Construction method of midget hydroelectric power plants

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydroelectric power industry, particularly to methods of small river and artificial flow utilisation for electric power generation. Method of midget hydroelectric power plant construction involves construction of hydroelectric aggregates in the form of converters of kinetic water flow energy to potential hydraulic shock energy, and rotating drive of electric power generators. Water ducts of hydroelectric aggregates feature walls moving in radial direction and injectors with actuators driven in reciprocal motion by water duct walls moving in radial direction. Electric power generator drive is made in the form of propellers rotated by energy transferred from injectors to propellers by intermediate energy carrier, a work medium other than water.

EFFECT: simple method of midget hydroelectric power plant construction in low-intensity water flows.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydropower, in particular to methods of use of water resources of small rivers and man-made streams to generate electrical energy.

A known method of construction of small hydropower plants, including units in the form of conduits, in which the pressure fluctuations caused by water hammer, and linear generators, movable working parts which connect the movable parts of the walls of the conduits of the hydraulic units [the Method of construction of small hydropower plants. RF patent №2412302, registered in the State register of inventions of the Russian Federation 20.02.2011 a.].

The disadvantage of this method of construction of small hydropower plants is the inability to obtain an alternating current standardized voltage and frequency without the use of additional, expensive devices, including the accumulation of produced electricity. Batteries large electric power is quite a costly device, which adversely affects the cost of the final product - derived electricity.

The closest to the proposed technical solution (prototype) by the greatest number of similar features and achieved when the result is a method comprising converting the kinetic energy of the flow� water in the potential energy of water hammer, the accumulation of potential energy of water in a special hydraulic accumulator and supply it to the water turbine, the rotating electric generator [CIRCULATING WATER POWER GENERATION SYSTEM. Japanese patent JP 2003148319 (A), publication date 21.05.2003 G., F03B 17/00].

The disadvantage of the prototype is that for continuous and stable operation of the turbine, generating considerable power, requires a large supply of potential energy energy in the hydraulic accumulator as a working fluid and energy source, rotating the water turbine, the prototype is water. This leads to an increase in the size of the special hydraulic accumulators and, accordingly, their value.

The technical task of the invention is to provide a simple method of construction of small hydropower plants on the low-pressure streams, capable of generating considerable power with smaller sizes of special battery potential energy.

According to the invention the technical problem is achieved in that in the method of construction of small hydroelectric power stations, including the construction of generating units in the form of converters of the kinetic energy of water flow into potential energy of water hammer and drive the generators of the rotational type, the feature is that the conduits of gedroogde�of ATA, having a movable in the radial direction of the wall, install the compressor, the working parts which lead to the reciprocating movement of the movable in the radial direction by the walls of a conduit, perform the drive of electric generators in the form of propellers rotating at the expense of the energy transferred from the compressor to the intermediate propulsion fuel-working fluid, other than water.

The working medium is air, the blowers are in the form of air compressors, and propulsion in the form of pneumatogram.

As a working medium fluid of hydraulic systems, blowers perform in the form of positive displacement pumps, and propellers in the form of hydraulic motors.

The units install in the solution of the watercourse parallel to each other in an amount equal to the accumulation time of the kinetic energy of water

in the units and convert it into mechanical power, initiate a water hammer in penstocks of hydraulic units with a shift in time, ensuring the continuity of the process of energy accumulation and selection of useful power.

The method of construction of small hydropower plants (see drawing), includes the construction of generating units in the form of converters of the kinetic energy of water flow into potential energy of water hammer (1), batteries energy�and (4) and actuator rotational generators of type (7). The power converters are in the form of conduits (1) movable in the radial direction of the walls (membranes), resulting in reciprocating motion of the working parts of the compressor (2), which may be positive displacement pumps or air compressors depending on the form of intermediate energy carrier. The energy storage is in the form of air receivers or pneumatic-hydraulic accumulators depending on the form of intermediate energy carrier (4) provided with devices for draining (3), safety valves, pressure (5), pressure gauge (6). Drive electric generators (9) are in the form of pneumatograph or hydraulic motors (7) depending on the type of intermediate energy carrier.

In the proposed method, the kinetic energy of the total volume of water moving in a conduit with an initial speed prior to the initiation of water hammer in pipeline), is first converted in the overlapping section of the conduit is automatically powered by the energy of water flow shock valves (8) in the potential energy of elastic deformation of the water and the walls of the conduit under the action of potential energy mechanical work is done by radial movement of the moving parts of the walls of the conduit (membrane), resulting in reciprocating motion of the working bodies nagnetic�lay, air compressors or positive displacement pumps (2). Intermediate energy carrier fluid for hydraulic systems or air from the blowers (2) under pressure is supplied to the energy accumulator (4), further along the tubing in a pneumatic motor or a hydraulic motor (7), depending on the type of intermediate energy carrier, which drives the electric generator rotational type (9), generating an alternating electric current with standardized parameters of voltage and frequency.

In the proposed method, the kinetic energy begins to accumulate in the conduits of hydroelectric shock when opening the valves operating automatically due to the energy of the water flow. The number and time of accumulation of kinetic energy of water in penstocks of hydraulic units depends on the mass of water in them, i.e. the length and transverse dimensions of the conduits. Mass is a measure of inertia, the greater the length of the conduit at fixed dimensions of its cross section, the more time is required for energy storage. The accumulation of kinetic energy occurs with increasing speed of water movement from zero to a value corresponding to the steady-state motion of fluid in the conduits at known values of hydraulic resistance and pressure at the entrance to the culvert. Further, the kinetic energy of the total volume �odes, moving in the duct with a velocity corresponding to the steady-state motion is converted into potential energy of water hammer due to the overlapping section of the conduit is automatically triggered from the energy of water flow shock valves. Under the action of potential energy mechanical work is done by radial movement of the moving parts of the walls of the conduit (membrane), resulting in reciprocating motion of the working bodies of the compressors (air compressors or pumps, depending on the kind of the medium to be used as an energy source). The size and radial stroke of the movable walls of the conduit (membranes), and their number is chosen so that the selection of mechanical energy (power) conduit hydroelectric occurred in one second, i.e., that the shock wave pressure took the entire length of the conduit in one second. For conduits of large size, the time of accumulation of kinetic energy can many times exceed the time of its conversion into potential energy and, consequently, exceed the PTO. The dimensions of the conduits is chosen according to the hydrological parameters of natural or man-made watercourse. Conduits installed in the alignment of the watercourse parallel to each other. The number of parallel conduits installed HYDR�units chosen equal to the time of accumulation of kinetic energy and time selection in seconds and rounded to a whole number. The operation of the automatic impact of all valves installed in parallel conduits occurs simultaneously but with a time shift, ensuring the continuity of the accumulation and selection of energy in time. Thus, there is no need for special batteries in potential energy of large capacity, the role of batteries and power converters perform the conduits, which significantly reduces the cost of the construction of hydropower plants. In addition, installed parallel to each other conduits in the alignment of the watercourse for the latter are hydraulic resistances, therefore, pose in front of a backwater, necessary for energy storage and automatic actuation of the shock valves. To smooth minor ripples in energy consumption possible additional installation of an inexpensive standard hydro or pneumogastric small capacity depending on the choice of the working fluid of the energy source.

In the case of using a pneumatic actuator rotational generators type compressed atmospheric air from the compressor is supplied under pressure to a small standard pneumatic accumulator (receiver) for smoothing of pressure fluctuations, then pneumotropica in the motor (pneumomotors), which drives a generator rotational type�, generating an alternating electric current with standardized parameters of voltage and frequency. The exhaust air from pneumotorax vented to the atmosphere through a special muffler.

In the case of use as a working body-energy carrier fluid of hydraulic systems, drip fluid is supplied under pressure from a pump in a small standard hydro-pneumatic accumulators to smooth fluctuations. Next, the fluid enters the actuators (motors), torque generators, and comes back into suction lines of pumps, driven movable membrane conduits of the hydraulic units in a closed-loop hydraulic drive system, or in a special container for collecting and cooling the working fluid in the open system of the hydraulic drive.

The use of the claimed technical solution provides electricity with low-pressure natural and man-made watercourses without the use of special, massive batteries of high capacity. The function of batteries and power converters perform the conduits of the hydraulic units, first accumulate the kinetic energy of the water flow, then convert it into useful power. Special standard batteries of small capacity can be used only for smoothing NESN�significant pressure pulsations.

1. The method of construction of small hydroelectric power stations, including the construction of generating units in the form of converters of the kinetic energy of water flow into potential energy of water hammer and drive the generators of the rotational type, characterized in that the conduits of the hydraulic units having a movable in the radial direction of the wall, install the compressor, the working parts which lead to the reciprocating movement of the movable in the radial direction by the walls of a conduit, perform the drive of electric generators in the form of propellers rotating at the expense of the energy transferred from the compressor to the intermediate propulsion fuel-working fluid, other than water.

2. The method of construction of small hydropower plants according to claim 1, characterized in that the working medium is air, the blowers are in the form of air compressors, and propulsion in the form of pneumatogram.

3. The method of construction of small hydropower plants according to claim 1, characterized in that the working medium fluid of hydraulic systems, blowers perform in the form of positive displacement pumps, and propellers in the form of hydraulic motors.

4. The method of construction of small hydropower plants according to claim 1, characterized in that the hydraulic units are installed in the alignment of the watercourse parallel to each oth�GU in number, equal to the time of accumulation of kinetic energy of water in the hydroelectric and converting it into mechanical power, initiate a water hammer in penstocks of hydraulic units with a shift in time, ensuring the continuity of the process of energy accumulation and selection of useful power.



 

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