Fuel additive for improving performance in injection engines

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition for an injection diesel engine, which includes a basic amount of fuel and a minimum effective amount of a reaction product of (i) a hydrocarbyl-substituted compound containing at least one tertiary amine group, wherein the hydrocarbyl-substituted compound is selected from a group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted amidopropyldimethylamines and C12-C200-alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted succinylcarbonyldimethylamines and (iii) halo-substituted C2-C8 carboxylic acid salts, wherein the obtained reaction product is substantially free of non-covalently bonded anionic substances. The invention also relates to a concentrate of the fuel additive for use in an injection diesel engine, as well as a method of improving performance of an injection diesel engine and a method of operating an injection diesel engine.

EFFECT: improved engine performance when an effective amount of the reaction product of compounds (i) and (ii) is added to fuel.

23 cl, 3 tbl

 

AREA of TECHNOLOGY

The invention is directed to fuel additive and additive, additives and concentrates, which include additive, which are suitable to increase the efficiency of jet engines. In particular, the invention is directed to an additive to the fuel, which is effective to improve the efficiency of fuel injector for diesel engines.

- BACKGROUND AND summary of the INVENTION

For a long time was required to maximize fuel economy, power and quiet operation of vehicles with diesel engines, at the same time increasing acceleration, reducing emissions and preventing the delay of the launch. While known to increase the efficiency of a gasoline engine by using a dispersant to maintain the valves and fuel injectors clean in injection engines in the inlet port, such dispersants of gasoline not necessarily efficient injection diesel engines. The reasons for this unpredictability is due to a number of differences between the compositions of the fuels that are suitable for such engines.

In addition, new technology engines require more effective supplements to maintain smooth running engines. Additives are required to maintain the fuel injectors in Chi�tote or for cleaning dirty injectors for engines with positive ignition and engines with compression ignition. Also designed the engines to run on alternative renewable fuels. These renewable fuels can include esters of fatty acids and other biofuels, which are known to cause the formation of deposits in fuel systems for engines. These deposits can reduce or completely block the flow of fuel, resulting in undesirable operation of the motor.

Some additives, such as Quaternary ammonium salts, which are cations and anions are linked by ionic bonds, were used in fuels, but may have a low solubility in fuels, and can form deposits in the fuel under certain conditions, fuel storage or operation of the engine. Also, these Quaternary ammonium salts may be ineffective for use in fuels containing components derived from renewable sources. Accordingly, there is the need for additives to the fuel, which are effective in cleaning the fuel injector or delivery systems, and the maintenance of fuel injectors operating with maximum efficiency.

Also low-sulfur diesel fuel and ultradiscrete diesel fuel currently are customary in the market for such engines. "The bottom�usernote" diesel fuel means a fuel, having a sulfur content of 50 ppm by mass or less, based on the total weight of the fuel. "Ultradiscrete" diesel fuel (ULSD) means a fuel having a sulfur content of 15 ppm by mass or less, based on the total weight of the fuel. Ultradiscrete fuel have a more pronounced tendency to the formation of deposits in diesel engines than conventional fuels, for example, due to the need for additional friction modifiers and/or corrosion inhibitors in low sulfur diesel fuels.

In accordance with the invention in specific embodiments is a composition of diesel fuel for an internal combustion engine, a method of increasing the efficiency of the fuel injectors and method of cleaning fuel injectors of an internal combustion engine. The fuel composition includes a major amount of fuel and the minimum effective quantity of the reaction product (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and (ii) at least one halogen-substituted carboxylic acids With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt, where the resulting reaction product essentially does not contain free of anionic substances.

In another embodiment of the invention, there is provided a method of increasing the efficiency injecto�and diesel engine. The method includes operating the engine with a fuel composition comprising major amount of fuel and from about 5 to about 200 ppm by weight, based on the total weight of the fuel, the reaction product of (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and (ii) at least one halogen-substituted carboxylic acids With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt, where the resulting reaction product essentially does not contain free of anionic substances. The reaction product is present in the fuel, it is effective to increase the efficiency of the injector of the engine, at least about 80% when measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

In an additional embodiment of the invention provides a method of operating a fuel injected diesel engine. The method involves the detonation in the engine a fuel composition comprising major amount of fuel and from about 5 to about 500 ppm by weight, based on the total weight of the fuel, the reaction product of (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and (ii) at least one halogen-substituted carboxylic acids With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt, where the resulting reaction product, essentially, not sod�RIT free anionic substances.

In another embodiment of the invention, there is provided an additive concentrate for a fuel for use in diesel engine. The additive concentrate includes the reaction product (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and (ii) at least one halogen-substituted carboxylic acids With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt, where the resulting reaction product essentially does not contain free of anionic substances; and at least one component selected from the group consisting of diluents, agents that improve uniformity, corrosion inhibitors, agents which improve the fluidity at low temperatures (CFPP additive), which lower the pour point additives, solvents, demulsifiers, lubricity additives, friction modifiers, amine stabilizers, additives for combustion intensification, dispersants, antioxidants, thermal stabilizers, amplifiers permeability, metal deactivators, marker dyes, organic nitrate ignition accelerators and cyclomatic tricarbonyl of manganese compounds.

The advantage of the fuel additive described in the present description, is that the additive may not only reduce the amount of sediment formed in the fuel injectors, but n�sadka can also be effective for cleaning dirty fuel injectors, to increase energy recovery to the engine.

Additional options for implementation and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in the detailed description which follows, and/or can be understood by the invention. It should be understood that the foregoing General description and the following detailed description are illustrative and explanatory, and are not limiting the present invention.

DETAILED description of the SPECIFIC VARIANTS of IMPLEMENTATION

Component fuel additive according to this application can be used in the minimum amount of main fuel, and it can be added directly to the fuel or to add as a component of concentrate fuel additive. Particularly suitable component fuel additive for improved operation of internal combustion engines can be obtained by a wide number of well known methods of conducting reactions with amines or polyamines. For example, such additive component can be obtained by reaction of a tertiary amine of the formula

in which each of R1, R2and R3choose from hydrocarbonrich groups containing from 1 to 200 carbon atoms, with halogen-substituted carboxylic acid With2-C8, ester, amide or salt. What should the house�systems that can be used in the reaction, so it quaternized means selected from the group consisting of a substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted carboxylates, carbonates, cyclic carbonates, phenolate, epoxies or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment of the halogen-substituted carboxylic acid, C2-C8, ester, amide or its salt can choose from chloro-, bromo-, fluoro - and iodo-carboxylic acid, C2-C8, esters, amides or salts. Salt can be a salt of alkali or alkaline earth metals selected from salts of sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium and magnesium. Particularly suitable halogen-substituted compound for use in the reaction is the sodium salt of Chloroacetic acid.

In the form in which it is used in the present description, the term “gidrolabilna group” or “substituted hydrocarbyl” is used in its ordinary meaning, which is well known to those skilled in the art. Specifically, it refers to a group having a carbon atom directly attached to the remainder of the molecule and having predominantly hydrocarbon character. Examples hydrocarbonrich groups include:

(1) hydrocarbon substituents, i.e., aliphatic (e.g., alkyl or alkenyl), alicyclic (e.g., cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl) substituents, and aromatic, alifaticheskii and electrichesky substituted�s aromatic substituents, as well as cyclic substituents in which the ring is closed through another part of the molecule (e.g., two Deputy together form an alicyclic radical);

(2) substituted hydrocarbon substituents, i.e., substituents containing non-hydrocarbon groups which, in the context of describing the present invention do not alter the predominantly hydrocarbon substituent (e.g., halo (especially chloro and fluoro), hydroxy, alkoxy, merkapto, allylmercaptan, nitro, nitroso, amino, alkylamino and sulfoxy);

(3) heteroatomic substituents, i.e., substituents which, while having a predominantly hydrocarbon character, in the context of this description, contain an atom other than carbon in a ring or chain otherwise composed of carbon atoms. Heteroatoms include sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and encompass substituents such as carbonyl, amido, imido, pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, ureil and imidazolyl. In General, for every ten carbon atoms gidrolabilna group will be present no more than two, or, as a further example, no more than one non-hydrocarbon Deputy; in some embodiments, non-hydrocarbon substituents in gidrolabilna the group will not appear.

In the form in which it is used in the present description, the term “major amount” STP�denotes the number greater than or equal to 50 wt.%, for example, from about 80 to about 98 wt%. relative to the total weight of the composition. Moreover, the form in which it is used in the present description, the term “minimum amount” means an amount less than 50 wt%. relative to the total weight of the composition.

In the form in which it is used in the present description, the term “essentially does not contain free of anionic substances” means that the anions are mainly covalently associated with the product so that the resulting reaction product does not contain any significant or measurable quantities of free anions or anions, which are ion associated with the product.

Amine compound

In one embodiment, the implementation of a tertiary amine, including monoamines and polyamines, you can enter into reaction with the halogen-substituted acetic acid or its derivatives. You can use a suitable tertiary amine compounds of the formula

in which each of R1, R2and R3choose from hydrocarbonrich groups containing from 1 to 200 carbon atoms. Each gidrolabilna group, R1-R3can independently be a linear, branched, substituted, cyclic, saturated, unsaturated, or contain one or more heteroatoms. Suitable hydrocarb�official group may include, but are not limited to, alkyl groups, aryl groups, alkylaryl group, arylalkyl group, alkoxygroup, aryloxy groups, amide groups, ester groups, imide groups and the like. Particularly suitable gidrolabilna group can be linear or branched alkyl groups. Some illustrative examples of amine reactants which can enter into reaction with the formation of compounds according to this invention, are: trimethylamine, triethylamine, tri-n-Propylamine, dimethylethylamine, dimethylbutylamine, dimethylaniline, dimethylstyrene, dimethylamylamine, dimethyloctadecyl, N-demerol, N,N'-dimethylpiperazine, N-methyl-N'-ethylpiperazine, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorpholine, N-hydroxyethylation, pyridine, triethanolamine, triisopropanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, dimethylethanolamine, lauryldimethylamine, stelldichein, dilemmatraining, dimethylethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, dimethyldiphenylamine, dimethylbutylamine, dimethylethanolamine, ethyldiethanolamine, dibutylethanolamine, triethylenediamine, hexamethylenetetramine, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpropylenediamine, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine, methyldicyclohexylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyridine, dimethylcyclohexylamine, S10-C30-alkyl - or alkenylamine�tion aminopropyldimethylamine, With12-C200-alkyl - or alkenylamine succinylcholine and the like.

If the amine contains a primary or secondary amino group, it is necessary to preaccelerated at least one primary or secondary amino groups to tertiary amino group prior to reaction with the halogen-substituted carboxylic acid With2-C8, ester, amide or salt. In one embodiment of the alkylation of primary amines and secondary amines, or mixtures of tertiary amines may be exhaustive or partial with the formation of tertiary amines. In particular, it is necessary to consider the presence of protons, United with nitrogen, and use a base or acid, depending on the situation (for example, allilyova to tertiary amine requires removal (neutralization) of the proton in the product of alkylation. If using alkylating agents, such as alkylhalogenide or diallylsulfide, the product of alkylation of primary or secondary amine is a protonated salt and requires the base to release the amine for the purpose of conducting a further response.

Halogen-substituted carboxylic acid With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt may be derived from mono-, di - or tri - chlorine-, bromine-, fluorine - or idirsholas acid, ester, amide or salt, you�early from the group consisting of halogen-substituted acetic acid, propane acid, butane acid, isopropanol acid, acid isobutene, tert-butane acid, pentane acid, heptane acid, octanoic acid, halogenosilanes acid and isomers, esters, amides and their salts. Salts of carboxylic acids may include salts of alkaline or alkaline earth metals or ammonium salts, including, but not limited to, Na, Li, K, Ca, Mg, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids. Particularly suitable component, you can choose from Chloroacetic acid and chloracetate sodium. The number of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids With2-C8, ester, amide or its salt relative to the amount of reagent is a tertiary amine can vary from a molar ratio from about 1:0.1 to about 0.1:1,0.

In some aspects of the present application, the reaction product compositions of the present invention can be used in combination with a fuel-soluble carrier. Such carriers can be of various types such as liquid or solid substances, such as waxes. Examples of liquid carriers include, but are not limited to, mineral oil and oxygenates, such as liquid polyalkoxysiloxanes ethers (also known as�ultilingual or polyalkylene ethers), liquid polyalkoxysiloxanes phenols, liquid polyalkoxysiloxanes esters, liquid polyalkoxysiloxanes amines and mixtures thereof. Examples oxygenated carriers can be found in U.S. patent No. 5752989, issued may 19, 1998, Henly et al., description of which media is included in this description fully by reference. Additional examples oxygenated carriers include the alkyl-substituted allpolitical described in patent publication U.S. No. 2003/0131527 published July 17, 2003 Colucci et al., the description of which is included in this description fully by reference.

In other aspects, the reaction products may not contain media. For example, some compositions of the present invention may not contain mineral oil or oxygenates, such as oxygenates, described above.

In the fuel compositions of the disclosed variants of implementation may be present one or more additional optional compounds. For example, the fuels may contain conventional amounts of additives that increase the cetane number, corrosion inhibitors, agents that improve the fluidity at low temperatures (CFPP additive), which lower the pour point additives, solvents, demulsifiers, lubricity additives, friction modifiers, amine stabilizers, additives for combustion intensification of dispersants, antioxidants, thermal stabilizers, amplifiers permeability, metal deactivators, marker dyes, organic nitrate ignition accelerators, cyclomatic tricarbonyl of manganese compounds and the like. In some aspects the compositions described in the present description, can contain about 10 wt%. or less, in other aspects, about 5 wt%. or less of one or more of the above additives, based on the total weight of the additive concentrate. In this way, fuel may contain suitable quantities of an ordinary fuel components, such as methanol, ethanol, dulcelina ethers and the like.

In some aspects of the disclosed embodiments can be used organic nitrate ignition accelerators, which include aliphatic or cycloaliphatic nitrates, in which the aliphatic or cycloaliphatic group is saturated, and containing up to 12 carbon atoms. Examples of the organic nitrate ignition accelerators that can be used are methyl nitrate, amylnitrate, propellant, isopropylated, allinity, butylnitrite, isobutylated, second-butylnitrite, tert-butylnitrite, amylnitrate, isoaminile, 2-amylnitrate, 3-amylnitrate, geksillaurat, heptylmethyl, 2-heptylmethyl,�dinitrate, isooctene, 2-ethylhexyl, noninitial, decilitre, undecylenate, dodecandra, cyclopentylmethyl, cyclohexylmethyl, methylcyclohexylamine, cyclododecene, 2-ethoxyethylacetate, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)amylnitrate, tetrahydrofuranyl and the like. It is also possible to use mixtures of such materials.

Examples of suitable optional metal deactivators suitable for compositions according to the present application, are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4482357, issued November 13, 1984, the disclosure of which is included in this description fully by reference. Such metal deactivators include, for example, salicylidene-o-aminophenol, diallyldimethylammonium, disalicyloylmorphine and N,N'-disalicylidene-1,2-diaminopropane.

Suitable optional cyclomatic tricarbonyl manganese compounds that can be used in the compositions according to the present application include, for example, tsiklopentadieniltrikarbonil manganese, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese, manganese and ethylcyclopentadienyl manganese. Still other examples of suitable cyclomatic tricarbonyl manganese compounds are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 5575823, issued November 19, 1996, and in U.S. patent No. 3015668, issued January 2, 1962, the disclosure of which is incorporated into this �Scriptures as a reference.

Other available on the market of detergents can be used in combination with the reaction products described in the present description. Such detergents include, but are not limited to, the succinimides, detergents - Mannich bases, Quaternary ammonium detergents, bis-aminotriazole detergents, as is generally described in the patent application U.S. No. 13/450638, and the reaction product substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted dicarboxylic acid or anhydride, and aminoguanidine, where the reaction product has less than one equivalent aminotriazoles groups per molecule, as described in United States patent application Nos. 13/240233 and 13/454697.

In preparing the compositions of fuel on the application of the additive can be applied in amounts sufficient to reduce or inhibit the formation of deposits in the fuel system or combustion chamber of the engine and/or crankcase. In some aspects, the fuels may contain the minimum quantity of the above reaction product, which regulates, or reduces the formation of engine deposits, for example, deposits in the injectors of diesel engines. For example, diesel fuel by this application may contain, counting on the active ingredient, the amount of reaction product in the range of about 5 mg to about 200 mg of reaction product per kg of fuel, such as in the range of about 1 mg - about 150 mg per kg of fuel or in the range from about 30 mg to about 100 mg per kg of fuel. In aspects where the used media, the fuel composition may contain, based on the active ingredient, the carrier amount in the range of about 1 mg to about 100 mg of carrier per kg of fuel, such as about 5 mg to about 50 mg of carrier per kg of fuel. The calculation of the active ingredient excludes the weight of (i) unreacted components as received and used the product and remaining within it, and (ii) solvent(s), if any, used(s) in the production of the product either during its formation or after, but before adding media, if the media is used.

The additives of the present application, including the reaction product described above, and optional additives used in the preparation of fuels according to this invention, can be mixed to the main diesel fuel individually or in various Podrabinek. In some embodiments, the components of the additives of the present application can be mixed to diesel fuel concurrently using an additive concentrate, as this gives the benefit of the mutual compatibility and convenience afforded by the combination of ingredients when they are in the form of an additive concentrate. Also, the use of concentrate� can reduce the mixing time and reduce the chance of mixing errors.

Fuel according to the present application may be applicable to the operation of the diesel engine. The motor includes stationary engines (e.g., engines used in installations of electric power generation, pumping stations, etc.) and mobile engines (e.g., engines used as the source of driving force in automobiles, trucks, equipment for grading roads, military vehicles, etc.). For example, the fuel may include any and all gas oil fuel, diesel fuel, biogasanlage fuel, biodiesel, synthetic liquid fuels (GTL) jet fuel, alcohols, ethers, kerosene, low sulfur fuels, synthetic fuels, such as fuel Fischer-Tropsch process, liquid petroleum gas, fuel for marine engines, liquid fuel from coal (CTL), liquid biofuels from biomass (BTL), vysokooktanovye fuel, fuels derived from coal (natural, cleaned, and petcoke), genetically engineered biofuels and crops and extracts of them, and natural gas. "Biogasanlage fuel, in the form in which they are used in this description is understood to mean any fuel which is produced from resources other than petroleum. Such resources include, but are not limited�justed them corn, maize, soybeans and other crops; grasses, such as switchgrass, miscanthus grasses, and hybrid grass; seaweed, sea grass, vegetable oils; natural oils; and mixtures thereof. In the aspect, biogasanlage fuel may include monohydroxyl alcohols, such as comprising from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms. Non-limiting examples of suitable monohydroxylic alcohols include methanol, ethanol, propanol, n-butanol, Isobutanol, t-butyl alcohol, amyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol.

Diesel fuel that can be used include low-sulfur diesel fuel and ultradiscrete diesel fuel. "Low-sulfur" diesel fuel means a fuel having a sulfur content of 50 ppm by mass or less, based on the total weight of the fuel. "Ultradiscrete" diesel fuel (ULSD) means a fuel having a sulfur content of 15 ppm by mass or less, based on the total weight of fuel.

Accordingly, aspects of the present invention is directed to methods of reducing the amount of deposits on the injectors of the engine, having at least one combustion chamber and one or more direct fuel injectors in fluid communication with the combustion chamber. In another aspect, the reaction products described in the present description, can be combined�to function with succinimide detergents, derivatives succinimide detergents and/or Quaternary ammonium salts having one or more polyolefin groups; such as Quaternary ammonium salts of polemoniaceae, poligidroksialkanoatov; polyhydrocarbons the Mannich compounds; polyhydrocarbons amides and esters. The above Quaternary ammonium salts may be disclosed, for example, in U.S. patents№№ 3468640; 3778371; 4056531; 4171959; 4253980; 4326973; 4338206; 4787916; 5254138; 7906470; 7947093; 7951211; the publication U.S. No. 2008/0113890; European patent applications Nos. EP 0293192; EP 2033945; and PCT application no WO 2011/110860.

In some aspects the methods include the injection of fuel with compression-ignition on the basis of hydrocarbons, comprising the reaction product of the present invention, through the injectors of the diesel engine into the combustion chamber, and detonation of fuel by compression ignition. In some aspects the method can also include mixing with diesel fuel, at least one of the optional components described above.

The fuel composition described in the present description, are suitable for diesel engines with direct injection and prechamber. Diesel engines with direct injection include engines with a battery fuel high pressure system.

In one embodiment implemented�of Tulane diesel fuel according to this application may be, essentially free, such as devoid of the usual succinimide dispersant compounds. In another embodiment of the fuel is essentially free of Quaternary ammonium salts of hydrocarboncontaining or Quaternary ammonium salts substituted hydrocarbyl-manniche. The term "essentially free" is defined for purposes of this application, to provide a concentration of essentially not having a measurable impact on the cleanliness of the injector or the formation of deposits.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are for illustrative specific embodiments of the invention. In these examples, as elsewhere in this application, all parts and percentages are given by weight, unless otherwise indicated. It is implied that these examples are presented only for illustrative purposes and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention disclosed in the present description.

Comparative example 1

The additive obtained from the reaction polyisobutylene anhydride (PIBSA) with the molecular weight of 950 with Tetraethylenepentamine (TERA) in a molar ratio of PIBSA/TEPA = 1/1. Used a modified technique US 5752989. PIBSA (551 g) was diluted with 200 grams of aromatic solvent 150 in a nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was heated to 115°C. Then, using the dropping funnel was added TERA. Drip in�the PMCs was washed with an additional 50 grams of aromatic solvent 150. The mixture was heated to 180°C for about 2 hours in a slow current of nitrogen. Water was collected in the trap Dean-stark. The resulting product was a brown oil.

Comparative example 2

A detergent was prepared by combining the reaction product hidrocarbonetos dicarboxylic acid or anhydride, and aminoguanidine, where the reaction product contains less than one equivalent of aminotriazole groups per molecule, as, in General, is described in United States patent application Nos. 13/240233 and 13/454697 in a weight ratio of 4.8:1 with available on the market for Quaternary ammonium salt, namely, bis-hydrogenated tallow-acetate dimethylammonio to create a detergent additive.

Comparative example 3

A detergent was prepared by combining the compounds as obtained in comparative example 1 in a weight ratio of 3:3:1, with biomimetically detergent, as described in the patent application U.S. No. 13/450638, and available on the market for Quaternary ammonium salt, namely, bis-hydrogenated tallow-acetate dimethylammonio to create a detergent additive.

Comparative example 4

Used available on the market for Quaternary ammonium salt of polyisobutenylsuccinic (PIBSI), which supposedly represents a Quaternary ammonium salt derived from propylene oxide, in the amount of 125 ppm by weight of alsacemoselle fuel.

Example 1 according to the invention

Received polyisobutenylsuccinic (PIBSI) detergent, as in comparative example 1, except that instead of TERA used dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA). Received PIBSI-detergent (approximately 200 g, 78% wt. in aromatic solvent) was coupled with 17.8 grams of CHLOROACETATE sodium (SCA), 81 grams of deionized water, 58 g of an aromatic solvent and 76 grams of isopropanol, and heated at 80°C for 2.5 hours, then at 85°C for 1 hour. The reaction product was extracted with heptane, and the heptane layer was washed with water five times to remove sodium chloride from the reaction product. Volatiles were removed from the reaction product under reduced pressure with the formation of the salt product, which was a brownish oil.

Example 2 according to the invention

The reaction product was obtained like in example 1 according to the invention, except that the PIBSA with the molecular weight of 950 replaced PIBSA with the molecular weight of 1300, and the reaction mixture was mixed with toluene to remove water by azeotropic distillation, and the resulting product was filtered using a filter with diatomaceous earth instead of extraction heptane for the purpose of removing sodium chloride from the reaction product. Volatiles were removed from the reaction product� under reduced pressure with the formation of the salt product, which was a brownish oil.

Example 3 according to the invention

The reaction product was obtained similarly to example 2 of the invention, except that PIBSI with the molecular weight of 1300 was replaced by realmediasplitter (OD). The reaction product was mixed with an aromatic solvent, 2-ethylhexanol with obtaining a yellow liquid.

The following example was carried out the test on deposits in the injector of a diesel engine using a standard test fuel injector industrial diesel engine CEC F-98-08 (DW10), as described below.

The test report diesel engine

The DW10 test, which was developed by the Coordinating European Council (CEC), was used to demonstrate the tendency of fuels to cause contamination of the fuel injector, and was also used to demonstrate the ability of certain additives to the fuel to prevent or regulate these deposits. In evaluations of additives used in the CEC F-98-08 for direct injection tests on the formation of carbon deposits on the injectors of a diesel engine with a battery fuel supply system. Dinoland was used to test the formation of deposits on diesel engine Peugeot DW10. The engine was a 2.0-liter engine with four cylinders. Every� combustion chamber contained four valves, and the fuel injectors were a piezo-injectors DI classified as grade Euro-V.

The basic procedure of the Protocol consisted of operation of the engine during the 8-hour cycle, and giving opportunities to the engine stand (engine off) for a given amount of time. The above sequence was repeated four times. At the end of each hour measured engine power, while the engine is operated under nominal conditions. The tendency of fuel to contamination of the injector is characterized by the difference in the observed nominal output between the beginning and end of each cycle.

Preparation for the test included the scavenging fuel from previous test from the engine before removing the injectors. Have the injectors inspected, cleaned and re-installed in the engine. If choosing new injectors, new injectors was passed through a 16-hour cycle. Then the engine is started using the next test cycle. Once the engine has warmed up, the measured power at 4000 rpm and full load to check the full restoration of power after cleaning the injectors. If the measured power values were within specifications, started a test cycle. In the following table 1 shows the mapping�tion cycle fouling DW10, which was used for the evaluation of fuel additives in accordance with the invention.

Using the above test procedure, the engine felt different fuel additives in ultramicrochemical diesel fuel containing neodecanoate zinc, 2-ethylhexyl and the ester of fatty acid friction modifier (main fuel). Started with a phase of "pollution" that consists of a primary fuel without additives, followed by phase "clean", consisting of a main fuel plus 10 percent biodiesel additive. All cycles were performed with 8 hours of pollution and 8 hours of cleaning, unless stated otherwise. The recovery capacity was calculated using a power measurement at the end of phase "pollution" and measure the power at the end of phase "clean". The recovery capacity was determined by the following formula:

Recovery power = (DU-CU)DU×100,

where DU represents the proportion of power loss at the end of phase pollutants without the additive, CU is the portion of power at the end of phase cleaning additive to the fuel, and power measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

Table 2
ExamplePR�cages and the extent of processing (ppm by mass) Power loss, % DUPower loss, % CU
1The compound of comparative example 1 (180 ppm)-4,76-4,46
2The mixture of detergents from comparative example 2 (145 ppm)-3,62-1,95
3The mixture of detergents from comparative example 3 (140 ppm)-4,09-3,67
4The detergent of comparative example 4-3,67-2,4
5The compound of example 2 according to the invention (250 ppm)-1,181,31
6The compound of example 2 according to the invention (125 ppm) and 30 ppm of detergent, made in accordance with the patent applications U.S. №№ 13/240233 and 13/454697-3,61-0,39

7 The compound of example 3 according to the invention (50 ppm and 75 ppm of detergent, made in accordance with the patent applications U.S. №№ 13/240233 and 13/454697minus 4.6to -0.05

As shown by the preceding examples 5-7, the detergent or mixture of detergents containing the reaction product described in the present description, provide a significant improvement in the recovery of power loss compared to conventional detergents in diesel fuels (examples 1-4).

For comparison purposes, also determined the balance of interest test engine XUD9, as shown in table 3. Method XUD9 test is designed to assess the ability of the fuel to control the formation of deposits on injectors injectors of a diesel engine with pre-chamber. The results of test cycles in accordance with test method XUD9 expressed in terms of loss of air flow in percent at various points in the lift of the injector. Measurements of air flow were carried out using the stand for the flow of air that meets ISO 4010.

Before the test injector nozzles cleaned and checked the flow of air when climbing 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,3 and 0,4 mm Nozzle was discarded if the air flow was outside the range of 250 ml/min - 320 ml/min lifting in 0.1 mm. Nozzle mounted in the housing engineers�tori, and the output pressure was set at 115±5 bar. The engine also installed an auxiliary set of injectors. Fuel with previous tests were leaked from the system. The engine operated for 25 minutes with the aim of cleaning the fuel system. During this time all the excess fuel was discarded and not returned back. The engine is then installed in the test speed and load, and checked all the settings, and to regulate the conditions of the test. Then the auxiliary injectors replaced on the test device. The air flow was measured before and after the test. To compute the share of pollution used an average of 4 threads of the injectors when climbing 0.1 mm. the Degree of residual flow = 100-percentage of pollution. The results are shown in the following table.

The compound of example 1 according to the invention (50 ppm)
Table 3
ExampleAdditives and the degree of treatment (ppm by mass)0.1 mm rise,
Residual flow, %
1The compound of comparative example 1 (50 ppm)46
291

As shown in the preceding example, in cycles 2, 3 and 4 from table 2 showed a significant restoration of power during cleaning compared to conventional detergent cycle 1. Similarly, in cycle 2 in table 3 was shown a significant ability to maintain a high flow rate in the fuel injectors compared to conventional fuel detergent of cycle 1. It is believed that the disclosed reaction products, as described in the present description, can be effective to maintain the surfaces of the fuel injectors of the engine clean, and can be used for cleaning dirty fuel injectors.

Note that, in the form in which they are used in this description and the attached claims, the singular form "a", "an" and "the" include plural forms of objects references, if clear and unambiguous manner not specified on a single link object. So, for example, reference to "an antioxidant" includes two or more different antioxidants. In the form in which it is used in the present description, the term "include" and its grammatical variants are intended to be non-limiting, so that the order of items in the list is not aimed at �iskluchenie other similar items it is possible to replace or add to the listed items.

For purposes of this description and the attached claims, unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities, percentages or proportions, and other numerical values used in the description and the claims, should be understood as modified in all instances by the term "about". Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters given in the following description and the attached claims are approximations that may vary depending on the desired properties to be obtained using the present invention. In an extreme case, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims of the claims, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number contained significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques.

While have described the different implementation options, before applicants or other specialists in this field of technology there may be alternatives, modifications, changes, improvements, and substantial equivalents that are or may be presently unforeseen. Accordingly, the claims in the form as it would�and stated in the form in which it may be modified, is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications, changes, improvements, and substantial equivalents.

1. The fuel composition for a fuel injected diesel engine comprising a main fuel and a minor effective amount of the reaction product (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl - or alkenylamine of aminopropyldimethylamine and C12-C200-alkyl - or alkenylamine of succinylcholine, and (ii) salts of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8and the reaction product essentially does not contain ecovalence associated anionic substances and a minor effective amount of the reaction product is sufficient to increase the efficiency of the engine.

2. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the fuel has a sulfur content of 50 hours/million or less.

3. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the amines are selected from the group consisting of realminutedelay and aminopropyldimethylamine coconut oil.

4. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which gidrolabilna substituted hydrocarbyl group-substituted compounds you�playing from the band consisting of linear, branched, substituted, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated compounds and compounds containing one or more heteroatoms.

5. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which gidrolabilna substituted hydrocarbyl group-substituted compound selected from alkyl and alkenyl groups.

6. The fuel composition according to claim 1 in which from about 0.1 to
approximately 1.0 mole of (i) enter into reaction with from about 1.0 to about 0.1 mole of (ii).

7. The fuel composition according to claim 1 in which the salt of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8is chloracetate sodium.

8. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the amount of reaction product in the fuel ranges from about 5 to about 200 hours/million by weight, based on the total weight of fuel.

9. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the amount of reaction product in the fuel ranges from about 10 to about 150 hours/million by weight, based on the total weight of fuel.

10. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the amount of reaction product in the fuel ranges from about 30 to about 100 part per million by weight, based on the total weight of fuel.

11. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the fuel contains biodiesel components, and in which a specified improved the efficiency of the engine includes the restoration of engine power of at least about 80% PR� measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

12. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the fuel contains biodiesel components, and in which a specified improved the efficiency of the engine includes the restoration of engine power of at least about 90% when measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

13. The fuel composition according to claim 1, in which the fuel contains biodiesel components, and in which a specified improved the efficiency of the engine includes the restoration of engine power of at least about 100% when measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

14. A method for improving the efficiency of the injector fuel injected diesel engine comprising operating the engine on a fuel composition that includes the basic amount of fuel that contains biodiesel components, and from about 5 to about 200 hours/million by weight, based on the total weight of the fuel, the reaction product of (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl - or alkenylamine of aminopropyldimethylamine and C12-C200-alkyl - or alkenylamine of succinylcholine, and (ii) salts of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8where the resulting product is re�functions, essentially, does not contain ecovalence associated anionic substances, and where the reaction product is present in the fuel, improves the efficiency of the injector of the engine, at least 80% when measured in accordance with test CEC F98-08 DW10.

15. A method according to claim 14, wherein the engine includes a diesel engine with direct fuel injection.

16. A method according to claim 15 in which the salt of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8is chloracetate sodium.

17. A method according to claim 15, in which gidrolabilna substituted hydrocarbyl group-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of linear, branched, substituted, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated compounds and compounds containing one or more heteroatoms.

18. A method of operating a fuel injected diesel engine comprising a combustion engine fuel composition,
including the basic amount of fuel and from about 5 to about 200 ppm by weight, based on the total weight of the fuel, the reaction product of (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl - or alkenylamine of aminopropyldimethylamine and C12-C200-alkyl - or alkenylamine succinylcoa�of Berdimuhamedov, and (ii) salts of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8where the obtained reaction product essentially does not contain ecovalence associated anionic substances.

19. A method according to claim 18, in which gidrolabilna substituted hydrocarbyl group-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of linear, branched, substituted, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated compounds and compounds containing one or more heteroatoms.

20. A method according to claim 18, in which the salt of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8is chloracetate sodium.

21. Concentrate fuel additive for use in fuel injected diesel engine, comprising the reaction product of (i) substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compounds containing at least one tertiary amino group, and substituted hydrocarbyl-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl - or alkenylamine of aminopropyldimethylamine and C12-C200-alkyl - or alkenylamine of succinylcholine, and (ii) salts of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8where the obtained reaction product essentially does not contain ecovalence associated anionic substances; and at least one component selected from the group consisting of diluents, carrier fluids,
agents that improve odnorodnost�, agents that improve the cetane number, corrosion inhibitors, agents that improve the fluidity at low temperatures (CFPP additive), which lower the pour point additives, solvents, demulsifiers, lubricity additives, friction modifiers, amine stabilizers, additives for combustion intensification, dispersants, antioxidants, thermal stabilizers, amplifiers permeability, metal deactivators, marker dyes, organic nitrate ignition accelerators and cyclomatic tricarbonyl of manganese compounds.

22. The additive concentrate according to claim 21, in which gidrolabilna substituted hydrocarbyl group-substituted compound selected from the group consisting of linear, branched, substituted, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated compounds and compounds containing one or more heteroatoms.

23. The additive concentrate according to claim 21, in which the salt of halogen-substituted carboxylic acids (C2-C8is chloracetate sodium.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an emulsifying composition intended to homogenise and re-emulsify a fuel, comprising by weight, with respect to the total weight of the said composition, the following mixture i), comprising a) from 5% to 40% of N-oleyl-1,3-propylenediamine, b) from 60% to 95%, by weight, of N,N′,N′-polyoxyethylene-N-tallowpropylenediamine and ii) from 5% to 40% of isopropylbenzene or kerosene, added to the initial mixture. The invention also relates to a fuel, containing the above composition and a process of the fuel manufacture. The present invention also relates to the process of preparation and to the use of the (re)emulsifying composition.

EFFECT: improved fuel performance, the fuel is stable over time.

12 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition of aircraft non-ethylated gasoline, which contains gasoline of catalytic reforming, alkylgasoline, toluene and an antiknock additive, and the composition additionally contains a gasoline fraction, boiling out in ranges of 62-85°C, and as the antiknock additive - monomethylaniline and methyltertbutyl ether with the following component ratio, wt %: alkylgasoline 15.0-25.0; toluene 10.0-20.0; gasoline fraction, boiling out in the range of 62-85°C, 20.0-35.0; monomethylaniline 1.5-3.0; methyltertbutyl ether 5.0-10.0; catalytic reforming gasoline - the remaining part.

EFFECT: reduction of the toxicity of the non-ethylated aircraft gasoline without the deterioration of exploitation properties, regulated by the GOST requirements 1012-72, with the simultaneous extension of the nomenclature of piston engines of internal combustion of the domestic and foreign production, using aircraft gasoline.

3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate and, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine in liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which contains less than 50 ppm of water, to reduce or essensially eliminate the formation of ice particles with the weight average particle size larger than 1 mcm, in the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel, when the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel is cooled to temperatures, which are in the range from 0 to -50°C, where the quantity of the said, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate in the said fuel constitutes from 45 to 4575 ppm by weight, and the quantity of the said, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine constitutes from 5 to 425 ppm by weight. Described is aviation fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particles formation. The invention also relates to a method of reducing or elimination of the formation of ice particles in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Also described is a method of an aircraft refuelling with the liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particle formation.

EFFECT: reduction or elimination of formation of ice plugs in fuel and fuel tanks of an aircraft with gas turbine engines.

13 cl, 4 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a lead-free fuel composition which contains: (a) as its basic part a mixture of hydrocarbons in the petrol boiling range and (b) a small amount of a mixture of additives comprising (i) one or more compounds of p-alkoxy-N-alkylaromatic amine of general formula

I,

wherein R13 is hydrogen and R12 is a methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl group, and (ii) one or more dicyclopentadienes; wherein components (b)(i) and (b)(ii) are present in the additive mixture in ratios ranging from about 1:19 to about 4:3. Also disclosed is a method of increasing the octane number of petrol, which includes adding small amounts of the disclosed additive mixture to the basic part of the petrol mixture. Described is a method of reducing deposits in the inlet valve of an internal combustion engine, which includes burning the disclosed fuel composition in said engine.

EFFECT: use of said additive mixture in a lead-free fuel composition increases the octane number of motor fuel and reduces deposits in the inlet valve of an internal combustion engine by burning the disclosed lead-free fuel composition.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining cetane-increasing additives to Diesel fuel, including nitration of secondary alcohols, where as the alcohols used is a fraction of secondary C6-C9 alcohols, obtained by a method of a liquid phase oxidation of a fraction of n- C6-C9 alkanes with a water solution of hydrogen peroxide in a methanol medium on a heterogenous catalyst DP-2, and further hydration of the reaction mass on a rigid cellular catalyst P1/ A2O3, nitration is carried out with a 5-10-fold molar excess of nitric acid with the concentration of 50-80% in the presence of 1-5 wt % of nitric acid of a heterogenous superacidic catalyst based on sulphated zirconium oxide - ZrO2/SO42- /γ-Al2O3 in the interval of temperatures from 0° to 10°C. To prevent oxidation of the fraction of C6-C9 alcohols with nitric acid the process is carried out in the presence of carbamide in an amount of 0.5-5%. With an addition of 0.5 wt % of an additive obtained in accordance with the claimed method a gain of cetane number in a quantity of 7-11 units is observed.

EFFECT: reduction of expenditures on raw material, reduction of an amount of sewage waters, reduction of the quantity of the process stages.

2 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.

EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.

9 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of reaction product (i), of compound, containing fragment -NR1R2, where R1 represents group, containing from 4 to 44 carbon atoms, and R2 represents hydrogen atom or group R1, and (ii) carboxylic acid, containing from 1 to 4 carboxylic groups, or said acid anhydride, or said acid chloride as additive for improvement of Bx fuel filterability at temperatures high than temperature of Bx fuel turbidity. Bx fuel includes fuel, obtained from sources, containing animal or vegetable oils, mixed with fuel, obtained from mineral or synthetic sources. Sulphur content in Bx fuel constitutes less than 200 ppm. Bx fuel contains at least 4 wt % of fuel, obtained from sources of animal or vegetable origin. Content of additive in Bx fuel (in form of active material) constitutes from 10 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg. Invention also relates to method of giving Bx fuel improved filterability at temperatures higher than temperature of its turbidity by inclusion into it of fuel additive, representing disclosed above product of reaction of (i) and (ii) compounds.

EFFECT: additives make it possible to eliminate problems in Bx fuels, caused by precipitation, taking place at temperatures higher than temperature of turbidity.

15 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a liquid fuel composition which includes liquid fuel and an additive in amount of 0.005-0.03 wt %, wherein the liquid fuel additive contains a metal salt of an organic acid with 15-18 carbon atoms in amount of 10-90 wt %, wherein the metal is located in the electrochemical activity series to the right of hydrogen, 1-5 wt % aromatic amine, 3-10 wt % succinimide polymer and 1-75 wt % glycerine.

EFFECT: improved antifriction, antiscoring, antioxidation and detergent properties of the fuel and protecting friction surfaces of components of the fuel equipment from wear.

8 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an additive for the increase of the cetane number of Diesel fuel based on alkylnitrate, characterised by the fact, that the additive represents an alkylnitrite-containing product of nitration of the fraction IBP-195°C, separated from the bottom residue of production of butyl alcohols and which contains isopentanol from 0 to 5.0 wt %, isoheptanols from 5.0 to 10.0 wt %, dimethylcyclohexanols from 5.0 to 10.0 wt %, isooctanols from 10.0 to 40.0 wt %, polybutoxybutanes from 0 to 15.0 wt %, dibutoxybutanes - the remaining part. The invention also relates to a method of obtaining the additive for the increase of the cetane number of Diesel fuel by nitration of the fraction IBP-195°C, separated from the bottom residue of production of butyl alcohols, by a mixture of sulphuric acid in the range of temperatures of 0-8°C for 1.0-1.5 hours.

EFFECT: application of the said fraction makes it possible to extend resources of the raw material for the production of the cetane-increasing additive, excludes the necessity of the said fraction separation, reduces expenditures for the additive obtaining, the application of the additive makes it possible to increase the cetane number of Diesel fuel.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of removing sediments from Diesel engine, including burning in engine fuel composition, which contains additive for engine purification, representing quaternary ammonium salt, where additive for engine purification is product of Mannich reaction, which takes place between: (a) aldehyde; (b) ammonia, hydrazine or amine; and (c) phenol, which can be substituted; and average molecular weight of single or each substituent of phenol component (c) constitutes less than 400, and where additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt is obtained in reaction of nitrogen-containing substance, which includes at least one tertiary aminogroup, and quatrerning agent. Invention also relates to fuel composition, which contains combination of additive for engine purification and additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt. Described is application of combination of quaternary ammonium salt and additive for engine purification for removing sediments from Diesel engine.

EFFECT: in application of claimed fuel composition in Diesel engine removal of sediments, in particular from sprayers, occurs, which leads to increase of sprayer service term duration without repair or substitution.

16 cl, 10 dwg, 7 ex, 6 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: depressor additive to Diesel fuel includes residual products of oil refining. The additive contains the product of oxidation of heavy pyrolysis resin and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with the following reagent ratio (wt %): oxidised heavy pyrolysis resin 30-38, alkylaromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, xylene) 62-70.

EFFECT: reduction of the Diesel fuel congelation temperature due to the introduction of the claimed additive into the fuel.

1 tbl

Fuel composition // 2547902

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition, which consists of sodium caboxylate and a carbon-containing compound, where as the carbon-containing compound applied is carbon powder, with the following component ratio, wt %: sodium carboxylate 40-50; carbon powder - the remaining part.

EFFECT: increase of the fuel composition stability, reduction of sulphur and ashes content, extension of the boiler fuel assortment.

1 tbl, 6 ex

Fuel composition // 2538608

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition for diesel engines, which includes middle-distillate liquid fuel and a cetane additive, wherein the additive is an alkyl nitrate-containing product of nitration of fraction NK-195°C of the still residue of the product of a propylene hydroformylation process, with the following ratio of components, wt %: alkyl nitrate-containing product of nitration of fractions NK-195°C of the still residue of the product of a propylene hydroformylation process - 0.01-1.00 and middle-distillate liquid fuel - 99.00-99.99.

EFFECT: high cetane number and improved lubricating power of fuel for diesel engines.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a viscosity-reducing additive for heavy oil fractions - tar oils, which is represented by sodium carboxylate being the waste of the vegetable oil production added to heavy oil fractions - tar oils in the quantity of 20-50 wt %.

EFFECT: reducing viscosity of heavy oil fractions - tar oils at addition of sodium carboxylate to them and increasing stability of the received mix.

3 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a lead-free fuel composition which contains: (a) as its basic part a mixture of hydrocarbons in the petrol boiling range and (b) a small amount of a mixture of additives comprising (i) one or more compounds of p-alkoxy-N-alkylaromatic amine of general formula

I,

wherein R13 is hydrogen and R12 is a methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl group, and (ii) one or more dicyclopentadienes; wherein components (b)(i) and (b)(ii) are present in the additive mixture in ratios ranging from about 1:19 to about 4:3. Also disclosed is a method of increasing the octane number of petrol, which includes adding small amounts of the disclosed additive mixture to the basic part of the petrol mixture. Described is a method of reducing deposits in the inlet valve of an internal combustion engine, which includes burning the disclosed fuel composition in said engine.

EFFECT: use of said additive mixture in a lead-free fuel composition increases the octane number of motor fuel and reduces deposits in the inlet valve of an internal combustion engine by burning the disclosed lead-free fuel composition.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the production procedure of petroleum coke with a low content of sulphur oxides in combustion gases, which is based on usage of substances binding sulphur. High-sulphur petroleum coke is saturated with an aqueous dispersion of shale-based substance binding sulphur, stirred up thoroughly to a paste-like state, water is evaporated at a temperature of 120-150°C up to the permanent weight and then cooled down.

EFFECT: reducing the sulphur oxide content in combustion gases.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining cetane-increasing additives to Diesel fuel, including nitration of secondary alcohols, where as the alcohols used is a fraction of secondary C6-C9 alcohols, obtained by a method of a liquid phase oxidation of a fraction of n- C6-C9 alkanes with a water solution of hydrogen peroxide in a methanol medium on a heterogenous catalyst DP-2, and further hydration of the reaction mass on a rigid cellular catalyst P1/ A2O3, nitration is carried out with a 5-10-fold molar excess of nitric acid with the concentration of 50-80% in the presence of 1-5 wt % of nitric acid of a heterogenous superacidic catalyst based on sulphated zirconium oxide - ZrO2/SO42- /γ-Al2O3 in the interval of temperatures from 0° to 10°C. To prevent oxidation of the fraction of C6-C9 alcohols with nitric acid the process is carried out in the presence of carbamide in an amount of 0.5-5%. With an addition of 0.5 wt % of an additive obtained in accordance with the claimed method a gain of cetane number in a quantity of 7-11 units is observed.

EFFECT: reduction of expenditures on raw material, reduction of an amount of sewage waters, reduction of the quantity of the process stages.

2 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a salt of iron and an organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms and sulphonic acids to reduce carbon content in fly ash obtained when burning coal. Described is coal treated with said salt of iron and an organic acid. The invention also describes methods of treating and burning coal by adding a salt of iron and an organic acid before or during combustion of coal in a furnace.

EFFECT: reduced content of carbon in fly ash obtained when burning coal in a furnace.

18 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.

EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.

9 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of reaction product (i), of compound, containing fragment -NR1R2, where R1 represents group, containing from 4 to 44 carbon atoms, and R2 represents hydrogen atom or group R1, and (ii) carboxylic acid, containing from 1 to 4 carboxylic groups, or said acid anhydride, or said acid chloride as additive for improvement of Bx fuel filterability at temperatures high than temperature of Bx fuel turbidity. Bx fuel includes fuel, obtained from sources, containing animal or vegetable oils, mixed with fuel, obtained from mineral or synthetic sources. Sulphur content in Bx fuel constitutes less than 200 ppm. Bx fuel contains at least 4 wt % of fuel, obtained from sources of animal or vegetable origin. Content of additive in Bx fuel (in form of active material) constitutes from 10 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg. Invention also relates to method of giving Bx fuel improved filterability at temperatures higher than temperature of its turbidity by inclusion into it of fuel additive, representing disclosed above product of reaction of (i) and (ii) compounds.

EFFECT: additives make it possible to eliminate problems in Bx fuels, caused by precipitation, taking place at temperatures higher than temperature of turbidity.

15 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition of aircraft non-ethylated gasoline, which contains gasoline of catalytic reforming, alkylgasoline, toluene and an antiknock additive, and the composition additionally contains a gasoline fraction, boiling out in ranges of 62-85°C, and as the antiknock additive - monomethylaniline and methyltertbutyl ether with the following component ratio, wt %: alkylgasoline 15.0-25.0; toluene 10.0-20.0; gasoline fraction, boiling out in the range of 62-85°C, 20.0-35.0; monomethylaniline 1.5-3.0; methyltertbutyl ether 5.0-10.0; catalytic reforming gasoline - the remaining part.

EFFECT: reduction of the toxicity of the non-ethylated aircraft gasoline without the deterioration of exploitation properties, regulated by the GOST requirements 1012-72, with the simultaneous extension of the nomenclature of piston engines of internal combustion of the domestic and foreign production, using aircraft gasoline.

3 tbl

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