Measuring probes for measurement and taking samples in molten metal

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring probe for measurement and taking samples in molten metal. The probe is provided with a measurement head located on a rod, which includes at least a temperature sensor and a sampling chamber. The latter is at least partially enveloped with the measurement head and includes an input channel passing through the measurement head. The input channel has an internal section with length L, which is located in the measurement head, and has minimum diameter D at least at one point in this internal section; with that, L/D2 ratio is less than 0.6 mm-1. Besides, the measurement head has counter pressure Pg of lower than 20 mbar, which is determined so that first a reference gas flow is passed via a pipe with two open ends, and pressure P1 is measured in the pipe. Then, the pipe is inserted with one end into the inlet channel of the measurement head; the same reference gas flow is passed via the pipe and pressure P2 is measured in the pipe, and counter pressure Pg of the measurement head is determined based on difference P2-P1.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of the obtained samples.

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The invention relates to a measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, this sample is surrounded by a measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel in the form of a tube made of quartz glass.

The measuring probes is known in principle, and their use inter alia in the manufacture of steel converters and electric arc furnaces.

In the Converter (so-called LD Converter, known to the English abbreviation BAF, i.e. basic oxygen furnace through tuyeres into the metal melt blown oxygen. The Converter is lined with refractory material, which optimally resists erosion by slag and heat during the process of oxygen blowing. In Converter add scrap and lime (calcium oxide) for cooling of the melt and removal of phosphorus, silicon and manganese. Oxygen burns the carbon, forming carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Manganese, silicon and phosphorus are oxidized and oxide of calcium and iron oxide are converted into slag. As the oxidation reaction proceeds with high exothermicity, the process must be cooled to control the temperature of the melt. Cooling is�conducted by the addition of scrap and iron ore during the purging process. The process oxygen purge requires about 15 to 20 minutes, regardless of the size of the Converter, which may be approximately from 70 to 400 tons. The intensity of the oxygen lance is consistent with the magnitude of the Converter or the mass of the melt. Download and further processing of steel and slag, including temperature measurement and sampling for analysis of the melt, provides the length between the two editions melting from 40 to 60 minutes. The process offers high performance and provides the steel with low contamination. The tapping is done by tilting the furnace through an outlet in the bottling bucket. During the operation for controlling the composition of the steel in the bottling bucket add iron alloys. Significant technology developments in scavenging oxygen lance is that through the bottom of the Converter to the melt serves inert gas, usually argon, for mixing of the melt and slag. Through this process greatly increases the efficiency, reduces the loss of iron and phosphorus content. In addition, the improved heat and mass balance of process and reduced production costs.

Measuring probes for use in the Converter is described, for example, in patent documents DE 102005060492 and DE 102005060493.

In the electric arc furnace melt scrap �and the energy of the electric arc, which is created between the end portions of the graphite electrodes and the conductive charge from scrap. Three electrode furnace and roof go up to load the furnace with scrap, to release the boot hole. The electrodes supporting the arc in accordance with the selected voltage and the selected amperage, thereby necessary for smelting and refining energy. Electric arc furnaces have an internal diameter of about 6 to 9 meters and a capacity of 100-200 tons of steel. The time between two releases of fusion in these furnaces is about 90-110 minutes.

Electrodes for use in electric arc furnaces is known, for example, from patent documents DE 2845566, DE 3203505 or DE 10360625.

For process control in the Converter or the electric arc furnace when sampling is necessary to achieve complete filling of the chamber for samples of the probe at relatively low temperatures, thus it is necessary to exclude the presence of gas bubbles in the sample. Such sampling is not always simple, in particular during the process of blowing in the Converter, since theoretical density of liquid steel varies greatly due process of blowing oxygen from the top, on the one hand, and blowing an inert gas through the bottom of the Converter, on the other hand. However, the industry tends to use of such furnaces,�, who allow only a small overheating of the melt (i.e. a small difference between the bath temperature and liquidus temperature).

Therefore, the object of the invention is to improve existing measuring probes and samplers and provide mainly containing gas sampling, i.e. to improve the quality of the samples. Advantage is also that it is assumed to simplify the extraction of the sample from the probe.

The task according to the invention is solved by the features of the independent claims. Preferred options for implementation are described in the dependent claims.

It is established that the measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt located on the tuyere probe head, despite the fact that the measuring head comprises at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples and whilst the camera for samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, which is preferably formed by a tube of quartz glass, provides excellent, not containing gas bubbles sampled in that case, if the length L of the pipe section is made of quartz glass, which takes place in a measuring head, is related to the square of the minimum diameter D, which is a tube made of quartz glass is at least in one place in this interior section is L/D2 <0.6 mm-1and this ratio is preferably <0.45 mm-1and, in particular, preferably <0.3 mm-1. With a little overheating of the molten metal is preferably smaller than the ratio, i.e. the ratio L/D2<0.6 mm-1overheating >100°C and the ratio L/D2<0.3 mm-1overheating <80°C.

The problem is solved by a measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt located on the tuyere probe head, wherein the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, which is preferably formed by a tube of quartz glass, wherein the measuring head has a pressure Pg<20 mbar, while the pressure is determined so that the first pipe with two open ends standard gas flow stream in the pipe and measure the pressure P1that then a pipe with one end inserted into the input channel measuring head, flow through the pipe the same reference gas stream and is measured in the pipe pressure P2and from the difference of P2-P1determine the pressure Pgmeasuring heads�I. Thus preferably, the back pressure Pgmeasuring heads <15 mbar. The measuring probes guarantee the receipt of samples of high quality.

In particular, it is preferable if the ratio L/D2less than 0,6 mm1, preferably less than 0.45 mm-1especially preferably less than 0.3 mm1and the back pressure Pgmeasuring head, respectively, less than 20 mbar.

It is advisable that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand. In particular, it is preferable further that the chamber for samples, at least partially surrounded by a body of molding sand. Further, the measuring head can be designed so that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to each other, has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction. Thus made the so-called flat sample bags, which are round or oval, respectively, longitudinal, cross-sectional area and located less perpendicular to it, is made essentially rectangular, the cross-sectional area, while men�nd the cross-sectional area can have rounded corners. Thus, the input channel extends parallel to the larger and perpendicular to a smaller cross-sectional area. The advantage is that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor to provide a more flexible and extremely versatile while allowing to measure other parameters of the molten metal.

The advantage is that it ensures the removal of air from the chamber samples. Camera samples consists preferably of two hemispheres, separated in a known manner parallel to the longitudinal axis of the camera samples that its edges are fixed together so that during the flow inside the molten metal from the chamber the air samples can be superseded, however, the liquid metal between the hemispheres to drain. The preferred way camera samples located in the porous body made of sand, to ensure the removal of air. Both hemispheres held together by a brace, and camera samples sufficiently fixed within the sand body, so that both hemispheres are not disclosed due to occur when immersed in the melt ferrostatic pressure. The edges of the hemispheres can be provided, for example, small holes or grooves, to ensure the removal of air from the chamber samples and prevents the formation influx�in the outgoing samples melt.

As usual, the electrodes according to the invention is immersed from above into the containing metal melt capacity. This process of immersion is often automatically, such as automatic auxiliary rod. After the measurement of the auxiliary rod with measuring probe is rotated sideways from the zone containing the metal melt capacity and push. When the probe falls to a depth of several meters. After falling to the bottom of the sample can be simply and without damage extracted from the chamber samples.

Described electrodes are used according to the invention for measuring and taking samples in the steelmaking Converter molten metal during the purging process, or for measuring and taking samples in an electric arc furnace molten metal.

Below the invention is explained in more detail on the example and on the basis of the drawing. The drawing shows:

Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of a Converter section,

Fig. 2 is a schematic depiction of the claimed measuring probe with a measuring head,

Fig. 3 - claimed the measuring head in the cut,

Fig. 4 is a schematic representation of a pressure measurements for an open pipe and

Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of a pressure measurement on the measuring head.

Fig. shows the Converter 1 with the lining 2. In the Converter 1 contains molten steel 3, covered by a slag layer 4. For the manufacture of steel into the metal melt through the bottom of the Converter 1 through a bottom nozzle 5 blown argon. Top blast through the tuyeres 6 blown oxygen. Near blowing lance 6 in the Converter 1 introduce the so-called auxiliary lance 7 (rod), on the immersion end of which is located the electrode 8 with the measuring head 9. The measurement process is carried out while purging with oxygen, usually about two minutes before the end of oxygen blowing. This measures the temperature and produce a selection test for the determination of carbon content. On the basis of the measurement results can be updated schema purge, if necessary, change the quality of steel melting. After purging with oxygen can be carried out the second measurement. Thus, as a rule, together with the temperature measured by the active oxygen content in steel-melting and collected for analysis in the laboratory test which is used for the final determination of the composition of the steel. On the basis of oxygen content in a matter of seconds can be determined the actual content of carbon in steel. In addition, it may be the preliminary cost estimate of the required amount of deoxidizer (aluminum).

Presents�th Fig. 2, the electrode 8 is disposed on the immersion end of the carrier tube 10, the measuring head 9. The measuring head 9 is to protect the inlet and sensors plastic cap 11, which is burned while passing through the slag and frees sensors respectively and an inlet opening for access of the molten metal. Plastic cap 11 can be supplemented with its inner side with a metal cap or a metal layer, which may be made of steel and is dissolved in the steel melt, which use the probe. The measuring head 9 has a sandy housing 12 of the molding sand, which is provided by the ribs 13, which sandy housing 12 is pressed into the carrier pipe 10 to provide a rigid fixation. On the opposite end of the measuring head 9 is located the connecting cables 14 by means of which the received sensor signals are transmitted via a carrier pipe 10 and the auxiliary tuyere 7 to the data processing unit.

On presented schematically in cross section in Fig. 3 a measuring head 9 is shown a thermocouple as a temperature sensor 15 which is surrounded by a metal cap 16 and secured by means of refractory cement 17 in the measuring head 9. At its opposite end, located inside the measuring head, he�et a connector 18 for connecting thermocouple wires to the connecting cable. Next, sand the housing 12 of the molding sand of the measuring head 9 is a sampler with camera for samples 19 and the pipe 20 made of quartz glass 20 as the inlet pipe. Tube made of quartz glass stands approximately 1 cm from the sand body. Outer inlet pipe 20 made of quartz glass covered by a metal cap 25 (steel) and located on top of a cardboard cap 26, which when immersed in molten steel are destroyed and release the outer inlet pipe made of quartz glass. Of length L located in a designated sandy the housing 12 of the measuring head 9 is the length of the pipe between its inlet into the chamber for samples 19 and its output from sandy the housing 12. This so-called built-in length L. the Diameter D of the minimum diameter indicated inside the embedded length L. In the example shown the ratio L/D2=0,22, which allows to obtain not contain gas bubbles, the sample, unlike respective probes according to the prior art, in which it is approximately 1,43.

Sand the edges of the sand body 12 camera sample 19 is fixed in it by means of a press fit.

The pressure measurement is carried out first according to the schematic depiction in Fig. 4 open both ends of the tube 22, which is of such outer diameter that it can be STOVL�n into the tube 20 of quartz sand. Arrow 23 indicated the direction of flow of the flowing gas, preferably air, pressure P1which is determined by the pressure gauge 24. The length of the pipe 22 between the pressure gauge 24 and the pipe 20 made of quartz glass is about 2 cm and an inner diameter of about 4 mm.

Fig. 5 shows schematically a tube 22 that is inserted into the pipe 20 made of quartz glass probe after the measurement according to Fig. 4. Then when re-gas inlet by means of a manometer to measure the pressure P2. A difference of P2-P1indicates the back pressure Pgthe measuring head. The pressure is measured respectively by flow of gas with a flow rate of 800 l/h, the gas flow is calculated on the basis of the so-called standard liters, that is measured at a room temperature of 20°C and a standard air pressure of 1013 HPa. A certain back pressure is in the example, less than 15 mbar. The device with this back pressure allows to obtain qualitatively good sample.

1. Measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes p�kodami through the measuring head input channel, the input channel is located in the measuring head of the internal section of a length L and at least in one place in this interior section has a minimum diameter D, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1.

2. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1.

3. The probe according to claim 2, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1.

4. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

5. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

6. The probe according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

7. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand.

8. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the input channel is formed by a tube of quartz sand.

9. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the camera samples at least an hour�icno surrounded by sand casing molding sand.

10. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to each other, has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction.

11. The probe according to any one of claims. 1-6, characterized in that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor.

12. Measuring probe for measuring and taking samples in a metal melt which is located on the rod measuring head, the measuring head includes at least the temperature sensor and the camera for samples, with camera samples at least partially surrounded by the measuring head and includes passing through the measuring head input channel, characterized in that the measuring head has a pressure Pgless than 20 mbar, while the pressure is determined so that the first pipe with two open ends standard gas flow stream in the pipe and measure the pressure P1and then a pipe with one end inserted into the input channel measuring head, flow through the pipe the same reference measure gas flows in the pipe pressure P 2and from the difference of P2-P1determine the pressure Pgthe measuring head.

13. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the back pressure P2the measuring head is less than 15 mbar.

14. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.6 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

15. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.45 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

16. The probe according to claim 12, characterized in that the ratio L/D2less than 0.3 mm-1and the back pressure Pgthe measuring head is less than 20 mbar.

17. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the measuring head is made of a material of the group of ceramics, cement, steel, foundry sand.

18. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the input channel is formed by a tube of quartz sand.

19. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the camera samples at least partially surrounded by sand casing molding sand.

20. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the camera for samples in the first and second directions, respectively located perpendicular to the other� friend has a correspondingly greater length than in the third direction located perpendicular to the first and second directions, wherein the input channel enters the chamber of the samples perpendicular to the third direction.

21. The probe according to any one of claims. 12-16, characterized in that the measuring head has additionally at least one electrochemical sensor.

22. The use of the measuring probe, at least according to any of claims. 1-21, and the measurement and sampling in the Converter for making steel metallic melt during the purging process.

23. The use of the measuring probe, at least according to any of claims. 1-21, and the measurement and sampling in the electric arc furnace molten metal.



 

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FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: pads with dimensions and shape identical to the sample which are made from the material providing for total rigidity of both pads that is less or equal to the rigidity of the sample being tested, are glued to two opposite surfaces of the sample thus a laboratory assembly is produced and then set in collet clamps of a testing machine. Each clamp is located between the edge of the end face and the beginning of fillet arc of the assembly. An extensometer is installed on the assembly surface. Load is applied to the assembly and basing on the extensometer readings the curve "deformation - stress" of the laboratory assembly is drawn up and used to restore the diagram of the sample deformation. Stress in the sample σs is expressed via the stress of the laboratory assembly σla and the pad σp, provided with deformation equality, according to the formula σs=3·σla-2·σp.

EFFECT: possibility to implement Saint-Venant principle and provision for homogeneous stress in the working part of a sample made from brittle material, provision for uniaxial tension in the working part of the sample from tested material, prevention of bending, provision for more force measurement points on the equal deformation base.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for acquisition and processing of geochemical survey data, which represents a gradient method of geochemical survey. The method involves acquisition at each sampling point of a set of samples by alternating sampling of soil samples and gas samples at the interval of 0.5-1 m downwards from ground surface. Then, analysis of soil and gas samples for their geochemical indicator or indicators is performed, and charts of geochemical indicator(s) and charts of its gradient depending on depth are built as per analysis results for each sampling point. Formation of profiles of geochemical indicator(s) and profiles of its gradient is performed for each depth; with that, the profile is built along the survey line. As per the obtained charts, isolines of geochemical indicator(s) and isolines of its gradient for the profile are built, as per which three-dimensional viewing diagram of the collected data of the area is formed. After that, determination as per characteristics of variations of geochemical indicator(s) is performed depending on depth and abnormalities of its gradients in the three-dimensional viewing diagram of the area rich in metal ores or deposits.

EFFECT: acquisition of large amount of information, namely information on longitudinal variations, other than common geochemical survey.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.

SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.

1 cl, 1 dwg

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