversion of optical radiation involves converting the radiation into photocurrent; integrating the photocurrent over the exposure time into an electric charge which changes the initial charge input before exposure; converting the resultant charge into signal voltage; comparing the signal voltage with a reference voltage and switching the comparator as the comparison result; generating binary signals, modulated on the time of switching relative the initial time; generating digital codes based thereon; storing the digital codes and successively sending said codes to outputs, wherein the initial charge is input into the switched conductivity diode by applying a voltage corresponding to the initial charge in the forward direction at the rate of change which causes injection of minority carriers, which does not exceed the level of triggering the switching diode into the conducting state, and the reference voltage applied is the corresponding sampling voltage at a variation rate sufficiently high to cause injection of minority carriers, needed for triggering thereof upon reaching voltage corresponding to the resultant charge, with given accuracy. The device which realises this method has one or more photosensitive cells connected to address and signal lines, each cell having series-connected photodetector, initial charge input circuit, charge converter for converting the charge generated by the photodetector signal, in addition to the initial charge, into output voltage of the photodetector, a comparator which converts the difference between the output voltage of the photodetector and a reference voltage into a digital cell signal, a circuit for reading the digital cell signal through address and signal lines, a circuit for generating cell signal codes, random access memory for storing digital codes, a circuit for reading cell signal digital codes on one or more outputs of the photodetector. In a cell, the photodetector, the initial charge input circuit, the charge converter and comparator are in form of a tunnel switching electrode in a MIS (metal, insulator, semiconductor) structure, one of the leads of which is connected to the address line and the other to the signal line.

EFFECT: high spatial resolution with high equivalent quantum efficiency.

9 cl, 3 dwg

Code converter // 2498375

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by introduction of a converter "binary code - radiation brightness" and a converter "binary code of combination 2n-1 - binary code of combination 2n-1" into a code converter.

EFFECT: production of parallel two types of codes of a binary numeration system at a code converter outlet for use by functional code impulse devices.

3 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of N-1 optical nano-amplifiers, an optical (N+1)-input nanofibre coupler, two constant optical signal sources, two telescopic nanotubes, an optical nanofibre Q-output splitter, an optical Q-input nanofibre feedback coupler, P groups of input optical nanofibres, P groups of intermediate optical nanofibres, P groups of output optical nanofibres, M optical P-input nanofibre couplers.

EFFECT: simple device and nano-design thereof.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device is optical waveguides connected in pairs by Y-couplers into a single waveguide at the output of the circuit. Each subsequent coupler is connected to the output of the previous coupler and one of the inputs of the optical waveguides. Thus, based on the Y-couplers and optical waveguides, a device can be created for switching from a parallel code, transmitted over a set of lightguide filaments, to an analogue signal which, being converted to an electrical form later, can be interfaced with standard electrical cable lines.

EFFECT: enabling operation in single-mode conditions while interfacing analogue signals with digital signals.

7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: generator consists of two constant optical signal sources, an optical nanofibre N-output splitter, an optical nanofibre N-input feedback coupler, two telescopic nanotubes, an input optical nanofibre, an optical nanofibre M-output splitter, output optical nanofibres, input optical nanofibres and an optical nanofibre M-input coupler.

EFFECT: faster operation, processing information in tera- and gigahertz ranges and nano-design.

1 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in optical information processing devices when designing optical nanocomputers and transceiving nanodevices. The device has a constant optical signal source, two optical nanofibre couplers, two telescopic nanotubes, two output optical nanofibres, an optical nanofibre three-output splitter and an optical nanofibre Y-splitter.

EFFECT: possibility of performing Boolean operations with coherent as well as incoherent optical signals with high speed, potentially possible for optical circuits with a nanodesign.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: converter includes pair-wise connected photodetectors and pulse amplifiers based on the number of semitransparent micromirrors. The converter also includes a register, a decoder, a display unit, a clock pulse generator, a frequency divider, an AND element and a block of corresponding light filters.

EFFECT: instant measurement of brightness of continuous, pulsed, modulated and monochromatic radiation in the visible range with presentation of measurement results in digital code.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: nanodevice has two sources of a constant optical signal, an optical nanofibre Y-splitter, an optical nanofibre N-output splitter, an optical N-input nanofibre coupler, two extensible nanotubes, four input optical nanofibres, four optical nanofibres, an optical nanofibre Y-splitter, an optical four-input nanofibre coupler, an optical three-input nanofibre coupler. The input of the optical nanofibre Y-splitter and third input of the optical three-input nanofibre coupler are data inputs of the device and control inputs of the device are control inputs of the input optical nanofibres. The extensible nanotubes lie between the output of the optical nanofibre three-input coupler and the output of the optical N-input nanofibre coupler on the propagation axis of their output optical signals. The output of the device is the output of the optical nanofibre four-input coupler.

EFFECT: carrying out 16 logical operations of two variables, high speed operation and nano-sized design.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: nano-demultiplexer has an optical M-output nanofibre splitter, M optical nanofibres, M optical output nanofibres, two extensible nanotubes, a source of constant optical signal, an optical nanofibre N-output splitter, a control optical nanofibre, an optical nanofibre N-input splitter. The two extensible nanotubes lie between the output of the control optical nanofibre and the output of the optical N-input nanofibre coupler such that, in the extreme left-handed position, an inner nanotube opens optical connection between outputs of the N-output optical nanofibre splitter and inputs of the N-input optical nanofibre coupler, as well as between outputs of the M-output nanofibre splitter and inputs of the M optical nanofibres. There is no optical connection between outputs of the M optical nanofibres and inputs of the M optical outputs of the nanofibres.

EFFECT: faster operation, simple design and nano-size implementation.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: nanodevice has a constant optical signal source, two optical nanofibres of a coupler, an optical nanofibre three-output splitter, two telescopic nanotubes: internal and external, an optical nanofibre N-output splitter, an optical N-input nanofibre coupler and an optical fibre. The input of the device is the first input of the first optical nanofibre coupler. The input of the "initial state setting" device is the first input of the second optical nanofibre coupler. The telescopic nanotubes lie between outputs of the first and second optical nanofibre couplers on the propagation axis of their output optical signals. The second output of the optical nanofibre three-output splitter is the output of the device.

EFFECT: integration of coherent and incoherent optical signals with high speed operation, potentially possible for optical processor circuits, and nanosize design.

1 dwg

Brightness metre // 2465559

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: brightness metre includes, depending on the number of colours in the radiation spectrum, seven radiation brightness-to-code converters, each having a register for the number of the converter and a decoder of the number of the converter.

EFFECT: possibility of instantly obtaining brightness codes of eight colour components of a radiation spectrum, single flashes, repeating light pulses, modulated and continuous radiation.

3 dwg

Up!