Gravitational heat pipe with thermoelectric converters (versions)

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: in both variants, pipe includes case 2 with evaporation zone 3, transport zone 4 and condensation zone 5. In condensation zone, thermoelectric converters 9, radiators 11, cooling them, and elements for thermal contact of the converters with the case and radiators are mounted on the case. Both variants feature pipe where each converter 9 with the said elements is positioned in housing 7 and, together with radiator 14, forms removable heat removal module 6 mounted on the case 2. In the second variant, condensation zone can include a site with radiator contacting the case directly, along with all other components.

EFFECT: simplified pipe maintenance, enhanced reliability, extended utilisation possibilities.

13 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to heat engineering, namely to heat transfer devices, more specifically to two variants of the constructive execution of the gravitational heat pipe designed to prevent freezing and thawing of the soil under buildings, constructed in the permafrost zone.

The known design of heat pipes, which use thermoelectric converters (see, for example, patent of Russian Federation №2035673, publ. 20.05.1995 [1]; the patent of Russian Federation №2373472, publ. 20.11.2009 [2]).

Gravitational heat pipe according to the patent [1] has a sealed body with zones of evaporation, transport and condensation, made with the possibility of refilling the coolant, and the enclosure in the condensation zone has a variable cross-section with a constriction. In the area of narrowing of the set of thermoelectric converters, contacting cold surfaces with the wall of the housing, and hot surfaces - mounted radiators. Such an arrangement of thermoelectric converters are selected with the purpose of intensification of heat exchange, as in the contraction velocity of the vapors of coolant to increase. However, the narrowing of the shell in the zone of condensation increases the hydraulic resistance to the movement of vapor from the evaporation zone to the condensation surface and therefore�WMD adversely affects the heat transfer capacity of the pipe. In addition, there is heat transfer from the radiator to the body in the condensation zone, which is the higher, the greater the temperature provide pressure applied thermoelectric converters. This heat transfer is further enhanced by the availability of external surfaces of the shell wall between the surfaces that are in contact thermoelectric converters. The moisture contained in the outside air, cooling radiators, has in this structure, the opportunity to condense on the casing in the zone of condensation and other cold items, which also leads to lower heat transfer ability of the heat pipe.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe according to both variants of its implementation, the closest known heat pipe according to the patent [2]. This pipe has performed with the possibility of refilling with coolant sealed body with zones of evaporation, condensation and transport area, as well as thermoelectric converters, cold surfaces which have thermal contact with the outer surface of the shell wall in the condensation zone, and hot surfaces - with radiators. The body is made with the outer surface of the wall having a cross section in the condensation zone a rectangular shape when not changing the length of the housing interior flooded�Eastern section in this area. Thermoelectric converters are installed on all four sides of the outer surface of the shell wall, and radiators that are common to all thermoelectric transducers installed on the same side wall of the housing made in the form of finned plates so that they form a covering body cavity. Free internal volume of the latter is filled with a material with low thermal conductivity and low coefficient of water absorption.

The design feature of this known pipe is that the Assembly units containing thermoelectric converters together with fasteners and elements providing thermal contact between thermoelectric converters with casing pipe and finned plate radiator can only be carried out directly on the housing of the pipe together with said plates, common to all thermoelectric transducers installed on the same side wall of the housing. Consequently, the filling of the above-mentioned cavity with a material with low thermal conductivity and low coefficient of water absorption, which after polymerization is a dense structure and is firmly glued to the body of the pipe, makes it almost impossible to replace the failed one thermoelectric Converter, in re�altace which in this situation is unusable, the entire heat pipe.

The present invention according to the first embodiment is directed to the achievement of the technical result consists in a more simple and convenient maintenance gravitational heat pipe and improving its reliability. Below when presenting the essence of the present invention according to the first embodiment and the description of particular cases of its implementation will be announced and other types of technical results.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe according to the first embodiment, as specified closest to it is known pipe according to the patent [2], contains made with the possibility of refilling with coolant sealed enclosure with the evaporation zone, transport zone and a condensation zone with the area is not changing the length of the internal cross-section. On the specified casing in the zone of condensation of the set of thermoelectric converters, which are designed to cool the radiators, as well as the elements providing thermal contact between thermoelectric converters designed to cool the radiators and the casing pipe.

To achieve the mentioned technical result in the proposed gravitational heat pipe according to the first embodiment, unlike the closest to it is known, each thermoelectric Converter elements and ensuring its �aloway contact with intended for cooling the radiator and the casing pipe, enclosed in the casing and together with intended for cooling of thermoelectric Converter heat sink mounted on the specified casing, form mounted on the housing of the removable pipe heat sink module. Free volume within said casing filled utverzhdennym in the manufacture of removable heat sink module waterproof insulating material.

This design allows for the Assembly of the heat sink modules separately from the main body of the pipe. This simplifies their installation on the pipe body, as the set of all elements of the heat sink module including designed for cooling thermoelectric Converter radiator, structurally forms a single unit. At the same time exclude the possibility of adhesion to the surface of the body tube waterproof insulation material, as it can be block is hardened in the manufacture of removable heat sink module. Collectively, the features not only simplify the installation of the heat sink module to the body of the pipe, but also provide convenience in removing and replacing the failed module or transfer it to another tube. The failure of the heat sink module, even if it only leads to the loss of gravitational heat pipes in General, is fraught with the need �substitution of new pipe in the ground, since the failed heat sink module can easily be replaced by a reserve.

Advantageously this embodiment of the proposed heat pipe when said removable heat sink modules are installed on the casing pipe in pairs, from different sides of the housing of the pipe symmetrically with respect to each other and in each pair have a common tool for their fixation on the body of the pipe.

It is also preferable that the casing pipe in the transport area and in between the removable heat sink modules was covered with insulation. In this case, the body becomes protected from condensation of water vapor from the surrounding air, which increases the efficiency of the heat pipe. Such protection is especially important near the removable heat sink modules.

The condensation zone of the proposed heat pipe may be formed of at least two parts, on one or more of which, but not all, have these removable heat sink modules, while the remaining sections of the condensation zone is provided with heat sinks in contact with the casing pipe.

Such an arrangement allows the pipe work in two modes: with working and not working thermocouples in the composition of said heat dissipating modules, depending on whether there is a need for additional �of hladanie of the condensation zone at a given ambient temperature. This ensures the achievement along with the above additional technical result consists in the greater efficiency of the proposed heat pipe due to the operation with thermoelectric converters off and the possibility of using this tube in a wider range of external conditions.

While these parts of the condensation zone may be owned as common to them straight the casing pipe and its different parts into which it divides into the casing pipe on the boundary of the transport zone and the condensation zone. The implementation of the first of these cases can be used when located above the ground surface part of the heat pipe has no restrictions on height, and the second when such limitation.

For the present invention according to the second embodiment, the closest known technical solution, as for the first variant is the gravitational heat pipe according to the patent [2].

Along with the above-described when considering the first option, the feature closest to the proposed well-known heat pipe according to the patent [2], conditional on its aforementioned shortcomings, it should be noted also that the principle of operation and construction of this pipe include its normal work only with functioning thermoelectric PR�the educational. Fundamentally, when the temperature of the ambient air would be perhaps the use of the pipe-line and off-thermoelectric converters. However, due to the fact that the housing is in the condensation zone is surrounded by a layer of insulating material filling the cavity formed by the finned plate radiator, and due to the fact that between the radiator and the casing pipe is installed thermoelectric converters and other intermediate elements, heat exchange with the environment during idle thermoelectric converters difficult. The need for continuous use of thermoelectric converters, including in circumstances when one would do without them, reduces the efficiency of operation of the tube.

Thus, in total the design features closest to the proposed is known gravitational heat pipe according to the patent [2] limit the range of conditions in which its use and reduce its reliability and degrade maintainability, complicating maintenance.

The present invention according to the second embodiment is directed to the achievement of the technical result, which coincides with that of the first embodiment, i.e., namely, in a more simple and convenient maintenance gravitational� heat pipe and improving its reliability, and added to the specified result is to achieve a greater level of efficiency of the proposed heat pipe and the possibility of its use in a wider range of external conditions. Below when presenting the essence of the present invention according to the second embodiment and the description of particular cases of its implementation will be announced and other types of technical results.

The proposed gravitational heat pipe according to the second embodiment, as specified closest to it is known pipe according to the patent [2], contains made with the possibility of refilling with coolant sealed enclosure with the evaporation zone, transport zone and a condensation zone with the area is not changing the length of the internal cross-section. On the specified casing in the zone of condensation of the set of thermoelectric converters, which are designed to cool the radiators, as well as the elements providing thermal contact between thermoelectric converters designed to cool the radiators and the casing pipe.

To achieve the mentioned technical result in the proposed gravitational heat pipe according to the second embodiment, unlike the closest to it is known, the condensation zone is made with two or more sections. Thus oksanatimoshenko converters and radiators to keep them cool, as well as elements for providing thermal contact of each thermoelectric Converter with heat sink for cooling and the casing pipe is installed on one or more of the parcels but not all, while the remaining sections of the condensation zone is provided with heat sinks in contact with the casing pipe. Each thermoelectric Converter elements and ensuring its thermal contact with intended for cooling the radiator and the casing pipe, enclosed in a casing and, together with intended for cooling of thermoelectric Converter heat sink mounted on the specified casing, form mounted on the housing of the removable pipe heat sink module. Free volume within said casing filled utverzhdennym in the manufacture of removable heat sink module waterproof insulating material.

Describes the design of the proposed heat pipe according to the second embodiment allows for the Assembly of the heat sink modules separately from the main body of the pipe, eliminating the possibility of sticking a waterproof insulating material to the surface of the casing pipe and simplifies the installation of modules on the casing of the tube, as the set of all elements of the heat sink module including designed for cooling the�myoelectrical Converter radiator, structurally forms a single unit. At the same time provides convenience in removing and replacing the failed module or transfer it to another tube. The failure of the heat sink module, even if it only leads to the loss of gravitational heat pipes in General, is fraught with the necessity of installing a new pipe in the ground, as the heat failed module can easily be replaced by a reserve. Thanks to the discharging pipe of the condensation zone having two areas described above, it becomes possible its functioning, and off with thermoelectric converters contained in the specified units. This allows, ultimately, to use the pipe when the external conditions are changing in a wider range.

Possible special cases of the implementation of the proposed heat pipe, one of which specified parts of the zone of condensation belong to a common straight pipe housing and the other different parts of the body that divides the body of the pipe on the boundary of the transport zone and the condensation zone.

The performance of a heat pipe according to the first of these cases can be used when located above the ground surface parts of the heat pipe has no restrictions on height, and the second - when such space limitations are a primary�.

Advantageously this embodiment of the proposed heat pipe when said removable heat sink modules hosted on the one or more portions of the condensation zone, installed on the casing pipe in pairs, from different sides of the housing of the pipe symmetrically with respect to each other and in each pair have a common tool for their fixation on the body of the pipe.

Preferably, the casing pipe in the transport area and in between the removable heat sink modules was covered with insulation. In this case, the body becomes protected from condensation of water vapor from the surrounding air, which increases the efficiency of the heat pipe. Such protection is especially important near the heat sink modules.

Technical solution according to the invention is illustrated by examples of its implementation, illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

- Fig.1 - proposed gravitational heat pipe direct case, in the condensation zone which several pairs of removable heat sink modules;

- Fig.2 in enlarged scale a portion of the housing proposed gravitational heat pipe, which has a pair of symmetrically placed relative to the housing removable heat sink modules;

- Fig.3 - proposed gravitational heat pipe with a straight body, oneusing the condensation zone plot with established removable heat sink modules and the site has a radiator, come in direct contact with the body of the pipe;

- Fig.4 - proposed gravitational heat pipe with a housing having a branching transport at the border zone with condensation zone, one branch of which forms the plot of the condensation zone with installed removable heat sink modules, and the other plot with radiators in contact with casing pipe;

- Fig.5 and 6 is obtained by computer simulation image of one removable heat sink module and two modules, pressed against each other.

Gravitational heat pipe shown in Fig.1, made in accordance with the present invention according to the first embodiment.

Gravitational heat pipes and Fig.3, and Fig.4 correspond to the invention according to the first embodiment only in particular cases of its implementation, when the pipe is characterized by additional signs, expressing the presence in the zone of condensation of the above sections of two types.

At the same time gravity heat pipe of Fig.3 and Fig.4 correspond to the invention according to the second embodiment, in which the signs expressing the presence of the condensation zone specified area of the two types are mandatory for all cases of the invention.

For both options offer izobretatelnye heat pipes of Fig.3 and Fig.4 different signs, characterizing the structural performance of the above areas.

Gravitational heat pipe shown in Fig.1, has filled (partially filled) with liquid coolant 1 case 2 zone 3 of the evaporation, transport area 4 and area 5 of condensation. For the implementation of refilling the coolant pipe is not depicted in this and other drawings Stengel. The filling is made before operation of the tube. Fig.1 (and also in Fig.3 and Fig.4) the pipe is shown with the zone 3 of the evaporation, submerged in the soil that is to be cooled. The size of the internal cross section of the casing pipe in the condensation zone 5 is constant. The external cross section of the housing may be circular or rectangular in shape. In the condensation zone 5 placed several pairs installed on the housing of the removable pipe heat sink modules 6 (shown in Fig.1 particular case, three pairs, i.e., six heat dissipating modules). Two modules of each pair are placed at the same height, symmetrically to each other from different sides of the casing pipe. In the case shown in Fig.1, every two removable heat sink module, comprising a pair of mechanically connected with each other and the casing pipe. Both the heat sink module in each pair have the same design, as illustrated in Fig.2. It represents in enlarged scale�bø I fragment of Fig.1, containing a heat 6 modules, one of which is installed in the left (in the drawing), and another from the right side of the body 2 of the pipe. In the right part of Fig.2 the heat sink module 6 shown in cross section.

Removable heat sink module 6 contains a consistent set and pressed against each other element 8 to provide thermal contact with a thermoelectric Converter with casing pipe, itself thermoelectric Converter 9, and the distance the gasket 10 and the contact plate 11, running together with remote seal 10 role mentioned above in the disclosure of the invention element for providing thermal contact with a thermoelectric Converter 9 with radiator. The presence of the spacers 10 is advisable to increase the distance between the hot sink and a cold pipe housing to reduce a reverse namecheck heat, i.e., to increase the cooling capacity of the module. These structural elements removable heat sink module 6 are enclosed in the housing 7 is attached by screws 22 to the contact plate 9 and having opposite the opening through which this contact plate finned radiator elements 14 attached thereto by screws 21. In Fig.2 performing radiator has two such elements - top and bottom. Free simple internal�ansto casing 7 filled waterproof insulating material 13, which made the heat sink module intended to be mounted on the body 2 of the pipe is a solid monolith.

The above-mentioned pressure to thermoelectric Converter 9 elements 8 and 10 with the plate 11 and them all together with a thermoelectric Converter 9 and is filled with insulating material cover 7 to the body 2 of the pipe in Fig.1 and Fig.2 run is made simultaneously for both removable heat of 6 modules that are part of couples, studs 15 and nuts 16 through the rocker arm 12 abuts against the plate 11 of each of the two modules 6 of the couple. These rocker arms and studs with nuts combine to form a shared pair of removable heat sink modules of the means of their fixation on the body of the pipe.

For casing pipe 2 having a circular cross-section, its thermal contact with a thermoelectric Converter 9 is carried out via a dedicated element 8 heat sink module having a cylindrical surface facing the housing 2. Same shape as in the manufacture of the heat sink module 6 is attached to the surface of the insulating material 13 in the region of its contact with the body 2 of the pipe. In the case where the casing pipe 2 has a rectangular external cross section, both surfaces are flat.

On corpuscule in the transport zone 4 and zone 5 of condensation on the bottom and top removable from the heat sink 6 modules, it is advisable to install the insulation 20 thus, that it makes contact with the housings 7 of the heat sink modules.

The above-described implementation, providing for the merger of the heat sink modules in pairs is preferred, but not mandatory. The heat sink modules can be grouped in pairs, and in the particular case of the pipe can have only one removable heat sink module. When you install an unpaired modules on the body of the pipe, unlike the above-described implementation, missing the second module (e.g., the left of Fig.2) and the rocker 12 is substituted for the bracket that the pipe body on the side opposite to install the module, and the studs 15 are passed through the holes of the brackets.

When the heat pipe of Fig.1 formed in zone 3 of the evaporation of the vapor of the heat carrier, which fueled the housing 2, is lifted up by the transport zone 4 of the housing and reaches the zone 5 of condensation. Here he gives the wall of the body heat that is transferred further to the cold surface of thermoelectric Converter 9 through the element 8, designed to provide thermal contact with a thermoelectric Converter with a pipe housing. The cold surface of thermoelectric Converter 9 cools the element 8 and the wall of the housing, with which the contact element. Thermoelectric Converter 9 "pumps" received �eplot to the heat sink with fins 14 through a spacer strip 10 and the contact plate 11. Further heat is given to the environment through a finned radiator elements 14. Couples who warmth the pipe wall in the locations of the removable heat sink module 6, is condensed. The resulting condensate under the action of gravity flows down into the evaporation zone, where the condensate boils under the action of heat from the surrounding earth, whereupon the described cycle is repeated. The result is the transfer of heat from the soil to the surrounding zone of condensation of the air and the ground cools.

Thermoelectric converters 9 exposed paddle of 6 modules may operate continuously or with predetermined cycles, or be off, depending on the ambient temperature in the condensation zone. If necessary, management can easily be automated, for which the overall device can be equipped with the appropriate tools. To improve the reliability of the pipe such funds may be made independent for different heat dissipating modules 6. Due to the simplicity of the logic of their functioning, they can be made in the form of blocks 23 small size and placed directly in the inner space of the casing 7. The supply voltage in each of the heat sink modules 6 can be fed through the electrical connector 19, and to display the inform�tion about the presence of this voltage and the functioning of the heat sink module 6 it can be equipped with appropriate indicators 17, 18.

When these constructs in order to remove the faulty heat sink module with a view to its replacement, it helps to free the two rocker arms 12, removing the nuts 16 of the stud 15. Replacement surgery can be performed so quickly that there is no appreciable warming of the soil and reduction of bearing capacity of Foundation structures erected on the cooled ground.

Fig.3 illustrates the implementation of the proposed gravitational heat pipe other than those shown in Fig.1 so that the pipe in the condensation zone 5 has two sections 5.1 and 5.2.

One of them (5.1), as in the case illustrated in Fig.1, has mounted a removable heat sink modules 6. Fig.3 shows only two such modules, forming, as in Fig.1, couple. I fragment of Fig.3 containing a removable heat sink 6 modules, one of which is installed in the left (in the drawing), and the other on the right side of the housing pipe 2 shown in Fig.2. In the right part of Fig.2 detachable heat dissipating module 6 shown in cross section.

Removable heat sink modules 6 of the pipe of Fig.3 belongs everything said above about the modules of the pipe of Fig.1, shown in Fig.2, including their designs, the possible number of modules and their grouping, ease of replacement, etc.

Another section (5.2) of the condensation zone has a finned radiator, contacts�store directly with the casing pipe.

With this arrangement, compared with that shown in Fig.1 ensures the achievement of a technical result, namely the possibility of working in a wider range of external conditions. Due to the presence of section 5.2 of the condensation zone, is provided with a radiator, when the temperature of the environment is below a certain value, the pipe work is made possible with off thermoelectric converters 9 module 6 in accordance with the traditional principle of operation of the gravity heat pipe.

It should be noted that this work is fundamentally possible for the pipe of Fig.1, but the efficiency of the pipe will be lower than in the case shown in Fig.3 because off thermoelectric converters 9 together with servicing their elements 8, 10, 11 represent a significant thermal resistance, which impairs the heat transfer to the radiator elements 14. Therefore, for normal operation of the tube of Fig.1 off thermoelectric converters 9 need a lower ambient temperature than for the pipe of Fig.3. Because of the presence of the mentioned thermal resistance there are situations when the operation mode of the pipe of Fig.1 off thermoelectric converters generally cannot be implemented, despite the relatively low external temperature�tour. The need in such situations, the preservation of thermoelectric converters in the on state does not allow to reduce the power consumption of the pipe.

When using the same tube of Fig.3 in similar situations, this mode of operation is switched off thermoelectric converters 9 are possible. When working thermoelectric converters 9 heat dissipating modules 6 condensing the vapor of the coolant occurs mainly on the area 5.1 placement of modules 6 and section 5.2 of the pair may not get. At idle thermoelectric converters 9 module 6 condensing the vapor of the coolant occurs mainly on the section 5.2, with the radiator in contact with the casing pipe. Partial condensation might happen on the section 5.1 from the heat sink modules (as in the tube of Fig.1, with idle thermoelectric converters), because each has its own radiator. However, the intensity of condensation in this area is small for the reason that is associated with the fact that the radiator is in contact with the casing pipe, not directly, but through a number of elements of the heat sink module that generates thermal resistance.

Thus, the implementation of the proposed pipe of Fig.3, while maintaining all the positive properties of the tube of Fig.1, addi�individual can reduce power consumption by disabling thermoelectric converters and extends the range of ambient temperatures, when provided by such a reduction.

The transition to the mode of operation with thermoelectric converters off can be performed manually or automatically with appropriate programming block 23 of Fig.2, if the heat sink modules 6 are equipped with them, and taking into account the temperature sensor readings.

The same as in the tube of Fig.3, the principle of operation may be implemented with a different constructive implementation of the pipe of Fig.4. In this pipe, like the pipe of Fig.3, the condensation zone has two sections, one of which (5.3) is removable heat sink modules 6 and the other section (5.4) of the condensation zone has a fin, forming a conventional radiator in contact with the body. Performing a pair of removable heat sink module 6 illustrated in Fig.2, which shows a fragment I of Fig.4 with the removable heat sink modules 6. Removable heat sink modules 6 of the pipe of Fig.4 is everything said above about these modules.

The peculiarity of the execution pipe of Fig.4 is that the sections 5.3 and 5.4 of the condensation zone do not belong to the traditional rectilinear body (as in Fig.3) and the two housing parts, which branches into the border zone and the condensation zone. The housing may be in the condensation zone, not only two, but a larger number of branches, the corresponding�following specified areas. The ratio of the number of branches with the installed removable heat sink modules, and branches, regular radiators that come in direct contact with the body, may be different. But in any case should have at least one branch representing the area defined on the housing of the heat sink modules, and at least one branch representing the area with a heat sink in contact with the casing pipe.

Logic of the pipe of Fig.4 similar to the logic of the pipe of Fig.3. Corresponding to the figure 4 the performance of the heat pipe is preferably, in particular, in the case where it should be located under buildings, for example, in a ventilated underground. In this situation, a straight pipe of Fig.3 would be the height of a significant part of the ventilated underground and could be placed in it. In this case, the pipe in the condensation zone is at least two branches, as shown in Fig.4.

As a result of considering the above embodiments of the invention, it is possible to conclude that the use of the gravitational heat pipe of Fig.1 preferably, when a simple capacitor in the form of finned tubes are not effective, for example, in climate zones with low negative temperatures in winters�their months or in poorly flushed because of the large size of the building underground. In this case, thermoelectric converters that are included with removable heat sink modules included in the job and constantly work on the temperature setpoints in a cyclic mode.

The use of the gravitational heat pipe of Fig.3 or Fig.4 is preferable, when possible change in the conditions of operation such as described above, to such that can be achieved with an acceptable efficiency of a simple capacitor in the form of finned tubes. Depending on the specific conditions, the pipe can occur both when turned on and when turned off thermoelectric converters that are part of a removable heat sink modules. This alternation of modes can be characterized, for example, when the location of the capacitor in a well-ventilated underground. Thus in the case of a height restriction of usage of the pipe of Fig.4.

A common feature for both variants of the proposed heat pipe that is present in all considered and other possible particular cases of its implementation and use, is the presence of pipe construction easy to install and easy to replace the heat sink modules. Fig.5 presents obtained by computer simulation image removable heat sink module 6 no padding inside�him space of the casing 7 waterproof insulating material. Element 8 as presented in this figure, the case has a cylindrical surface for thermal contact with the housing tube having a circular cross-section shape. Fig.6 shows two removable heat sink module arranged in relation to each other the way they should be located, being mounted on the housing of the gravity pipe. You can see the two yokes 12 and one of the holes 40 to the studs 15.

Sources of information

1. The patent of Russian Federation №2035673, publ. 20.05.1995.

2. The patent of Russian Federation №2373472, publ. 20.11.2009.

1. Gravitational heat pipe containing made with the possibility of refilling with coolant sealed enclosure with the evaporation zone, transport zone and a condensation zone with the area is not changing the length of the internal cross-section, while on the specified casing in the zone of condensation of the set of thermoelectric converters, which are designed to cool the radiators, as well as the elements providing thermal contact between thermoelectric converters designed to cool the radiators and the specified body, characterized in that each thermoelectric Converter elements and ensuring its thermal contact with intended for cooling the radiator and the specified body, W�were excluded in the casing and together with intended for cooling of thermoelectric Converter heat sink, mounted on the specified casing, form mounted on the specified enclosure removable heat sink module, wherein the free volume within said casing filled utverzhdennym in the manufacture of removable heat sink module waterproof insulating material.

2. Pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing in the transport area and in between the removable heat sink modules are covered with insulation.

3. Pipe according to claim 1, characterized in that the removable heat sink modules are installed on the specified body in pairs, with different sides, symmetrically with respect to each other and in each pair have a common tool for their fixation on a specific case.

4. Pipe according to claim 3, characterized in that the housing in the transport area and in between the removable heat sink modules are covered with insulation.

5. Pipe according to any one of claims.1-4, characterized in that the condensation zone is made of at least two sections, these removable heat sink modules installed on one or more of the parcels but not all, and the rest of these parts of the condensation zone is provided with heat sinks in contact with said housing.

6. Pipe according to claim 5, characterized in that all the parts of the condensation zone belong to General�have them made direct to the specified shell.

7. Pipe according to claim 5, characterized in that these parts of the condensation zone belong to different specified parts of the body that branches into the border zone and the condensation zone.

8. Gravitational heat pipe containing made with the possibility of refilling with coolant sealed enclosure with the evaporation zone, transport zone and a condensation zone with the area is not changing the length of the internal cross-section, on the specified casing in the zone of condensation of the set of thermoelectric converters, which are designed to cool the radiators, as well as the elements providing thermal contact between thermoelectric converters designed to cool the radiators and the casing pipe, characterized in that the condensation zone is provided with two or more areas, and these thermoelectric converters and radiators to keep them cool, as well as elements for providing thermal contact of each thermoelectric Converter with heat sink for cooling and the casing pipe is installed on one or more of the sites of the zone of condensation, but not all, and the rest of these parts of the condensation zone is provided with heat sinks in contact with said body, each thermoelectric�Converter and technical elements providing thermal contact intended for cooling the radiator and the specified body, enclosed in a casing and, together with intended for cooling of thermoelectric Converter heat sink mounted on the specified casing, form mounted on the specified enclosure removable heat sink module, and the free volume within said casing filled utverzhdennym in the manufacture of removable heat sink module waterproof insulating material.

9. Pipe according to claim 8, characterized in that these parts of the condensation zone are owned in common for them is made direct to the specified shell.

10. Pipe according to claim 9, characterized in that the housing in the transport area and in between the heat sink modules are covered with insulation.

11. Pipe according to claim 8, characterized in that these parts of the condensation zone belong to different specified parts of the body that branches into the border zone and the condensation zone.

12. Pipe according to claim 11, characterized in that the housing in the transport area and in between the removable heat sink modules are covered with insulation.

13. Pipe according to any one of claims.8-12, characterized in that the removable heat sink modules hosted on the one or more parts of the cond�ncacii, installed on the specified body in pairs, with different sides, symmetrically with respect to each other and in each pair have a common tool for their fixation on a specific case.



 

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FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: heat transfer panel can be used in temperature control systems of space vehicles (SV) for providing of temperature conditions of the equipment installed in earth satellites, interplanetary stations, landers and other space objects. SV heat transfer panel contains metal skin and built-in heat tubes. The panel is designed as sectional and consists of rigidly connected with each other separate hollow sections with heat tubes. Each section of the panel, including heat tubes, is designed as a uniform monolithic structure.

EFFECT: panel allows to improve the efficiency of heat contact between the cooled equipment and built-in heat tubes, unify the structure components, improve reliability and life of the panel, minimize pollution of SV internal atmosphere at the expense of avoidance of glue from used materials, and significantly simplify the technology of fabrication of instrument panel, which combines in itself heat and strength functions.

11 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for removing heat from electronic components with high heat dissipation, particularly heat pipes, and can be used in the electronics industry. A heat pipe using tubular fibre-optic structures, the inner side surface of which is lined with tubular optical glass fibres, and the coolant used inside said pipe is a volatile liquid. Use of the volatile liquid (alcohol) as a coolant intensifies heat exchange in the heat pipe via phase transition, thereby creating conditions for controlling temperature of the cooled object.

EFFECT: facilitating movement of liquid from a condensation area to an evaporation area and removing heat radiation from a cooled object.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, to dynamo-electric machines with a cooling system. Dynamo-electric machine (1) includes stator (2) and rotor (3). Winding system (4) is located in slots at least of stator (2). Basically, radial heat transfer is performed by means of heat tubes (5) to end surfaces (6) of stator (2). Each heat tube has evaporation zone (19) and condensation zone (7). Evaporation zone (19) is located inside a closed cooling circuit of the dynamo-electric machine. Heat tubes have woven structure (8) in one end section of the evaporation zone and/or the condensation zone to enlarge the surface of the evaporation zone and/or the condensation zone. Woven structure (8) is heat-conducting and has the possibility of providing air flow swirling in the evaporation zone and/or the condensation zone.

EFFECT: technical result consists in improvement of heat removal without any complication of the design.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument-making industry and can be used at control of fluid medium flow rate and temperature. According to this invention, materials, components and methods are aimed at manufacture and use of macro-scale channels containing fluid medium, the temperature and flow rate of which is controlled by means of geometrical sizes of the macro-scale channel and configuration of at least some part of the wall of the macro-scale channel and a flow of composite particles, which form fluid medium. Besides, the wall of the macro-scale channel and the flow of composite particles have such a configuration that collisions between composite parts and the wall can be preferably accompanied by mirror rebound.

EFFECT: improving fluid medium temperature and flow rate control accuracy.

54 cl, 18 dwg

Cooling system // 2518982

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: cooling system refers to heat engineering, namely to heat mass exchange, and can be used for cooling of different heat releasing elements by removing heat from them to a cooler of any type by a heat pipe. The cooling system comprises a heat pipe as well as a heat releasing element and a cooler which are installed at the opposite pipe ends and are in thermal contact with the pipe. The heat releasing element and the cooler are set with the shift to the heat pipe centre according to the required heat resistance and transferred heat power of the cooling system.

EFFECT: proposed solution allows for significant decrease of cooling system's heat resistance and increase of the power it transfers due to slight shift of the said elements In a particular application example, provided the heat releasing element and the cooler are shifted by 10% of the heat pipe length, the heat resistance decreased by 22% and the transferred heat power increased from 180 W to 220 W.

3 dwg

Condenser // 2505768

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: condenser uses heat exchange tubes made from heat-resistant and heat-insulating material as a waste steam cooling device; thermobatteries, the cold junctions of which face inside the tube and the hot ones face the outer side, are mounted in the above heat exchange tubes. Hot air from inter-tube space of the condenser is used for heating of rooms during winter time.

EFFECT: simpler design.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft thermal-control equipment. Proposed system comprises two two-chamber fluid thermal boards 22 to support the equipment. Said thermal boards are mounted at manned compartment 1. External heat sink 12 is composed of four diametrically opposite heat exchange panels 14. Panel 14 is furnished with heat pipe with condenser 15 arranged inside panel 14 and evaporator 19 integrated with self-contained heat transfer element 16 mounted at spacecraft outer surface nearby panel 14. Element 16 comprises two one-chamber fluid thermal boards 18. Evaporator 19 is furnished with steam temperature regulator 17 to shut off or open heat pipe circuit depending upon set temperature. Thermal boards 22 are hydraulically communicated by circuits 13, 21 with appropriate one-way fluid thermal boards 18 of elements 16 to make one-phase working body line. Every circuit 13, 21 comprises electrically driven pump 3, drain-fill valves 5, hydropneumatic accumulator 8, pressure and flow rate gages 4, 7, 10, flow rate controller 11 and electric heaters 23. Every circuit 13, 21 has working body temperature transducers 20. Replaceable elements of said circuits are connected in main lines via hydraulic joints. Main lines are fitted in manned comportment 1 via sealed lead-ins 6. Heat control system comprises also the two-chamber gas-fluid heat exchanger 24 with two replaceable fans included into both circuits 13, 21.

EFFECT: expanded application range, higher reliability and reparability.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: noiseless heat-pipe cooling system includes a heat source, a closed flat heat-pipe evaporator and a condenser, which are equipped with steam and liquids branch pipes connected to each other via a steam line and a condensate line. Inner surface of the bottom of the evaporator is covered with a wick. Outer surface of the evaporator housing opposite a heat source is covered with zigzag-shaped ribs, and inner surface is covered with a grid from porous material. The grid is connected at its ends to a wick-header adjacent to the inner surface of its side end faces and lower end face, which is connected through a condensate inlet branch pipe to a transport wick arranged in a condensate line. A capillary heat-pipe condenser-cooler represents a flat rectangular housing with longitudinal vertical through air slots, which is equipped with condensate inlet and outlet branch pipes arranged in its opposite end faces. The condenser is separated on inner side with a vertical partition wall with vertical slots, which is adjacent to end partition walls of air slots into a steam header and a working chamber. Inner surface of lower wall of the housing of the heat-pipe condenser-cooler is coated with a wick layer on which in the working chamber in cavities between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots there arranged are condensation and cooling sections. Each of the sections consists of two vertical partition walls, between which a vertical distributing steam channel is arranged, which is interconnected with the steam header through a vertical slot. Vertical chambers of residual condensation are located between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots and two above said vertical partition walls. Each vertical partition wall consists of several vertical perforated plates arranged with a gap relative to each other and covered with a layer of hydrophilic material or made from it, the holes in which are made in the form of horizontal conical capillaries. Capillaries are located so that small holes of conical capillaries of the previous plate are located opposite large holes of conical capillaries of the next plate. Plates of vertical partition walls with large holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each steam chamber, and plates of vertical partition walls with small holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each chamber of residual condensation. Inner surface of side vertical walls of vertical chambers of residual condensation is covered with a grid from porous material. All gaskets from porous hydrophilic material and grids from porous material are connected to a wick layer that in its turn is connected through the condensate outlet branch pipe to the transport wick of the condensate line.

EFFECT: invention allows improving reliability and efficiency of a noiseless heat-pipe cooling system.

10 dwg

FIELD: atomic industry; heat-and-power industry; other industries; production of the electrogenerating installations powered by the low-potential water.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of electrical engineering, in particular, to the electrogenerating installations working on the low-potential water and may be used at the spill into the open pond of the water cooling condensators of the atomic and heat power plants. The technical result of the invention is the possibility of operation using the low-potential heat-carrying medium. The possibility is based on usage of the hollow magnet with the magnetic transformation temperature lying between the temperature of the power source and the environment temperature. The water with the temperature of 30-50°С heat ups the hollow magnet, it loses its magnetic properties and floats. In the water of the pond it is cooled below its magnetic transformation temperature, restores the magnetic properties and is attracted downwards by the magnets. The hollow magnet is kinematically linked to the armature of the linear generator, which crossing the stator windings by the magnetic lines induces in it the electric current flow.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the possibility of operation of the electrogenerating installation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: atomic industry; heat-and-power industry; other industries; production of the electrogenerating installations powered by the low-potential water.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of electrical engineering, in particular, to the electrogenerating installations working on the low-potential water and may be used at the spill into the open pond of the water cooling condensators of the atomic and heat power plants. The technical result of the invention is the possibility of operation using the low-potential heat-carrying medium. The possibility is based on usage of the hollow magnet with the magnetic transformation temperature lying between the temperature of the power source and the environment temperature. The water with the temperature of 30-50°С heat ups the hollow magnet, it loses its magnetic properties and floats. In the water of the pond it is cooled below its magnetic transformation temperature, restores the magnetic properties and is attracted downwards by the magnets. The hollow magnet is kinematically linked to the armature of the linear generator, which crossing the stator windings by the magnetic lines induces in it the electric current flow.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the possibility of operation of the electrogenerating installation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: in both variants, pipe includes case 2 with evaporation zone 3, transport zone 4 and condensation zone 5. In condensation zone, thermoelectric converters 9, radiators 11, cooling them, and elements for thermal contact of the converters with the case and radiators are mounted on the case. Both variants feature pipe where each converter 9 with the said elements is positioned in housing 7 and, together with radiator 14, forms removable heat removal module 6 mounted on the case 2. In the second variant, condensation zone can include a site with radiator contacting the case directly, along with all other components.

EFFECT: simplified pipe maintenance, enhanced reliability, extended utilisation possibilities.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: extra heating of soil is carried out by applying the solar radiation, as an outside heat source, inside the array of soil, by absorption of concentrated solar radiation in the receiver of solar radiation and heat transfer to the amount of gravel-water heat exchanger-accumulator which is in heat contact with soil. Throughout the year, selection of low-grade heat and its transformation using a heat pump cycle to a higher level, that meets the requirements of heating and hot water supply system, is carried out by transmission of heat through a heat exchanger connected to the contour of heat pump evaporator.

EFFECT: invention can improve energetic efficiency of processes of heat exchange, expand the scope and reduce the complexity of method.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Microcooling device // 2247912

FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.

EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.

22 cl, 4 dwg

Heat pipe // 2254533

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.

EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.

1 dwg

Heat exchanger // 2255284

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 6 dwg

Heat pipe // 2256862

FIELD: heating engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.

EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.

1 dwg

Thermosiphon // 2261405

FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.

SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.

14 dwg, 18 cl

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