Composite insulator

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to high-voltage composite insulators. The invention discloses composite insulator (1) comprised of core (2), in particular, made of fibre-reinforced thermoset, and protective layer (8) covering the above core (2), which is made, in particular, of insulating elastomer. At some areas protective layer (8) comprises special particles (7) of insulator (1) that influence the field. Protective layer (8′) of the first subset of skirts (4) comprises at some areas particles (7) that influence the field; while protective layer (8) of the second subset of skirts (4) does not comprise particles (7) that influence the field.

EFFECT: invention provides control of the electrical field intensity and prevents local discharges.

11 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the composite insulator according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims. This combined insulator contains a core for perceptual load, which is made in particular of reinforced fibers of curable plastics, such as epoxy resin or vinyl ether. To ensure the necessary insulation characteristics and protection against external influences, in particular due to the weather, the core is coated with a protective layer, which is made in particular of electrically insulating elastomer such as, for example, of silicon rubber.

When isolation for high voltages it is always necessary to avoid partial discharges. Such discharges arising from, for example, local increases in the electric field, lead in particular in the case of composite insulators, to damage in the protective layer, resulting in shortened service life. In the case of composite insulators measures to prevent local increases in the electric field are, accordingly, of great importance. As acceptable measures for high voltage insulators known, for example, the shielding electrodes, which are mounted on energized armature and which help to prevent there increase in electric �OLE, at the ends of the valve.

In this regard a big problem for high voltage insulators is the extremely uneven distribution of the change in tension along their length. The reason for this lies in the capacity leakage of the insulator to the ground. The next problem is local discharges on polluted insulators, which arise, for example, under the effect of increases in the electric field, where local drying.

In WO 2009/100904 A1 discloses the provision of a combined insulator, at least in certain areas of the field control layer, which contains field acting on the particles, to prevent local increases in the electric field. Such particles have, for example, resistive and capacitive effect or are semiconductors and as a result of the nonlinear relationship between the electrical variable and voltage reduce unexpected power surges along the insulator. In particular, we should mention microwriter from zinc oxide ZnO, which is higher than the threshold voltage, exhibit a sharp decrease in electrical resistance.

The aim of the invention is to provide a combined insulator specified at the beginning of the type, which is also improved in preventing local discharges.

This �spruce is achieved according to the present invention using a combination of isolator specified at the beginning type, moreover, the protective layer contains specially in certain areas of the particles that impact on the field of isolation.

The invention is based on the idea consists in the fact that have an impact on the field along the insulator particles specifically located in certain areas on the insulator in such a way as to eliminate arising during the term of service under the effect of expected external conditions discharges, which can lead to cases of destruction of the insulating protective layer. For this purpose, investigations were carried out on the calculated voltage 420 kV composite long-rod insulators. Used composite long-rod insulators with the total number of skirts, equal to 10, forming a leakage path length of 3.91 m. a Small amount of skirts was chosen deliberately so that during the test to get stronger tendency to dielectric breakdown of insulators.

In the laboratory for high voltage insulators were subjected to artificial irrigation in accordance with the requirements of IEC 60060-1 at an angle of 45°. The tests were performed under variable tension. Artificial rain had conductivity k=+/-100 ás/cm Applied voltage is increased stepwise. The arising partial discharges were observed visually. As a result, when a voltage of 600 kV DL� manufactured in a known manner long-rod combined insulator, a protective layer which did not contain influencing particle field, observed a clear discharge from the bottom of the skirts, which were sent by the end of the high voltage insulator.

Based on this observation, the invention proceeds from a model representation that as a result of spray irrigation insulators on the upper side of the skirt and along the rod is formed a conductive coating. As a consequence, the traditional insulator, there is a strong voltage drop across dry the underside of the skirts. If due resulting from local increases in the electric field exceeds the dielectric strength of the surrounding atmosphere, there is local discharges on the lower side skirts.

Therefore, the invention in a preferred form of execution provides that have an impact on the field particles were provided in the area above the dry zones of the insulator, in particular on the lower sides of the skirts. For this reason, the influence field of a particle is applied separately to certain sections, applied by vulcanization, is applied with a protective layer, sprayed, applied with the help of Priluki or fill. For this reason, the influence field of a particle, it is advisable to add suitable insulating material, in particular in the material of the protective layer. Then the material is available defenses�CSOs layer is poured, paste or put through vulcanization. Influence field of a particle can also in the manufacture of the insulator mixed into the protective layer in certain areas. Alternatively, mixed with influencing field the particles of the material can also pour on top of the protective layer during the final molding of the insulator.

The protective layer, and mixed with influencing field material particles are preferably silicon rubber, copolymer of ethylene-propylene (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or epoxy resin. In accordance with that certain areas causing a mixed impact on the field particles of silicon rubber, EPDM, EVA, or epoxy resin.

As affecting the particle field preferably use resistive or capacitive particles or semiconductor particles. Particularly preferred are microwriter doped ZnO. Microwriter from zinc oxide (ZnO) form a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic. Until the threshold voltage of the zinc oxide can be considered having a large ohmic resistance and having an extremely high flat volt-ampere characteristic. Above the threshold voltage, the resistance decreases dramatically; the current-voltage characteristic suddenly �Estet his toughness.

If such influence field of a particle and, in particular, microwriter, i.e., voltage-dependent resistors, apply in certain areas on an insulator, or with a protective layer, the result is dramatically increased beyond the threshold voltage the conductivity will decrease local increase in voltage or electric field, so that will be avoided undesirable local level, causing destroyed.

If the combined insulator to increase the leakage path contains multiple skirts of the protective layer, in a preferred embodiment of the influencing field particles contained in skirts or located on the skirts. When using a combined insulator in a vertical position interconnected with high voltage spikes dry areas are located on the underside of the skirts. If the influence field of a particle is added to a protective layer of skirts or fitted skirts, prevent unwanted there appearance of discharges. In the case of this variant implementation, it was found that not all skirts must contain the influence field of a particle. On the contrary, it will be advantageous if only a part of the skirts will have impact on the field particles. It depends on the change in voltage along the length of the combo�th insulator. Studies have shown, high voltage surges, in all probability, we should expect on the skirts, which are located at the energized end.

In this regard, in a preferred form of execution of the section has an impact on the field particles skirts is at the energized end. Consequently, starting from the energized end of the combined insulator, the first portion of the skirt is provided having an impact on the field particles. Follow-up skirts are made usually without affecting the particle field.

Alternatively, starting from the energized end of the combined insulator, can be provided to the first portion of the skirts have an impact on the field particles, and then a portion of the skirt to make in the usual way, and this arrangement can be repeated along the length of the combined insulator.

It was also found that skirt, as such, it is not necessary to provide a fully influencing the field particles. On the contrary, to reduce the voltage drop across the dry area on the underside of the skirts will be enough to supply the influencing field particles only the lower side skirts. This is enough to reduce the high voltage surges between the ends of the skirts and core or rod insulator.

This from�Oseni in the first embodiment of the influence field of a particle to be contained in a separate disk in particular, the material of the protective layer, or other insulating material. After a conventional and known per se for the manufacture of skirts by encapsulating, molding, gluing, termosifone or applied using a vulcanization separate disk is applied by means of vulcanization or glued to the underside intended for this skirt. Alternatively, separately manufactured and containing the influence field of a particle disk is poured in the manufacture in skirts. Finally, the skirt of the insulator are provided with separate drives on the bottom side, in the final process of manufacture is also possible to provide the shell of the protective layer, in particular, by encapsulating or casting.

According to another form of the invention, which can also be used in combination, preferably on the bottom side under skirts is applied a protective layer, as such, have an impact on the field particles. To this end, the material of the protective layer is mixed with the influence field of a particle. Then the mixed material is sprayed, poured or applied using a vulcanization on the lower side of the skirt.

In another preferred form of execution of the skirt combined insulator provided on the underside of the ribs, which even more increase the way�ECCI. Preferably, a separate disc or the protective layer from affecting the field particles located at these ribs, as stated above. On the basis of increased with the ribs of the surface of the improved coupling is achieved between the skirts and a single disk or applied and then a protective layer, mixed with influencing the field particles.

In addition, it was found that, in particular, in combination with skirts, fitted influencing field particles on the inner side, a further improvement of the combined insulator from the point of view of preventing local discharges, if the protective layer is provided at least in certain portions along the core having an impact on the field particles. Core, in particular, is provided with a protective layer, which contains the influence field of a particle, partial site close to the energized end of the combined insulator.

In the following a preferred form of execution of the combined insulator skirts and/or core covered with an outer protective layer that does not influence field of a particle. With such an outer protective layer, if necessary, can be taken into account by selecting a specific material, a specific external weather conditions, kotoryaaya impact on the combined insulator during its use.

Examples of embodiments of the invention are explained in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

Figure 1 shows long-rod composite insulator according to the first variant implementation.

Figure 2 shows long-rod composite insulator according to the second embodiment of the implementation.

Figure 3 shows a fragment of a long-rod combined insulator, wherein the skirt is provided on the underside of the disk containing the influencing field particles.

Figure 4 shows a fragment of a long-rod combined insulator, wherein the skirt is provided with a bottom side of the protective layer containing the influence field of a particle, and

Figure 5 shows a fragment of a long-rod combined insulator, the core of which is compared with a combined insulator that shown in figure 4, is further provided with a protective layer, which contains the influence field of a particle, and

Figure 6 shows long-rod composite insulator according to figure 5, and skirts, including a protective layer, mixed with influencing the field particles are enclosed in the outer shell of the protective layer.

Fig.1 shows a long-rod composite insulator 1, which contains a core 2 of silencetechnorati plastic, where to increase the leakage path is distributed along the length of ten skirts 4. At the ends of the core 2 is fixed the connection fitting 5, 6. The connection fitting 6 is designed for electrical contact with high voltage HV and contains, therefore, energized end of the insulator 1.

Shows long-rod composite insulator 1, containing a total of ten skirts 4, designed for the insulation voltage of about 400 kV. The core 2 is provided with a continuous protective layer 8 of silicon rubber. On the shell of the core 2 is fixed to the skirt 4. Skirt 4 also made of silicon rubber.

To prevent local discharges as a result of increases in the electric field or a strong surge protective layer 8 of the core 2 is mixed with influencing field particles 7 over the entire length of the combined insulator 1. Influencing the field particles 7 are microwriter doped ZnO. In addition, under voltage end of the combined insulator 1, which is adjacent to the valve 6, all five of ten skirts 4 of the insulator is made of silicon rubber, mixed with influencing field particles 7.

During the test for resistance to rain �linestartpos composite insulator 1, which is shown in figure 1, compared with the traditional long-rod combined insulator without affecting the particle field, exhibits a clearly reduced tendency to discharges from the bottom of the skirt 4. The reason for this is that microwriter of ZnO at high voltages becomes conductive so that the voltage surges soaked from the top side skirts 4 in the direction of located underneath the area of the core 2 is clearly reduced.

Figure 2 shows the long-rod composite insulator 1, which is similar in its basic design, shown in figure 1. It differs in that the protective layer 8 along the core 2 now contains no influence on the field particles 7. In contrast, only five skirts 4 adjacent to energized the long-rod end combo insulator 1 is made of a protective layer 8, which is mixed with influencing the field particles.

Also, this composite insulator 1 according to figure 2 shows the test for resistance to rain significantly reduced the tendency to spark breakthrough on the underside of the skirts 4 compared with traditional long-rod combined insulator without affecting the particle field 7.

Figure 3 shows a fragment of a long-rod to�binyavanga insulator 1 according to figure 1 or figure 2. In this case it's two skirts 4 near the energized end, that is near the valve 6.

Long-rod composite insulator 1 according to figure 3 contains 2 core glass fibre reinforced plastics. The core 2 is applied a protective layer 8 of silicon rubber. On this protective layer 8 are mounted skirts 4.

For influencing the electric field or to reduce large voltage spikes on the underside of the skirt 4 is provided by a separate drive 10 from a pre-made Hermas, which contains the influence field of a particle 7.

According to the first embodiment of the separate disk 10 is attached by means of vulcanization respectively on the lower side of the top of the skirt 4. According to a second embodiment of the separate disk 10, which contains the influence field of a particle, is poured into the material of the skirt 4, as shown on the bottom skirt 4.

According to figure 4 skirts 4 according to the second variant of the second long-rod combined insulator 1 is provided with several peripheral ribs 12 on the bottom side. These ribs 12 with a fill applied protective layer 8', which contains the influence field of a particle 7. According to figure 5 long-rod composite insulator 1 comprises at least part of the heart�2 nick another covering the protective layer 8', which, in turn, is mixed with influencing the field particles.

According to figure 6 are plotted on the lower side skirts 4 protective layer 8' having an impact on the field particles embedded in the skirt 4. In addition, in particular according to the final stage of manufacture is shown in figure 6 long-rod composite insulator 1 is covered with an external protective layer 13 of silicon rubber that does not affect the particle field 7.

The list of items

1 - composite insulator;

2 - core;

4 - skirt;

5 - connecting fittings;

6 - connecting fittings;

7 - influence field of a particle;

8 - protective layer;

8' - protective layer from affecting the field particles;

10 - disc set;

12 - fin;

13 - the outer protective layer;

HV - end with high voltage.

1. Composite insulator (1) with a core (2), in particular, reinforced hardenable plastic fibers and surrounding the core (2) protective layer (8), in particular of an insulating elastomer, and a protective layer (8) contains in certain areas of the particles (7) having an impact on the field insulator (1), and has a lot of skirts (4) to increase the leakage path, characterized in that:
the protective layer (8') of the first subset of the skirt (4) comprises at certain parts of the eye�Yausa impact on the field particles (7); and
the protective layer (8) of the second subset of skirts (4) does not affect the particle field (7).

2. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the subset of the skirt (4) is located on the end (HV) high voltage.

3. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the protective layer (8') on the underside of at least a subset of the skirt (4) comprises influencing the field particles (7).

4. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 3, characterized in that on the underside of at least a subset of the skirt (4) is attached by vulcanization or fill the disk (10) containing the influence field of a particle (7).

5. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 3, characterized in that the protective layer (8') with impact on the field particles (7) are applied on the bottom side of at least a subset of the skirts (4).

6. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that on the underside of the skirt (4) is made of a rib (12), which are inscribed with the disc (10) or mixed with influencing the field particles (7) a protective layer (8').

7. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the protective layer (8) is mixed with influencing the field particles (7), at least in certain portions along the core (2).

8. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the skirt (4) and/or gel core� (2) signed(s) in the outer protective layer (13), that does not affect the particle field (7).

9. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the protective layer (8) is a silicon rubber, a copolymer of ethylene-propylene (EPDM), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or an epoxy resin, and in certain areas caused at random have an impact on the field particles (7) silicon rubber, EPDM, EVA, or epoxy resin.

10. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the influencing field particles (7) are applied through vulcanization, applied with a protective layer (8, 8') or filled in areas of dry zones of the insulator (1), in particular on the lower sides of the skirt (4).

11. Composite insulator (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the influencing field particles (7) are resistive or capacitive particles or semiconductor particles, in particular microwriter doped ZnO.



 

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