Measuring probes for measurement and taking samples in molten metal
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring probe for measurement and taking samples in molten metal. The probe is provided with a measurement head located on a rod, which includes at least a temperature sensor and a sampling chamber. The latter is at least partially enveloped with the measurement head and includes an input channel passing through the measurement head. The input channel has an internal section with length L, which is located in the measurement head, and has minimum diameter D at least at one point in this internal section; with that, L/D2 ratio is less than 0.6 mm-1. Besides, the measurement head has counter pressure Pg of lower than 20 mbar, which is determined so that first a reference gas flow is passed via a pipe with two open ends, and pressure P1 is measured in the pipe. Then, the pipe is inserted with one end into the inlet channel of the measurement head; the same reference gas flow is passed via the pipe and pressure P2 is measured in the pipe, and counter pressure Pg of the measurement head is determined based on difference P2-P1.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the obtained samples.
23 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to a measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, this sample is surrounded by a measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel in the form of a tube made of quartz glass.
The measuring probes is known in principle, and their use inter alia in the manufacture of steel converters and electric arc furnaces.
In the Converter (so-called LD Converter, known to the English abbreviation BAF, i.e. basic oxygen furnace through tuyeres into the metal melt blown oxygen. The Converter is lined with refractory material, which optimally resists erosion by slag and heat during the process of oxygen blowing. In Converter add scrap and lime (calcium oxide) for cooling of the melt and removal of phosphorus, silicon and manganese. Oxygen burns the carbon, forming carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Manganese, silicon and phosphorus are oxidized and oxide of calcium and iron oxide are converted into slag. As the oxidation reaction proceeds with high exothermicity, the process must be cooled to control the temperature of the melt. Cooling is�conducted by the addition of scrap and iron ore during the purging process. The process oxygen purge requires about 15 to 20 minutes, regardless of the size of the Converter, which may be approximately from 70 to 400 tons. The intensity of the oxygen lance is consistent with the magnitude of the Converter or the mass of the melt. Download and further processing of steel and slag, including temperature measurement and sampling for analysis of the melt, provides the length between the two editions melting from 40 to 60 minutes. The process offers high performance and provides the steel with low contamination. The tapping is done by tilting the furnace through an outlet in the bottling bucket. During the operation for controlling the composition of the steel in the bottling bucket add iron alloys. Significant technology developments in scavenging oxygen lance is that through the bottom of the Converter to the melt serves inert gas, usually argon, for mixing of the melt and slag. Through this process greatly increases the efficiency, reduces the loss of iron and phosphorus content. In addition, the improved heat and mass balance of process and reduced production costs.
Measuring probes for use in the Converter is described, for example, in patent documents DE 102005060492 and DE 102005060493.
In the electric arc furnace melt scrap �and the energy of the electric arc, which is created between the end portions of the graphite electrodes and the conductive charge from scrap. Three electrode furnace and roof go up to load the furnace with scrap, to release the boot hole. The electrodes supporting the arc in accordance with the selected voltage and the selected amperage, thereby necessary for smelting and refining energy. Electric arc furnaces have an internal diameter of about 6 to 9 meters and a capacity of 100-200 tons of steel. The time between two releases of fusion in these furnaces is about 90-110 minutes.
Electrodes for use in electric arc furnaces is known, for example, from patent documents DE 2845566, DE 3203505 or DE 10360625.
For process control in the Converter or the electric arc furnace when sampling is necessary to achieve complete filling of the chamber for samples of the probe at relatively low temperatures, thus it is necessary to exclude the presence of gas bubbles in the sample. Such sampling is not always simple, in particular during the process of blowing in the Converter, since theoretical density of liquid steel varies greatly due process of blowing oxygen from the top, on the one hand, and blowing an inert gas through the bottom of the Converter, on the other hand. However, the industry tends to use of such furnaces,�, who allow only a small overheating of the melt (i.e. a small difference between the bath temperature and liquidus temperature).
Therefore, the object of the invention is to improve existing measuring probes and samplers and provide mainly containing gas sampling, i.e. to improve the quality of the samples. Advantage is also that it is assumed to simplify the extraction of the sample from the probe.
The task according to the invention is solved by the features of the independent claims. Preferred options for implementation are described in the dependent claims.
It is established that the measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt located on the tuyere probe head, despite the fact that the measuring head comprises at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples and whilst the camera for samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, which is preferably formed by a tube of quartz glass, provides excellent, not containing gas bubbles sampled in that case, if the length L of the pipe section is made of quartz glass, which takes place in a measuring head, is related to the square of the minimum diameter D, which is a tube made of quartz glass is at least in one place in this interior section is L/D2 <0.6 mm-1and this ratio is preferably <0.45 mm-1and, in particular, preferably <0.3 mm-1. With a little overheating of the molten metal is preferably smaller than the ratio, i.e. the ratio L/D2<0.6 mm-1overheating >100°C and the ratio L/D2<0.3 mm-1overheating <80°C.
The problem is solved by a measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt located on the tuyere probe head, wherein the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, which is preferably formed by a tube of quartz glass, wherein the measuring head has a pressure Pg<20 mbar, while the pressure is determined so that the first pipe with two open ends standard gas flow stream in the pipe and measure the pressure P1that then a pipe with one end inserted into the input channel measuring head, flow through the pipe the same reference gas stream and is measured in the pipe pressure P2and from the difference of P2-P1determine the pressure Pgmeasuring heads�I. Thus preferably, the back pressure Pgmeasuring heads <15 mbar. The measuring probes guarantee the receipt of samples of high quality.
In particular, it is preferable if the ratio L/D2less than 0,6 mm1, preferably less than 0.45 mm-1especially preferably less than 0.3 mm1and the back pressure Pgmeasuring head, respectively, less than 20 mbar.
It is advisable that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand. In particular, it is preferable further that the chamber for samples, at least partially surrounded by a body of molding sand. Further, the measuring head can be designed so that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to each other, has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction. Thus made the so-called flat sample bags, which are round or oval, respectively, longitudinal, cross-sectional area and located less perpendicular to it, is made essentially rectangular, the cross-sectional area, while men�nd the cross-sectional area can have rounded corners. Thus, the input channel extends parallel to the larger and perpendicular to a smaller cross-sectional area. The advantage is that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor to provide a more flexible and extremely versatile while allowing to measure other parameters of the molten metal.
The advantage is that it ensures the removal of air from the chamber samples. Camera samples consists preferably of two hemispheres, separated in a known manner parallel to the longitudinal axis of the camera samples that its edges are fixed together so that during the flow inside the molten metal from the chamber the air samples can be superseded, however, the liquid metal between the hemispheres to drain. The preferred way camera samples located in the porous body made of sand, to ensure the removal of air. Both hemispheres held together by a brace, and camera samples sufficiently fixed within the sand body, so that both hemispheres are not disclosed due to occur when immersed in the melt ferrostatic pressure. The edges of the hemispheres can be provided, for example, small holes or grooves, to ensure the removal of air from the chamber samples and prevents the formation influx�in the outgoing samples melt.
As usual, the electrodes according to the invention is immersed from above into the containing metal melt capacity. This process of immersion is often automatically, such as automatic auxiliary rod. After the measurement of the auxiliary rod with measuring probe is rotated sideways from the zone containing the metal melt capacity and push. When the probe falls to a depth of several meters. After falling to the bottom of the sample can be simply and without damage extracted from the chamber samples.
Described electrodes are used according to the invention for measuring and taking samples in the steelmaking Converter molten metal during the purging process, or for measuring and taking samples in an electric arc furnace molten metal.
Below the invention is explained in more detail on the example and on the basis of the drawing. The drawing shows:
Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of a Converter section,
Fig. 2 is a schematic depiction of the claimed measuring probe with a measuring head,
Fig. 3 - claimed the measuring head in the cut,
Fig. 4 is a schematic representation of a pressure measurements for an open pipe and
Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of a pressure measurement on the measuring head.
Fig. shows the Converter 1 with the lining 2. In the Converter 1 contains molten steel 3, covered by a slag layer 4. For the manufacture of steel into the metal melt through the bottom of the Converter 1 through a bottom nozzle 5 blown argon. Top blast through the tuyeres 6 blown oxygen. Near blowing lance 6 in the Converter 1 introduce the so-called auxiliary lance 7 (rod), on the immersion end of which is located the electrode 8 with the measuring head 9. The measurement process is carried out while purging with oxygen, usually about two minutes before the end of oxygen blowing. This measures the temperature and produce a selection test for the determination of carbon content. On the basis of the measurement results can be updated schema purge, if necessary, change the quality of steel melting. After purging with oxygen can be carried out the second measurement. Thus, as a rule, together with the temperature measured by the active oxygen content in steel-melting and collected for analysis in the laboratory test which is used for the final determination of the composition of the steel. On the basis of oxygen content in a matter of seconds can be determined the actual content of carbon in steel. In addition, it may be the preliminary cost estimate of the required amount of deoxidizer (aluminum).
Presents�th Fig. 2, the electrode 8 is disposed on the immersion end of the carrier tube 10, the measuring head 9. The measuring head 9 is to protect the inlet and sensors plastic cap 11, which is burned while passing through the slag and frees sensors respectively and an inlet opening for access of the molten metal. Plastic cap 11 can be supplemented with its inner side with a metal cap or a metal layer, which may be made of steel and is dissolved in the steel melt, which use the probe. The measuring head 9 has a sandy housing 12 of the molding sand, which is provided by the ribs 13, which sandy housing 12 is pressed into the carrier pipe 10 to provide a rigid fixation. On the opposite end of the measuring head 9 is located the connecting cables 14 by means of which the received sensor signals are transmitted via a carrier pipe 10 and the auxiliary tuyere 7 to the data processing unit.
On presented schematically in cross section in Fig. 3 a measuring head 9 is shown a thermocouple as a temperature sensor 15 which is surrounded by a metal cap 16 and secured by means of refractory cement 17 in the measuring head 9. At its opposite end, located inside the measuring head, he�et a connector 18 for connecting thermocouple wires to the connecting cable. Next, sand the housing 12 of the molding sand of the measuring head 9 is a sampler with camera for samples 19 and the pipe 20 made of quartz glass 20 as the inlet pipe. Tube made of quartz glass stands approximately 1 cm from the sand body. Outer inlet pipe 20 made of quartz glass covered by a metal cap 25 (steel) and located on top of a cardboard cap 26, which when immersed in molten steel are destroyed and release the outer inlet pipe made of quartz glass. Of length L located in a designated sandy the housing 12 of the measuring head 9 is the length of the pipe between its inlet into the chamber for samples 19 and its output from sandy the housing 12. This so-called built-in length L. the Diameter D of the minimum diameter indicated inside the embedded length L. In the example shown the ratio L/D2=0,22, which allows to obtain not contain gas bubbles, the sample, unlike respective probes according to the prior art, in which it is approximately 1,43.
Sand the edges of the sand body 12 camera sample 19 is fixed in it by means of a press fit.
The pressure measurement is carried out first according to the schematic depiction in Fig. 4 open both ends of the tube 22, which is of such outer diameter that it can be STOVL�n into the tube 20 of quartz sand. Arrow 23 indicated the direction of flow of the flowing gas, preferably air, pressure P1which is determined by the pressure gauge 24. The length of the pipe 22 between the pressure gauge 24 and the pipe 20 made of quartz glass is about 2 cm and an inner diameter of about 4 mm.
Fig. 5 shows schematically a tube 22 that is inserted into the pipe 20 made of quartz glass probe after the measurement according to Fig. 4. Then when re-gas inlet by means of a manometer to measure the pressure P2. A difference of P2-P1indicates the back pressure Pgthe measuring head. The pressure is measured respectively by flow of gas with a flow rate of 800 l/h, the gas flow is calculated on the basis of the so-called standard liters, that is measured at a room temperature of 20°C and a standard air pressure of 1013 HPa. A certain back pressure is in the example, less than 15 mbar. The device with this back pressure allows to obtain qualitatively good sample.
1. Measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes p�kodami through the measuring head input channel, the input channel is located in the measuring head of the internal section of a length L and at least in one place in this interior section has a minimum diameter D, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1.
2. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1.
3. The probe according to claim 2, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1.
4. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
5. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
6. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
7. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand.
8. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the input channel is formed by a tube of quartz sand.
9. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the camera samples at least an hour�icno surrounded by sand casing molding sand.
10. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to each other, has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction.
11. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor.
12. Measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, characterized in that the measuring head has a pressure Pgless than 20 mbar, while the pressure is determined so that the first pipe with two open ends standard gas flow stream in the pipe and measure the pressure P1and then a pipe with one end inserted into the input channel measuring head, flow through the pipe the same reference measure gas flows in the pipe pressure P 2and from the difference of P2-P1determine the pressure Pgthe measuring head.
13. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the back pressure P2the measuring head is less than 15 mbar.
14. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
15. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
16. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.
17. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand.
18. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the input channel is formed by a tube of quartz sand.
19. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the camera samples at least partially surrounded by sand casing molding sand.
20. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to the other� friend has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction.
21. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor.
22. The use of the measuring probe, at least according to any of claims. 1-21, and the measurement and sampling in the Converter for making steel metallic melt during the purging process.
23. The use of the measuring probe, at least according to any of claims. 1-21, and the measurement and sampling in the electric arc furnace molten metal.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation of titanium alloys. The proposed method involves the following stages: (a) a specimen is cut from a part made from the above alloy; (b) the cut surface area of the above specimen near the edge of the above specimen is prepared; with that, the above edge is common to the outer surface of the part so that it can be possible to investigate the above cut surface area; (c) alpha-phase of this area is investigated at more than 5000-time magnification; (d) a decision is taken on whether there is or there is not any granularity in the alpha-phase of the first zone adjacent to the above edge of the specimen; (e) a conclusion is made on existence of contamination of the above alloy with gas if presence of granularity in the alpha-phase of the above adjacent zone is defined, but granularity (grains) is (are) present in the alpha-phase beyond the above adjacent zone.
EFFECT: achieving improvement of investigation accuracy and reliability.
5 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: submersible end of bearing pipe is equipped with metering head with submersible end and circumferential side surface. Said metering head with submersible end is furnished with at least one transducer or inlet for samples chamber arranged inside this device. Note here that said circumferential side surface of bearing pipe or metering head with accommodates inlet extending through intake channel into forechamber arranged inside said pipe or metering head. Forechamber end opposite metering head submersible end has inlet extending into slag sampling chamber arranged inside the device on forechamber side opposite said submersible end.
EFFECT: high-quality samples, precise analysis.
13 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: preliminary, levels of grain-boundary phosphorus segregation in check test pieces made from steels of analysed reactor body subjected to long-term temperature effects. Accumulation of segregation at reactor operation termination is defined by extrapolation. Then, pilot specimens of steel with composition and microstructure approximating to those of reactor material are made. Said specimens are subjected to embrittlement annealing at maximum temperature of development of temper brittleness during different time intervals. Brittleness critical temperature shift (Tcr) and segregation level of specimens subjected to annealing is defined. Correlation between said shift and segregation level is defined. Obtained correlation curve and extrapolation of segregation accumulation level are used to define embrittlement degree in planed term of reactor operation.
EFFECT: longer life of reactors.
SUBSTANCE: at least two workpieces of wedge shape are manufactured, and after they are heated to different temperatures, deformation of each workpiece is performed by means of a longitudinal rolling method starting from a narrow end, and cooling is performed at different cooling rates to provide formation of different strength characteristics and size of grain. Each workpiece is divided at least into two specimens; size grain is determined by metallographic investigations, mechanical characteristics of each specimen are determined by strength tests, and temperatures are determined at performance of deformation and cooling rate. A mathematical model is developed, in which results of experimental investigations and calculations of stress-and-strain state of tested workpieces are combined.
EFFECT: lower number of physical experimental investigations and higher quality of summary data.
SUBSTANCE: samples are taken from items; specimens with polished surface are produced; surface of specimens is treated with solution of 3-10% ions of rhodanate during 3-5 hours at pH 8.0-9.0. Then, quantitative analysis of sections damaged and undamaged by corrosion is performed by means of computer functions of the programme for processing of pictures, and corrosion resistance of items is estimated as per fraction of damaged surface.
EFFECT: improving informativity and reliability of assessment.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first, a specimen of rectangular shape is made; a bevelled cut is made on the specimen at an angle of 15-25° from lower base to upper one, thus taking specimen length as the base. Then, surface of the bevelled cut of the specimen is ground and an austenisation mode is performed in oxidation atmosphere by etching gas. The specimen is cooled in water or in the air; then, a microslice or a series of microslices is prepared on surface of small base of the specimen, thus grinding the layers parallel to large base of the specimen. Depth of decoration zone is measured by etching gas on microslice by means of a microscope; then, the investigated surface of microslice is etched with alcohol solution of nitric acid till boundaries of austenitic grains are determined; determined boundaries of austenitic grains are studied; depth of selective determination zone of boundaries of austenitic grains is determined, and the defined etching picture is photographed. As per investigation results of microslice surface, structural state of the specimen is evaluated step by step: first, decoration zone of structure by oxidation with etching gas, then, selective etching zone of actual boundaries of austenite grains, and finally, zone of simultaneous detection of boundaries and intra-grain structure of the investigated steel; then, full depth of penetration of etching gas to the investigated material is determined by summing depths of decoration zone with etching gas and zone of selective detection of boundaries of austenite grains at etching of microslice and multiplication of the obtained value by cosine of inclination angle of bevelled cut to the large base.
EFFECT: simpler detection of boundaries of actual austenite grain; providing complex evaluation of structural state of hardened steel with possibility of multiple layer-by-layer investigation of slices by simultaneous fixation of oxidation zone of the investigated steel, zone of selective detection of boundaries of actual austenite grain and zone of intra-grain structure on slice surface.
7 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises annealing of initial charge, selective leaching and analytical determination of noble metal content in produced solution. Charge annealing is performed in microwave frequency field without access of air at 550-600°C Annealed product is leached in steps by adding successive volumes of thiourea sulphide solution. Content of noble metal in obtained solutions is analytically defined to sum obtained values for determination of noble metal content in initial charge.
EFFECT: higher validity of estimation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes dissolution of a sample of analysed alloy and separation of cerium from the base of the alloy and macrocomponents. At the same time the base and macrocomponents are separated from cerium by serial deposition and extraction of the alloy base and macrocomponents of the alloy from the solution. Deposition is carried out with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extraction - with dithizone in chloroform. After separation of the organic phase, the cerium content is detected in water phase with the spectrometric method.
EFFECT: elimination of harmful influence of high contents of iron and other components of steel and alloy base, improved quantitative analysis, higher accuracy and reproducibility of the analysis method.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises gas collecting body, immersion end, gas feed line terminating nearby said immersion end, and gas discharge line. Note here that gas collecting body has face side located on immersion end, and side walls. Note here that, at least, part of gas collecting body has gastight layer. Besides, invention covers application of said device for measuring gas content in metal melt.
EFFECT: perfected design.
15 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a receptacle in the form of a sealed container whose lower part is fitted with a controlled two-way diaphragm valve, and a nozzle for feeding water used to wash the sample delivery line. The apparatus also includes a filter element, which is hermetically connected to a filtrate storage container, and an information control, display and transmission unit. The filter element is located in the working medium and is mounted on the sample removal line. To regenerate the filter surface, the apparatus includes a hydraulic pressure pulsator, which is installed on the sample removal line between a ball valve and a resistance disc, through which the sample is fed into the sample receptacle in the form of a sealed container, having a water-cooled jacket located at the end of the filtrate removal line.
EFFECT: invention improves the accuracy of monitoring process parameters, provides timely detection and rectification of process disorders, which enable to obtain more reliable data on the chemical composition of a solution.
SUBSTANCE: blood is sampled, acidified to pH 2-3 with aqueous oxalic acid, extracted in toluene for 5 min; the prepared extract is centrifuged for 60 min at 7,000 rpm, added with sodium sulphate to dewater and acetylated for 3 hours by introducing trifluoroacetic anhydride while stirring continuously in the pyridine medium. The blood sample, toluene, trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine are taken in volume ratio 5:2.5:0.2:0.1 respectively.
EFFECT: simplifying the stage of sample preparation and increasing the sensitivity of pentachlorophenol test.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: described are: solution for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining, which elutes paraffin-containing mounting medium from microscope slide with tissue sample, embedded into medium, and extracts antigenicity of tissue sample, and which can be used three or more times, and solution concentrate for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining, which provides possibility of easy obtaining of solution for preliminary processing. Solution for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining contains antigen-extracting agent, certain non-ionic surface-active substances in specified range and cyclodextrin or its derivative in certain amount, with not less than 80% of water constituting the remaining part. Composition of antigen-extracting agent is such that pH of solution for preliminary processing is in specified range, and content of cyclodextrin or its derivative represents specified amount.
EFFECT: obtaining solutions for preliminary processing for immunohistochemical staining.
21 cl, 5 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory test equipment, namely to the device for forming and testing of samples of thin coatings in loading devices, for example, for testing of thin ceramic heat-shielding coatings for tensile strength. The device is a two-piece unit intended for placement in the load device comprising two cylindrical and circular details the external surface of which is intended for application, at least, of one layer of thin coating and forming of a sample. One of cylindrical details has on the axis a cylindrical cavity, and another one a companion cylindrical ledge placed through a ring hole in a cavity and connecting the details. The external surface of cylindrical details has adhesion, and a ring surface has applied coatings without adhesion, and serve, respectively, for forming of a sample as a connecting layer and/or non- adhesion thin coating.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of study of strength properties of thin coatings by forming of non-adhesion longitudinal superficial sample on the two-piece unit suitable for loading by longitudinal and temperature loads.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to making preparations of adhering or non-adhering cells and/or particles, contained in liquid. Compartment (10) for making said preparations contains accumulation chamber (20) for storing liquid in accumulation chamber in suspended state against force of gravity, acting on liquid, only due to forces of adhesion and/or superficial tension. Accumulation chamber is made with possibility of storing liquid, which contains cells and/or particles, and discharge of stored liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, through output opening (22) by application of specified external force, in particular centrifugal force. Compartment contains channel (30), located adjacently to output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20), with output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20) leading to said channel. Channel (30) has section, larger than section of output opening (22), and wall in the place of transition from output opening (22) into channel (30) forms edge (32). Compartment also includes subject section (50) for reception of output liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, and absorbing means (40), located adjacently to subject section (50) between channel (30) and subject section (50). Absorbing means (40) has opening (42) , making it possible for liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, move through opening (42) onto subject section (50), and additionally removes liquid from liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, on subject section (50) in such a way as to leave said cells and/or particles on subject section (50) for analysis.
EFFECT: realisation of more efficient, reliable and high-quality making of preparations of cells and/or particles, contained in liquid.
25 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement of total gas content in non-traditional container rocks, such as gas-bearing container beds, which may be found in sedimentary rocks, volcanic or metamorphic rocks. The method includes stages of well drilling in the measurement range in a container bed to create a volume of drilling mud in annular space, which contains fragments of drilled rock and gas. At the same time the volume of annular space has the front edge and the rear edge, diversion of the front edge of the annular space volume so that entire volume of annular space is trapped in a degassing system for storage without its exposure to atmosphere, interruption of diversion of annular space volume after trapping of the front edge of annular space volume in the degassing system for storage in order to determine quantity of gas in terms of annular volume; and also in-situ calculation of the total gas volume in the container bed with account of gas and fragments of drilled rock in terms of fragments of drilled rock and gas, contained in the annular space volume.
EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of the method and the device for measurement of total gas content in non-traditional container rock.
25 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for identifying living and dead mesozooplankton in seawater samples, which involves taking samples, staining the organisms with suitable colouring material, giving a visual estimation of the colour intensity of the units under the microscope, which is combined with microphotographying the units with an adjustable camera without changing the settings keeping throughout a photographic session of at least one sample; thereafter colour and brightness specifications average for each unit are measured in the formed images with using a painting program, e.g. Adobe Photoshop package, and the units are referred to living or dead by a discriminative analysis of the varied digital values.
EFFECT: improving the method.
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises collection of urine after natural urination of animal into a sterile container. At that frozen urine samples are taken with the snow in winter, with the outdoor temperature is 10-50°C below zero.
EFFECT: use of the proposed method enables to extend the range of the animals tested to carrying the pathogenic leptospira, to provide the most long-term storage of the biological material selected, and to improve the accuracy of determining the source of leptospirosis.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: pads with dimensions and shape identical to the sample which are made from the material providing for total rigidity of both pads that is less or equal to the rigidity of the sample being tested, are glued to two opposite surfaces of the sample thus a laboratory assembly is produced and then set in collet clamps of a testing machine. Each clamp is located between the edge of the end face and the beginning of fillet arc of the assembly. An extensometer is installed on the assembly surface. Load is applied to the assembly and basing on the extensometer readings the curve "deformation - stress" of the laboratory assembly is drawn up and used to restore the diagram of the sample deformation. Stress in the sample σs is expressed via the stress of the laboratory assembly σla and the pad σp, provided with deformation equality, according to the formula σs=3·σla-2·σp.
EFFECT: possibility to implement Saint-Venant principle and provision for homogeneous stress in the working part of a sample made from brittle material, provision for uniaxial tension in the working part of the sample from tested material, prevention of bending, provision for more force measurement points on the equal deformation base.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for acquisition and processing of geochemical survey data, which represents a gradient method of geochemical survey. The method involves acquisition at each sampling point of a set of samples by alternating sampling of soil samples and gas samples at the interval of 0.5-1 m downwards from ground surface. Then, analysis of soil and gas samples for their geochemical indicator or indicators is performed, and charts of geochemical indicator(s) and charts of its gradient depending on depth are built as per analysis results for each sampling point. Formation of profiles of geochemical indicator(s) and profiles of its gradient is performed for each depth; with that, the profile is built along the survey line. As per the obtained charts, isolines of geochemical indicator(s) and isolines of its gradient for the profile are built, as per which three-dimensional viewing diagram of the collected data of the area is formed. After that, determination as per characteristics of variations of geochemical indicator(s) is performed depending on depth and abnormalities of its gradients in the three-dimensional viewing diagram of the area rich in metal ores or deposits.
EFFECT: acquisition of large amount of information, namely information on longitudinal variations, other than common geochemical survey.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.
SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.
1 cl, 1 dwg