Method of selection of horizontal monolith of soils and set of devices for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprises embedding along the genetic horizons of nth thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selector of the ith diameter with a pointed lower end of a triangular shape. The selection of the horizontal soil monolith from the pit is carried out with the number of cylinders-monolith-selectors k, equal to where i - number of the cylinder diameter (n > i > 1), n - number of cylinders of different diameters, ki - the number of repetitions of the cylinder of ith diameter (ki > 3). And each time, prior to selection of the horizontal soil monolith the inner surface of each used cylinder-monolith-selector is greased with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolith-selector is performed in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit stepwise with fixing the load of each step. The set of devices for selection of the horizontal soil monolith comprises the said k-th number of thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selectors and a metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector. The metal nozzle is provided with a cylindrical recess in one of its ends, which diameter is equal to the outer diameter of the cylinder-monolith-selector having a maximum diameter of n cylinder-monolith-selectors, and the axis of symmetry coincident with the axis of symmetry of the metal cylindrical nozzle. The set also comprises (n-1) washer with an outer diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and the thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end of the metal cylindrical nozzle with the ability of mounting of each of them to the recess, followed by fixing in it. The inner washer diameters are different and equal to the outer diameter of each of the (n-1) cylinder-monolith-selector, constituting a pair: washer-cylinder-monolith-selector. Set is provided with a screw press with a head and a heel of cylindrical shape and a shield with a recess on its axis of symmetry with the ability of mounting in it through the heel of the screw press. And in the other end of the metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector on its axis of symmetry a recess of cylindrical shape is made, the diameter and depth of which correspond to the diameter and thickness of the head of the screw press.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of sampling soil of undisturbed placement and increase in the accuracy of determining the water-physical and filtration properties of soil on genetic horizons of the soil profile, reduction of time for selection of the monolith and the complexity of operations in selection of quality horizontal soil sample.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in the selection of the horizontal monolith soil samples undisturbed (natural) addition in order to determine their water-physical and filtration properties during soil-reclamation research and studies for the construction, drainage and use of reclaimed land.

The known method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprising an indentation on the genetic horizons of the cutting cylinder with a volume of 250 cm3from the pit (Zaidelman F. R. Reclamation of waterlogged soils in non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR: the Reference book. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - P. 72). The method involves the indentation of a cylinder of small volume weight and the hands of the worker, does not take into account the need for the use of the cylinder of larger diameter and the effect of soil friction force on the inner surface of the cylinder and the closure velocity of the cylinder in soils on the quality of the selection of the monolith.

The known method of selection of vertical soil monolith (Patent RU №2505792, CL G01N 1/04, E02D 1/04, 2014), including the indentation of the n-th thin-walled metal cylinder-monolithologic of the i-th diameter with a pointed lower end of the triangular form by means of static weights, cylindrical shape, and the vertical selection, monolithic structures such as�and soil produce a number of cylinders-monolithologic to, equal

where

i - the number of the cylinder diameter (n≥i≥1),

n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,

Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki≥3), and then produce the dismantling of the set of applicable devices, removal of the soil above the cylinder, cutting of the monolith on the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic, lifting it to the surface of the soil, packaging and delivery to the place of trial.

A disadvantage of the known method of selection of vertical soil monolith is the inability to provide the indentation of the cutting cylinder-monolithologic statistical weights for the selection of horizontal soil monolith. In addition, the method of selection of vertical soil monolith, as described above, does not take into account the effect of soil friction force on the inner surface of the cylinder and the speed of the indentation of the cylinder in soils that violate the natural addition of the soil in the cylinder wall, which affects the quality of the selection of the monolith.

Known cutting cylinder with a volume of 250 cm3for selection of horizontal soil monolith from the pit (see paragraph 2 on page 1 description of the application), which is pressed against the body weight and the hands working on genetic horizons. But often in the selection of the monolith soil samples undisturbed (natural�o) by addition in order to determine their water-physical and filtration properties necessitate application of the cylinder of larger diameter and, furthermore, the implementation of selection of the sample of soil monolith with different number of cylinders-monolithologic with different or the same diameter several times to obtain reliable results.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed is a set of devices for selection of the vertical soil monolith, including K-th number of thin-walled metal cylinders-monolithologic with a pointed lower end triangular shape equal

where

i - the number of the cylinder diameter (n≥i≥1),

n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,

Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki≥3), cylindrical metal nozzle on the cylinder-monolithologic made with a hollow cylindrical shape at one of its ends, the diameter of which is equal to the external diameter of the cylinder-monolithologic having a maximum of n cylinders-monolithologic diameter, and the axis of symmetry coinciding with the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical metal nozzle, and (n-1) washer with an outside diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and a thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end face of a cylindrical metal nozzle, with the possibility of installing each of them in the recess, followed by fixing in it moreover, the inner diameters of the washers unequal and equal outer diameter� each of (n-1) of the cylinder-monolithologic, making a couple: puck - cylinder-monolithologic (Patent RU 2505792 ABOUT, TC. G01N 1/04 and E02D 1/04, 2014; prototype).

The disadvantage is the impossibility of its use for the selection of horizontal soil monolith.

The problem solved by the invention is to improve the quality of the selection of the horizontal monolith soil samples undisturbed (natural) addition to determine their water-physical and filtration properties of the genetic horizons of the soil profile and the creation of a set of devices for implementing the claimed method.

The technical result consists in increasing the accuracy of determination of water-physical and filtration properties of soil genetic horizons of the soil profile, and reduction in time in the selection of the monolith and the complexity of work in selecting quality horizontal soil samples.

Put in the invention the task is solved in that in the method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprising an indentation on the genetic horizons of the n-th thin-walled metal cylinder-monolithologic of the i-th diameter with a pointed lower end of the triangular form, and the selection of horizontal soil monolith from the pit produced a number of cylinders-monolithologic to equal

where/p>

i - the number of the cylinder diameter (n≥i≥1),

n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,

Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki≥3), and then produce the dismantling of the set of applicable devices, cutting of the monolith on the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic, lifting him from the pit to the surface of the soil, packaging and delivery to the place of testing, each time before the selection of horizontal soil monolith inner surface of each of the cylinder-monolithologic smeared with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolithologic is performed in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit, a stepped latching the load of each stage.

For the implementation of the inventive method proposes a set of devices for the selection of horizontal soil monolith, including K-th number of thin-walled metal cylinders-monolithologic with a pointed lower end triangular shape equal

where

i - the number of the cylinder diameter (n≥i≥1),

n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,

Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki≥3), cylindrical metal nozzle on the cylinder-monolithologic made with a hollow cylindrical shape at one of its ends, the diameter of which is equal to the external diameter�the ETP cylinder-monolithologic, having a maximum of n cylinders-monolithologic diameter, and the axis of symmetry coinciding with the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical metal nozzle, and (n-1) washer with an outside diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and a thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end face of a cylindrical metal nozzle, with the possibility of installing each of them in the recess, followed by fixing in it, and the inner diameters of the washers unequal and equal to the external diameter of each of (n-1) of the cylinder-monolithologic, comprising a pair of washer - cylinder-monolithologic. The kit is supplied with a screw press with head and heel of cylindrical shape and a shield with a notch on its symmetry axis with the possibility of installing it through the heel screw press, while at the other end of the cylindrical metal nozzle on the cylinder-monolithologic its axis of symmetry is made a recess of cylindrical shape, diameter and depth of which correspond to the diameter and thickness of the head of the screw press. At the end of the metal cylindrical nozzle with side recesses for mounting on a cylinder-monolithologic installed on the screws and evenly distributed around the circumference rotatably around the plate screws to secure the washer in the recess.

The claimed method of selection of horizontal soil monolith and a set of the above devices, � and also their design allow for the selection of horizontal monolith soil samples undisturbed (natural) addition without cracks, thereby providing a selection of high-quality soil samples undisturbed (natural) addition to determine their water-physical and filtration properties. As a result, along with reduced costs of time and labor intensity, greatly increases the accuracy of determination of water-physical and filtration properties of soils.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing.

The drawing shows a schematic vertical section of the pit, which presents the selection process of the horizontal monolith: 1 - vertical wall of the pit, 2 - border of the genetic horizon of the soil profile, 3 - pressed in soils cylinder-monolithologic, 4 - disc, 5 - nozzle per cylinder, 6 - plate for locking the washer in the recess, 7 - screw press, 8 - shield, 9 - soil genetic horizon in the cylinder-monolithologic.

Method of selection the horizontal soil monolith comprises the following steps:

- before the selection of horizontal soil monolith inner surface of each of the cylinder-monolithologic smeared with petrolatum;

indentation on genetic horizons of the n-th thin-walled metal cylinder-monolithologic of the i-th diameter with a pointed lower end of a triangular shape, and a horizontal selection of the monolith soil from the pit production�t number of cylinders-monolithologic to, equal

where

i - the number of the cylinder diameter (n≥i≥1),

n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,

Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki≥3), while the load on the cylinder-monolithologic is performed in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit, a stepped latching load each stage;

- dismantling of the set of applicable devices.

- the removal of soil above the cylinder;

- cropping soil monolith at the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic;

- cylinder lift-monolithologic on the soil surface;

- cutting soil flush with the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic;

- packaging and delivery of the sample to the test area.

For the implementation of the claimed method of selection of horizontal soil monolith proposed a set of devices that also includes K-th number of thin-walled metal cylinders-monolithologic 3 with the pointed lower end of the triangular form defined by the formula (1), and (n-1) number of washers 4 with the same external diameter. Thus thin-walled metal cylinders-monolithologic differ from each other by an internal diameter D, height H, wall thickness h and the angle of its outer cutting edge U°. Between the nozzle 5 to the cylinder 3 and the shield 8, is installed within�tion at the opposite wall of the pit, there is a screw press 7, which carry the load on the cylinder is stepped, with the fixation of the load of each stage, which allows the violation of the natural formation of the soils in the cylinder wall to minimize. Thus to reduce the frictional force of the cylinder on the monolith to the internal surface of the cylinder is pre-lubricated with petroleum jelly.

The claimed method of selection of horizontal soil monolith using the proposed set of devices is implemented as follows.

Points for the study of water-physical and filtration properties of opt after completion of the soil survey. Held in conjunction with their each reclamation district - the territory formed by the homogeneous soil Genesis and composition of parent rocks with the same causes waterlogging. In the reclamation area with several soil types of the items are placed on each of them.

Upon arrival to the destination selection monoliths mineral soils in the selected items produced as follows. Tear a hole in the item, mark the boundaries of genetic horizons, which is scheduled to get a monolith. In accordance with the selected genetic horizons establish the optimal size and number of cutting cylinders-monolithologic and pucks from them to�contents. The selection of monoliths start from the top of the genetic horizon, clearing and aligning the vertical plane on the wall of the pit first with a shovel, then a scoop and a knife mounted on the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic 3, after coating its inner surface with petroleum jelly, and the nozzle 5 with the washer 4, fixing it by means of plates 6 in the recess of the nozzle, and on the opposite wall of the pit 1 - the shield 8. The position of the cylinder 3 with the nozzle 5 and the shield 8 on the walls of the pit 1 is fixed (clamped) using a screw press 7.

A screw press 7 carry the load on the cylinder 3 speed, latching the load of each stage, which allows the violation of the natural formation of the ground at the wall of the cylinder during its compression by retracting the soil inside the cylinder due to the action of the friction force, to minimize. Thus to reduce the frictional force of the cylinder on the monolith to the internal surface of the cylinder is pre-lubricated.

After complete filling of the cylinder-monolithologic 3 soils 9 (after pressing cylinder) produces the dismantling of the set applied devices (screw press 7, the nozzle 5 and the shield (8) and remove the soil above the cylinder 3 with a shovel. Then cut shovel the soil around the perimeter of the cutting edges of the cylinder-monolithologic 3, recede� 15..25 mm from it, raise the monolith on the surface of the soil, cut the soil with a knife flush with the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic, placing a monolith on the plate, wrap it and deliver to the testing.

The implementation of the invention.

The inventive method and a set of devices used for the selection of more than 1,700 horizontal monoliths mineral soil. As an example, we cite the experience of their use on sod-podzolic loamy gleevac the soil formed in loamy cover loam, underlain by a belt of clay, represented by two genetic horizons (C1gand C2g).

In the horizon C1glayers of red clay with a thickness of 2...3 mm to 5 cm (mostly 1,5...2,5 cm) alternate with interlayers of sandy loam with power from a fraction of millimeter to 10... 15 mm. Formed of layers - from horizontal to wavy. Interbeds of clay and sandy loam permeated vertical ferruginous root tubes of plants. In a vertical soil profile horizon is at a depth of 50...70 cm to 120...140 cm

In the horizon C2ginterbeds of bluish-grey clay with a capacity of mainly 5...6 mm, regular shape, horizontal, alternate with interlayers of sandy loam with a capacity of several hundreds of ám. At the opening of horizon C2gidentified aquifer with artesian groundwater level, which has a relative constancy during the hydrological year. At plentiful precipitations on the horizon C2gis formed, the level of soil and groundwater.

Horizontal monoliths of soil genetic horizons of the soil profile selected in accordance with the inventive method and the set of devices, the results are presented in table.

In addition, in accordance with the guidelines described above, sampling for genetic horizons of the soil profile held and the cutting cylinder small volume (250 cm). The indentation of the cylinder carried by the body weight and the hands of the worker (see paragraph 2 on page 1 description of the application). Sampling for each genetic horizon performed in 6-fold repetition (Ki=6). Only 6 genetic horizons were selected without visible eye cracks 36 samples, i.e., K=36. In addition were selected and culled 15 samples with cracks, the total number of samples was equal to 51.

Comparison of application 2 the above methods of sampling for genetic horizons of the considered soil profile was the basis to draw the following conclusions.

1. Labor costs when using the inventive method and kit was lower at 78%.

2. The inventive method and a set of devices provided a high quality selection of monoliths - culling substandard monoliths IU�she had not.

3. The inventive method and a set of devices provided improved accuracy of determination of water-physical properties of soils is 12%, and the filtration rate of 94%.

The inventive method and a set of devices ensure the achievement of the expected technical result.

1. Method of selection the horizontal soil monolith comprising an indentation on the genetic horizons of the n-th thin-walled metal cylinder-monolithologic of the i-th diameter with a pointed lower end of the triangular form, and the selection of horizontal soil monolith from the pit produced a number of cylinders-monolithologic to equal

where
i - the number of the diameter of the cylinder (n>i>1),
n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,
Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki>3), and then produce the dismantling of the set of applicable devices, cutting of the monolith on the cutting edge of the cylinder-monolithologic, lifting it to the surface of the soil, packaging and delivery to the place of testing, characterized in that each time before the selection of horizontal soil monolith inner surface of each of the cylinder-monolithologic smeared with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolithologic OS�of Directors carries out in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit, a stepped latching the load of each stage.

2. A set of devices for the selection of horizontal soil monolith, including K-th number of thin-walled metal cylinders-monolithologic with a pointed lower end triangular shape equal

where
i - the number of the diameter of the cylinder (n>i>1),
n is the number of cylinders of different diameter,
Ki- the number of replications of the cylinder of the i-th diameter (Ki>3), cylindrical metal nozzle on the cylinder-monolithologic made with a hollow cylindrical shape at one of its ends, the diameter of which is equal to the external diameter of the cylinder-monolithologic having a maximum of n cylinders-monolithologic diameter, and the axis of symmetry coinciding with the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical metal nozzle, and (n-1) washer with an outside diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and a thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end face of a cylindrical metal nozzle, with the possibility of installing each of them in the recess, followed by fixing in it moreover, the inner diameters of the washers unequal and equal to the external diameter of each of (n-1) of the cylinder-monolithologic, comprising a pair of washer - cylinder-monolithologic, characterized in that it is provided with a screw press with head and heel tsilya�vessel forms and a shield with a notch on its symmetry axis with the possibility of installing it through the heel screw press, while at the other end of the cylindrical metal nozzle on the cylinder-monolithologic its axis of symmetry is made a recess of cylindrical shape, diameter and depth of which correspond to the head diameter of the screw press.

3. A set of devices for the selection of horizontal soil monolith according to claim 2, characterized in that the end face of a cylindrical metal nozzle with side recesses for mounting on a cylinder-monolithologic installed on the screws and evenly distributed around the circumference rotatably around the plate screws to secure the washer in the recess.



 

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4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: analyzing and/or investigating of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member and means for measuring the flow parameters into the pipeline, pumping a part of the flow through the sampling member, and determining the parameters of the flow.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member into the pipeline, separating the branch with inhomogeneous distribution of inclusions upstream of the sampling, directing the branch to the mixer for the intensive homogenizing, combining the flow branches, and sampling the combined flow. The device has sampling member, by-pass pipeline for branching the flow, and mixer. The mixer is mounted on the horizontal section of the pipeline between the inlet of the by-pass pipeline and its outlet for homogenizing the flow branch, which does not flow through the by-pass pipeline.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow body which is a fragment of force pipeline at vertically placed portion of mouth armature. Tool for controlling flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance is made in form of valve, connected to rotary support. Sample chamber is a ring-shaped hollow in hollow body, placed at same level with valve and connected at inlet to flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance through extracting channels, made on hollow body. Extracting channels are made in form of side slits, positioned symmetrically relatively to valve rotation axis. Ring-shaped hollow on hollow body is connected at outlet to locking tool, mounted at extension of valve shaft and made in form of sample-taking valve. Valve shaft and sample-taking valve are interconnected through hollow intermediate shaft. Sample-taking valve is placed in the body of locking tool with possible reciprocal movement. Valve shaft and hollow intermediate shaft are interconnected with possible mutual rotation for a quarter of one turn.

EFFECT: simplified construction and maintenance, higher quality.

4 dwg

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