Method of cultivation of wide row arable crops

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the basic tillage, sowing, care and harvesting. And the soil tillage is carried out with chisel tool with the formation of ridge bottom of the furrow, and sowing the crop is carried out over the deepening of the furrow bottom in every second deepening in the first year of sowing. In the second year the sowing is carried out over the unused deepening of the furrow bottom of the first year, and the width of row-spacing after tillage is equal to half the distance between the rows. The direction of sowing the crop is oriented perpendicular to the motion of the dominant wind. Sowing the crop over the deepening of the furrow bottom alternates with the steam bands, which are loosened during the growing season to the depth of 0.08-0.12 m at least 2 times. After harvesting the crops the plant residues are treated with biomineral preparation of nitrogenous fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water taken in the ratio of 5:0.2:94.8 based on 310-320 kg per hectare.

EFFECT: method enables to preserve the soil fertility, destroy weeds, obtain quality products and save seeding material.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to crops and agriculture.

The known method of planting corn in irrigated condition in which loosening of soil held chisel tool to a depth of 0.40-0.42 m, the plants are placed on the dredging furrows at a spacing of 0.70 m [Pindak V. I. Deep chisel tillage under irrigation / V. I. Pindak, V. F. Loboyko, V. N. Pavlenko // Reports of Russian Academy of agricultural Sciences. - 2009. - No. 2. - P. 54-55].

The technical disadvantage of this method is that the annual growing of wide-row crops leads to degradation of soil fertility, reduced crop yields, not a rational use of energy.

Known method of cultivation of wide-row crops with tillage to a depth of 0.38-0.42 m and the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, placing the plants on deepening the bottom of the furrow, groove, with the width of the aisle of 0.70-0.80 m, sowing in the following year is carried over the unused recesses of the bottom of the furrow of the previous year [Patent No. 2454064 of the Russian Federation, IPC A01G 1/00, A01B 79/02; application No. 2010152721/13 claimed. 22.12.2010; published. 27.06.2012 Bulletin No. 18].

The technical disadvantage of this method is the technological difficulties of processing between rows during the growing period, which contributes to the asset�WMD growth of weeds, violation of crops in water-air regime of the soil, reducing crop yields. Also not effectively used chisel tillage, biological properties of plants and soil-climatic conditions of cultivation of crops, which leads to gradual degradation of soil fertility, the already mentioned decrease in plant yield and higher overall energy consumption for the technology.

The technical problem is to maintain soil fertility, produce quality products and saving seed at the expense of rational use of possibilities of chisel tillage and optimization of the layout of cultures, the biological properties of plants, soil and climatic conditions of cultivation, and weed control.

Effect: preservation of soil fertility, weed control, produce quality products, saving of seed.

The technical result is achieved in that in the known method, including primary tillage, planting, caring and harvesting, and tillage spend chisel tool with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, and the seeding of culture carried over the recesses of the bottom of the furrow in a depression in the first year of planting, for the second year of sowing is carried out on unused uglublenie�mi bottom of the furrow of the first year, the width of midplate after tillage equal to half the distance between rows, according to the invention the direction of the inoculation culture is oriented perpendicular to the dominant wind, the seeding of culture over the recesses of the bottom of the furrow alternates with steam strips, which during the growing season is loosened to a depth of 0.08-0.12 m not less than 2 times, after harvesting crops crop residues treated with biomineral the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water in the ratio 5:0,2:94,8 based 310-320 kg per hectare.

The ratio of engaged recesses and steam strips is 6:1, the width of the steam bandwidth equal to three times the distance between rows. As the wide-tilled crops are used, for example, corn or sunflower. As nitrogen fertilizer use, for example, ammonium nitrate or urea, but as a complex of humic concentrate is used, for example, Forhuman or potassium HUMATE.

The method of cultivation of wide-row crops is illustrated by drawings:

1) of Fig. 1 - chisel tillage tool;

2) Fig. 2 - scheme of the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow;

3) Fig. 3 - scheme of planting crops;

4) Fig. 4 - scheme of the growing season of crops.

The method of cultivation of wide-row crops to sell�next.

Primary tillage is carried out in the autumn once in 2-3 years by means of chisel tools (Fig. 1), which consists of a frame 1 of inclined struts 2, bits 3 and dumps 4. As a result chisel tillage is formed estuarine bottom of the furrow (Fig. 2) with the recesses 5 and elevations 6. Chisel tool and it generates the estuarine bottom of the furrow is characterized by the following indicators: the depth of cut H=0,35-0,40 m; width midplate m=0.35 to 0.40 m; width of the bit B=0,06-0,07 m; bevel angles of the ridges α≈45°; depth of action of heaps h=0.15 to 0.20 m. When the cultivation of the soil on the surface of the field set the markers or use modern satellite navigation system (GPS), showing the location of the recesses and elevations of the bottom of the furrow.

In the spring after sowing harrowing and cultivation of the soil to achieve optimum temperature is carried out planting seeds universal seeder, for example SUPN-8 (Fig. 3, I). Crops are oriented perpendicular to the dominant wind direction in the period of vegetation of plants, for example, from East to West. This farming technique allows to significantly reduce the blowing of moisture from between the rows of plants. Sowing is carried out over the dredging furrows through one. The openers of the planter are arranged so that the width of the M row spacing was 0.70-0.80 m, i.e. M=2 m. On extreme row unit (Fig. 3 X) drowns, which allows to generate steam in crops strip L, the width of which is equal to three distances between the rows, i.e., L=3 M=6 m. Thus, the first pass of the planter dredging furrows 7 and 21 are seeded (muted sections); 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 - not used; 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19 involved, i.e. seeded. In the second pass of the planter dredging grooves 23 and 37 are not seeded (muted sections); 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34 and 36 - not used; 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35 - involved. The distance from 19 dredging furrows to 25 form a steam zone which is equal to 6 midplate m or 3 M between rows, i.e. is 2.1-2.4 m And so on.

During the growing season depending on weather conditions, disease and pests, and contamination of crops carry out the activities necessary to care for plants.

At the onset of maturity, for example, wax in corn or yellow-brown and brown baskets sunflower, nuko culture combines with shredders, leaving stubble residues on the field surface. Then plant residues processed through a trailed sprayer biomineral drug from hectare 310-320 kg and harrowed field. As a biomineral drug use composition of nitrogen fertilizers and complex humic concentrate. For example, the composition is based �and a hectare is, kg: water - 300, ammonium nitrate is 12-15 and florgumata - 0,5-0,6. Nitrogen is a catalyst in the decomposition process, and forhuman necessary for the settlement of bacteria that digest plant residues.

In the second year of technological operations repeat in the same sequence, but the seeding of culture carried over the unused recesses of the bottom of the furrow of the first year with the offset stripes on steam one row (Fig. 3, II). Namely: the first pass of the planter dredging furrows 8 and 22 not seeded (muted sections); 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 - not used; 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 involved, i.e. seeded. In the second pass of the planter dredging grooves 24 and 38 are seeded (muted sections); 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35 and 37 - not used; 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36 - involved. The distance of 20 dredging furrows to 26 form a steam lane. And so on. Scheme of vegetation crops shown in Fig. 4, I - the first year of cultivation, II - second year of cultivation.

The presence of steam of bands and their treatment during the vegetation period it is possible to enhance the effect of tilled crops as its predecessor, as ¼ busy area under crop parwada, to get from one plant products in greater quantity and of high quality, due to the optimal water-air, radiation and food regimes in crops, save up to 25% of seed mate�Yala.

The cultivation of row crops, in this example, corn, conducted on light-chestnut soils under irrigation. The moisture regime of the soil differential h=0-0,4-0,7 m, i.e., the soil layer of 0-0. 4 m were soaked in the period from germination to 13 leaves, and then a layer of 0-0. 7 m. In our experiments we used a hybrid Volga 89 MB. The dose of mineral fertilizers amounted to N180P95-K50and 50% of nitrogen and 80% of phosphate and potash were made under primary tillage, the remainder of the fertiliser at sowing.

For comparison of the proposed method of cultivation of wide-row crops and famous counterpart crops were located in the same soil-climatic conditions in neighboring fields.

Of course, in the analogue, the alternation of crops with steam strips, oriented towards crops, crop residues and tillage steam strips in mind their absence is not performed. Seeding rate of corn seeds in the analogue was 55-60 thousand/Ha. Other activities to care for corn during the growing period on both options were the same.

Averaged over the years of study comparative results of the proposed method and the analogue are summarized in the table.

Application of the proposed method allows to maintain soil fertility, reduce W�spending on seeds, to get quality products for greater productivity in comparison with the known analogues, and consequently, to increase the profitability of agricultural production. This is due to the following.

1. The proposed technology of cultivation of wide-row crops with steam lanes creates more favorable conditions for development of plants and soil microorganisms, mineralization of plant residues available in the form of batteries, to maintain and enhance the humus content, and thus soil fertility.

2. Due to the proposed scheme of sowing ¼ of arable land occupied parwada that can grow in wide row crops in one place for several years without reducing yield and load on the soil and also to save up to 25% of the seed.

1. The method of cultivation of wide-row crops, including primary tillage, planting, caring and harvesting, and tillage spend chisel tool with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow, and the seeding of culture carried over the recesses of the bottom of the furrow in a depression in the first year of planting, for the second year of sowing is carried out on an untapped recesses of the bottom of the furrow of the first year, while the width of midplate after tillage equal to half the distance between rows, wherein n�the Board of sowing culture is oriented perpendicular to the dominant wind, sowing culture over the recesses of the bottom of the furrow alternates with steam strips, which during the growing season is loosened to a depth of 0.08-0.12 m not less than 2 times, after harvesting crops crop residues treated with biomineral the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water in the ratio 5:0,2:94,8 based 310-320 kg per hectare.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of engaged recesses and steam strips is 6:1, the width of the steam bandwidth equal to three times the distance between rows.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wide-tilled crops are used, for example, corn or sunflower.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the nitrogen fertilizer is used, for example, ammonium nitrate or urea.

5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a complex of humic concentrate is used, for example, Forhuman or potassium HUMATE.



 

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3 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

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2 cl, 1 tbl

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1 tbl

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2 dwg

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2 tbl, 15 ex

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