Method for simulating bite wound
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to experimental medicine and concerns simulating a bite wound. That is ensured by forming an experimental animal's skin wound by an instrument similar to a bite with small mammal's upper and lower jaws. Fresh saliva with oral microflora taken from some mammalian donors is introduced into each wound. The saliva is taken in an equal volume in each donor, and the saliva mixture is introduced into the bite wound in an equal dose to the animals of all experimental groups.
EFFECT: method provides higher reliability of the comparative analysis of the experimental study results by the more accurate creation of the simulated bite wound of the same length, depth and microfloral contamination in the various experimental groups in the animals.
The invention relates to experimental medicine and is intended for modelling small bite wounds in experiments on mammals.
With the increase in the number of bites people animals mammals [Old B. C., Potkin, T. N., Golovina, L. N., Agafonov, A. N. Emergency situation - the growth of injuries from animal bites. Man and his health. Eighth Russian national Congress, 24-28 November 2003. Saint-Petersburg. 2003 - P. 357-358], the relevance of the treatment of such patients is increasing. Not only heavy damage from the bites, but the shallow bite wounds require proper treatment to prevent infectious complications. Encountered in one bite in a single anatomical localization of several minor wounds from the teeth of small mammal animal, we believe it is possible to call the bitten wound. Multiple same injury called multiple injuries of different localizations of the same anatomical system of the body. Found that feature bite wounds, even if it is shallow, is the high level of pollution of its pathogenic microorganisms in the saliva of biting [Kollontai Yu. Yu., Panchenko, M. K., Andruson M. V. Open injuries of the hand. Kiev, "Health", 1983. P. 88]. It is known that in the bitten wounds often streptococci, staphylococci, Bacteroides and other anaerobes, anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli [Managing bites from humans and other mammals.DTB 2004; 42(9): 67-70; Treatment bitten wounds. Published: Wednesday, may 25, 2005 - 08:55] and other microflora in different climatic conditions and ecological environment [Potkin, T. N., Old B. C., B. C. Soft, Vdovchenko O. Y. Injuries from animal bites to conditions of Kuzbass. Bulletin of the Kuzbass research center. Issue 7. "Public health issues". Volume 1. Kemerovo. 2008. P. 189-190]. It is known that through the epithelium of the gingival papillae in interdental spaces do desquamated epithelial cells, leukocytes, together with microorganisms and their metabolic products, which can be a cause of infection of bite wounds. In the bitten wounds inflicted by different types of animals that may be not the same microflora, at this point a special saturation pathogenic microbial flora of human saliva. Even in the mouth of a healthy person 1 mm3dental plaque contains 100-200 million colonies of saprophytes and pathogens, both gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, spirochetes, Bacillus, actinomycetes, protozoa, fungi, etc. [N.F.Danilevsky, E. A. Meguid, N. And.Mukhin, V. Yu Milicevic. Of periodontal disease. Atlas. Under the editorship of Prof. N. And.Danilevsky. M., "Medical". 1993. C-41, 51, 64]. When not deep wounds from the bites of small animals that are not subject to surgical treatment�TKE, the resulting infection can lead to abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, meningitis, sepsis, and even rabies [Kollontai Yu. Yu., Panchenko, M. K., Andrusov M. V. 1983. Ibid.], which indicates the inefficiency of current treatment methods. The necessity of finding more efficient technology for the treatment of patients with small bites inflicted by animals mammals, previously motivated us to develop a new external agent (the Decision to grant a patent on the invention under the application №2011111925). To explore new ways to treat victims of stings, in particular the influence of the us invented the funds for a period of bite wounds and the condition of the body, there is a need of carrying out experiments with the formation of bite wounds. For the purity of the experiments and the validity of the studies of the wound should be the same not only on the localization, shape, size and depth, but the content of pathogenic organisms in each experience of the main and control groups of experiments. In the available literature, we have not met the method of forming bacterial contaminated bite wounds in experimental animals, which prompted us to develop ways of modelling bite wounds with a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms in it.
Known causing bite wounds one animal to another (e.g.�, in dog fights) that theoretically could be organized and in a scientific experiment.
However, in this method there is no ethical compulsion of one animal without his willingness to bite another animal. The disadvantage of the natural bite from another animal is also that the formation of the wound is not controlled by the experimenter. Bites inflicted without the control of the experimenter, will be different according to the localization, size and depth. The difference in the bites in animals of different groups leads to repetitive injuries, which is not conducive to the high purity of the experiment. In this method of forming the bitten wounds there are no signs of increase of reliability of results of the comparative analysis of experimental research in control and treatment group by a more precise formation of the bite wounds are equal in size, depth and contamination microflora in all groups of experiments on animals.
Known application of the wound covering of the body of the surgical instrument, for example a clip used for attaching surgical linen to the skin. The clip at the enlarged base of the jaws has a transverse row of teeth with a pointed apex, which at the closing of pierce the integument [kabatov Y. F. Medical instruments, apparatus and equipment. "Medicine". M., 1977. Page 118-119 Fig.22-G]. Such a tool can be traumatic movement to put some small wounds.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of signs improve the reliability of the comparative analysis of the results of an experimental study by modeling the bite wounds, more similar to natural, applied to small animals, and the same contamination microflora in different groups of experiments.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed technical solution is the latest method that we adopted for the prototype, and his shortcomings set forth above.
The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy of comparative analysis of the results of an experimental study by more precise creation of simulated bite wounds, both were the same size, depth and contamination microflora in different groups of experiments on animals.
The technical result of the invention is achieved in that the method of simulation of bitten wound comprises applying one injury with the formation of several wounds cover his body. And the wound in experimental animal dosed form tool according to the mechanism of the bite of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws of small mammal, and in every wound bring the mixture of fresh saliva from the microphone�ora of the oral cavity, taken from several mammalian donor.
In a preferred embodiment of the saliva take in equal volume from each blood donor and injected a mixture of saliva in the bitten wound in the same dose of experimental animals in all groups of experiments.
A specific example of the method in the experiment. Previously from several mammalian donor saliva in equal amounts each donor and mixed for the formation of mixtures with a wide range of microorganisms. After immersion in anesthetized experimental animals (lab rats), on the outer surface of the middle third of his hips to grasp a fold of skin and teeth special cutters, like the bite of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws of small mammal, inflict injury with the formation of several wounds on opposite sides of the skin fold. Then in each wound make a mixture of fresh saliva from the oral cavity microflora taken from several mammalian donor. Also simulate bacterial contaminated bitten wound the other experimental animals in other groups of experiments.
The significance of differences of the claimed method from the selected prototype is as follows. It is known that externally wound is characterized by three main local signs: the size, depth and localization (Struchkov V. I. General surgery, M., 1966). The formation�the stripes, the wounds in experimental animal rows of teeth of the tool, which the gnashing pierce the skin on the mechanism of the bite of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws of small mammal, is allowed the experimenter or under his control in all experimental animals dosed to form the wound, identical in size and depth. Since bitten, the wound has a high level of contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, the implementation of sampling saliva from several donor animal in equal amounts each donor, provides the same opportunity of contamination microflora wounds in all experimental animals in different groups and, in addition, if necessary, to repeat exactly the amount of re-sampling of saliva and the formation of a mixture with the same microflora. Introducing into each wound a blend of fresh saliva from the oral cavity microflora taken from several mammalian donor provides contamination of the wound more diverse microflora.
Thus, a method is developed for modeling bite wounds, ensuring the accuracy of formation of wounds equal in magnitude, depth and contamination microflora in different groups of experiments on animals, increases the purity of experiments and reliability of the result of the comparative analysis of an experimental study in groups.
Application of the method is possible in experimental veterinary medicine.
The method of modeling the�uchennai wounds, including the application of one injury with the formation of several wounds cover body, characterized in that in experimental animal wounds form tool according to the mechanism of the bite of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws of small mammal and in every wound bring the mixture of fresh saliva from the oral cavity microflora taken from several donor mammal, wherein the saliva take in equal volume from each blood donor and injected a mixture of saliva in the bitten wound in the same dose animals of all groups of experiments.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: mobile computer simulator for public civil defence training includes a vehicle, a mobile power generating unit with an electric wire unit, a built-in room with training places for public training, simulators, simulator robots and means for accommodating trainees. The vehicle has three compact training places. The first is a lecture hall for theoretical classes and testing based on a self-contained pneumatic-frame Emergencies Ministry tent. The second training place is a simulator for processing practical skills of the public during emergency situations, with a simulator robot for processing first aid exercises during emergency situations. The third training place is a simulator with a set of different equipment of protecting respiratory organs. Practical skills on offering first aid and transporting victims are processed using equipment and video materials for practical training.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the public training system and high moral and psychological state of the public in times of danger.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for designing a bioengineered rat's lung frame involves lung perfusion by detergent-enzymatic method with controlling the frame quality by histological method. The lung perfusion is accompanied by continuous atmospheric air pulmonary ventilation according to physiological parameters, through a trachea for 24 hours by means of successive exposure to decellularising solutions. That is ensured by using phosphate buffer, 1% aqueous sodium deoxycholate, swine pancreatic DNAase I, purified water at an equal exposure length. To ensure the quality of the following re-cellularisation, a colorimetric method is used to prove the designed lung frame biocompatible, viable and having its architechtonics unchanged by determining its biomechanical tensile and compression strength, by fixing pulmonary compliance.
EFFECT: maintaining the lung matrix structure and its quality, eliminating the risk of contamination.
SUBSTANCE: laboratory rats with one shin bone excised are daily placed for 60 minutes into an altitude chamber in the environment of 1.5 absolute atmospheres. The therapeutic course makes 10 sessions.
EFFECT: method optimises the articular cartilage condition, improves its morphological structure, delays osteoporosis and provides their partial regression.
SUBSTANCE: skin graft is simulated in laboratory animals on the second experimental day. Dihydroquercetin is administered intragastrically in a daily dose of 5.5 mg/kg from the first day every 46 hours of the experiment.
EFFECT: increasing the skin graft survival in the reduced circulation environment by activating the pre-conditioning process.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for mechanical simulation of an external rotation contracture of a hip joint in an experimental unit of a hip implant consists in using the experiment unit of a hip implant comprising a head fixed on a holder, a polyethylene insert of a metal cup or a polyethylene cup and a device for cup fixation. The head consists of ceramics or metal alloys and has a rough surface. A device for cup fixation enables changing the position of the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup. The head is clamped experimentally on a holder in any of two collets of a universal test machine. The device with the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is mounted in the other collet of the universal test machine so that the head is immersed completely into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup. The head of the module is mounted in the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup so that a long axis of the head is deviated from a plane of an input into the polyethylene cup or polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the module of the implant by 10 degrees that corresponds to the outer rotation contracture of the degree 1 hip joint. The head of the module is placed into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup so that the long axis of the head is deviated from the plane of the input into the polyethylene cup or polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the module of the implant by 20 degrees that corresponds to the outer rotation contracture of the degree 2 hip joint. The head of the module is placed further into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup so that the long axis of the head is deviated from the plane of the input into the polyethylene cup or polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the module of the implant by 30 degrees that corresponds to the outer rotation contracture of the degree 3 hip joint.
EFFECT: setting up the clinical-biomechanical correspondence between a horizontal inclination angle and a degree of the external rotation contracture of the experiment module of the hip joint for the purpose of extrapolating the obtained experimental data of polyethylene abrasive wear to the clinics for the purpose of early and remote results of endoprosthesis replacement in the patients with external rotation contracture of the hip joint.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modelling in medicine and can be applied for the anatomo-surgical modelling of an angle of the horizontal inclination in the human hip joint in experiment. The posterior Kocher-Langenbeck access to the hip joint is performed. The head and neck of the femur, edges of the acetabulum are exposed; a guide wire, which determines a line of the plane of entrance into the acetabulum in the horizontal plane of the hip joint, is laid from the posterior to anterior edge of the acetabulum. Osteotomy of the neck and head of the femur is performed in the horizontal plane. The guide wire is passed through the base of the greater trochanter apex in the outside-inward direction along the longitudinal axis of the neck and head of the femur on the horizontal plane of the osteotomised head and neck of the femur to the subchondral part of the medial edge of the femoral head. Rotation of the hip by the shin rotation is performed with the lower extremity being bent in the knee joint at 45° angle in such a way that the angle of crossing of the guide wires in the area of the hip joint when measured constitutes 66°.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of anatomo-surgical modelling.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laparotomy in Wistar rats with inserting a complex of spleen and pancreas into the wound. That is followed by cryodestruction of a portion of pancreas for 5 sec with the use of an applicator of the area of 0.6 cm2 cooled in liquid nitrogen for 40 sec. That is followed by immersing the complex of the pancreas and spleen into the limited cavity pre-formed of the abdominal external and internal oblique muscles. That is followed by introducing S.aureus microbial suspension 0.3 ml 1 billion into this cavity. Before closing the incisional wound, a fistula is attached to leaves of the external oblique muscles for the following administration of drug preparations into the formed cavity.
EFFECT: providing the controlled simulation of pancreonecrosis close to that developing in the clinical settings.
6 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for instant simulation of abrasive wear of a polyethylene insert of a metal cup or a polyethylene cup of an experiment module of a hip implant, which has a head with a leg, a polyethylene insert of a metal cup or a polyethylene cup and a cup clamping device. The head consists of ceramics or metal alloys and has a rough surface. The experiment module of the hip implant is clamped in a special device so that the device is placed into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup of the module of the implant; a long axis of the head and leg of the module of the implant are perpendicular to a plane of an input into the polyethylene cup or polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the module of the implant. That is followed by dynamic co-compression and cyclic torsion tests in a friction pair; the experiment is terminated by producing the abrasive wear of the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to study the abrasive wear of the polyethylene insert of the cup or the polyethylene cup of the experiment module of the hip implant with the long axis of the head and the axis of the leg of the experiment module arranged perpendicularly to the plane of the input into the polyethylene cup or polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the module of the implant.
SUBSTANCE: shin muscle ischemia is simulated in laboratory animals on the second experimental day by surgical removal of a portion of great vessels, including femoral, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The ischemia is corrected by the intragastric administration of dihydroquercetin in a daily dose of 5.5 mg/kg every 46 hours of the first 7 experimental days.
EFFECT: effective treatment of the skeletal muscle ischemia by stimulating neoangiogenesis that is proved by laser Doppler flowmetry and morphological analysis.
SUBSTANCE: drive comprises a linear motion and rotation unit for an elongated instrument with an adjustable speed breaker and an elongated instrument tracking sensor. The linear motion unit for the elongated instrument and the adjustable speed breaker are assembled together in the form of a linear electromagnetic motor. The rotation unit with the adjustable speed breaker are presented in the form of the electromagnetic motor, wherein the elongated instrument is presented in the form of a tubular instrument with magnets from the inside and integrated inside the linear electromagnetic motor performing the controlled linear motion of the tubular instrument, which interacts with an electromagnetic motor rotor, e.g. by a sleeve connection. The linear motion and rotation motors are coaxial and provided with motor control units interacting with a coupler.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of tactile sensations and enhancement of the drive technical capacities.
FIELD: medicine, experimental abdominal surgery.
SUBSTANCE: as experimental animals one should apply mongrel dogs of 12-17 kg body weight. Under general anesthesia one should conduct superior-median laparotomy, introduce 3.0 ml 70%-ethanol solution under pancreatic capsule and then laparotomic wound should be sutured up. Manipulation should be performed once. The method provides modeling adequate acute pancreatic inflammation at no side effects being very simple in implementation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves studying transverse longitudinal and rotation stiffness characteristics. The studies are carried out step-by-step from the first order units to complete external fixation apparatus structure. The device has frame and is provided with calibration loads, wire rope, displacement indicators, strip for fastening to loading end of bone imitator fragment, beam for fixing displacement indicators, beams having unit for modeling longitudinal and transverse loadings. The frame is manufactured as parallelepiped. The fixing panel has openings for bone imitator, for fixing external fixation apparatus and yoke connection union and is fixed in end face part of the frame. Beam for fixing displacement indicators has longitudinal slit for fixing the indicators and arranging them on lateral slots in frame base. The beams having unit for modeling rotational, longitudinal and transverse loadings are arranged on lateral frame sides on lateral slots in base.
EFFECT: high vision acuity without applying spectacle-based correction; accelerated treatment course.
2 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: experimental medicine.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with modeling urinary calculosis in rats due to injecting intraperitoneally 60%-glucose solution at 1 ml/100 g animal body weight twice daily for 2 mo. The method is very simple and enables to achieve lithogenesis in 25% experimental animals.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of experimental modeling.
2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves using Hann diode crystal with proper frequencies of pathogenic microorganisms and cells during their death period or during the stimulating factors action period being applied.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment; wider range of biophysical action types.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, experimental physiology.
SUBSTANCE: hypoxia with hypercapnia should be modeled due to creating a closed system of inhaled air circulation. Air enters lungs out of hermetically sealed reservoir and at expiration returns back. The process of recirculation is supplied with an apparatus of artificial pulmonary ventilation. The innovation suggested provides steadiness in development of hypoxia with hypercapnia excluding the development of stressor reaction. Conditions should be created to carry out any manipulations with an animal in the course of an experiment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of modeling.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, stomatology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation should be carried out for the purpose to study ethiology and pathogenesis of parodontitis. One should affect with emotional stress in experimental animals (mature rats) due to placing 10-11 experimental animals into the cage at area of 0.018 sq. cm/animal. Before placing into the cage one should create artificial dental plaque around the cervix of the upper and lower incisors with the help of stomatological cement for every experimental animal. In the course of modeling all experimental animals should eat paste-like food. The method enables to shorten terms for obtaining the model desired and increase its similarity with pathomorphological manifestations of human parodontitis.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.
FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has input first variable resistor, capacitor and permanent resistor. Permanent resistor is connected to arm second and third variable resistors. Second ends of variable resistors are connected with motionless contacts of polarized relay. Movable contact of relay is connected to common bus. Input of device is connected to amplifier which has output connected with control wiring of polarized relay. Second end of wiring is connected with common bus. Device is intended for electrical modeling of balanced and misbalanced conditions of acupuncture point at electropunctural action with unlike-poled signals due to liquidation mutual errors at any circuit of opposite arms of the device. Values of active resistances can be installed independently at any arm of device.
EFFECT: increased precision.
FIELD: experimental medicine.
SUBSTANCE: laboratory animals should be once injected intraperitoneally or intravenously with phenylhydrazine at the dosage of 100-150 mg/kg.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, experimental biology, ecology, toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: at studying the mechanisms of heavy metals toxic action, in particular, cadmium upon renal function, it is suggested to introduce cadmium sulfate solution into stomach once daily for 2 mo at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, on conversion to metal, where cadmium corresponds to 0.5 mg per 1 ml solution. The present innovation enables to study the pathology in dynamics of development and elaborate and searching preparations for treating and preventing chronic toxic nephropathy.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing cell or cell group to external power source. At least two electrodes are introduced before treating the cells. One of electrodes is set on cytoplasmatic external cell membrane surface and the other one cell membrane and membrane potential value is measured. External electric voltage source is connected to the introduced electrodes oppositely in polarity with cell membrane potential difference value being not less than cell membrane potential.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in building cell damage model by means of energy burst and death.