Device for thermal treatment of construction materials and items from them
SUBSTANCE: device for thermal treatment of construction materials and items from them comprises a chamber with generators of infrared radiation, heat-insulated doors, a control panel, devices and instruments regulating parameters of emission flows and internal pressure in the chamber. Generators are made as paired symmetrically infrared emitters and reflectors of complex configuration made of curvilinear sections creating a reflector in the form of two mirror cylindrical surfaces symmetrical relative to the vertical plane of the chamber of cylindrical surfaces having a common line. In the cross section the centres of curvature of curvilinear sections of the reflector in the chamber are arranged on a straight line stretching via centres of infrared emitters. At the same time radii of curvature of curvilinear sections of reflectors are related to each other as 1:π:π2. The chamber is made as closed. On side internal surfaces of the chamber vertically and in the arch of the chamber there are horizontally installed identical generators of infrared radiation. At the same time in each generator in the cross section the centres of curvature are arranged on straight lines crossing at the angle of 60° , one of which stretches via the centres of infrared radiators installed inside the sections of smallest radius of curvature. Centres of the largest radius of curvature are tops of equilateral triangles, the base of which is a section of a straight line that connects centres of smallest radii of curvature, at the same time completion of the largest radius of curvature. At the same time radii of largest curvature of vertically and horizontally installed generators start from one point.
EFFECT: increased quality and strength of items due to even distribution of heat along area and depth of infrared radiation penetration.
The invention relates to construction equipment and can be used in the production of building materials and products.
A device for heat treatment of construction materials and products, containing in the bottom of the camera support for the installation of products, and box with heaters inside, made of nichrome spiral, cladding walls with straight reflective screens on the inside of the chamber, an insulated cap with trap, painted the inside black and the outside white (patent of the RK No. 445, CL B28B 11/00, 1994).
The disadvantages of this device are low quality and strength of the products.
It is also known a device for heat treatment of construction materials and products, containing in the bottom of the camera support for the installation of the products and the carton with the generators of infrared radiation inside the enclosing wall with a straight-reflective screens on the inside of the device, heat insulated door with trap located in the vault of the chamber door. Generators of infrared radiation is made in the form installed in pairs of infrared emitters with different resistance and reflectors complex configuration consisting of curved sections of the reflector with the lowest and the average radii of curvature, located on the perimeter of the chamber, from curved at�of Astrov in the lid of the device with the largest radius of curvature, United with the rectilinear reflecting screens, protecting walls, forming a reflector in the form of two mirror symmetrical relative to the vertical plane of the device cylindrical surfaces having a common line. In cross section the centers of curvature of the curved sections of the reflector is arranged on a line passing through the centers of the infrared emitters. The centers of curvature of the curved sections of the reflector in the lid of the camera is located at a distance equal to three smallest radii of curvature from a straight reflecting screens enclosing walls, and the radii of curvature of the curved sections of the reflector are related to each other as 1:π:π2. In the camera control panel, devices and instruments governing the parameters of the incoming radiation and internal pressure (preliminary patent of the RK No. 18517, CL B28B 11/00, B28B 11/24, bull. No. 6, 25.06.2007).
The disadvantages of the known devices are low quality and strength of the products.
The object of the invention is to improve the quality and durability of the products due to the uniform heat distribution by area and depth of penetration of infrared radiation.
The problem is solved in that in the known device for heat treatment of building materials and products containing the camera with the generators of infrared radiation,�, who is made in the form installed in pairs symmetrically infrared emitters and reflectors complex configuration, consisting of curved sections forming a reflector in the form of two mirror symmetrical relative to the vertical plane of the camera cylindrical surfaces having a common line in a cross-section of the centers of curvature of the curved sections of the reflector in the chamber located on a line passing through the centers of infrared emitters, wherein the radii of curvature of the curved sections of the reflectors are to each other as 1:π:π2and also insulated doors, control panel, devices and instruments governing the fluxes of radiation and internal pressure in the chamber according to the invention, the chamber is closed, the lateral interior surfaces of the camera vertically and set the camera horizontally installed identical generators of infrared radiation, wherein each generator in cross section the centers of curvature are located on intersecting at an angle of 60° straights, one of which passes through the centers of infrared emitters that are installed inside sections of the smallest radius of curvature and the centers of the largest radius of curvature are the vertices of equilateral triangles, which are based on the length of the line segment connecting the centers of the smallest radii of curvature, at the same time and by the end of greatest radius of curvature, wherein the radius of the largest Cree�Isny vertically and horizontally installed generators start from a single point.
Uniform distribution of heat on the area and the penetration depth of infrared radiation in a sealed insulated chamber allows you to create optimal conditions for the intensification of the technological process of heat treatment of products targeted sources of infrared radiation on the reflector around the perimeter of the device camera and a uniform distribution on the area and depth of penetration of infrared radiation and, thus, to improve the quality and strength of the products.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing, Fig.1 which shows a cross-section of the device for heat treatment of construction materials and products, and Fig.2 - one generator.
Device for heat treatment of building materials and products contains the camera 1. Arch 2 camera 1 is provided on the inner side of the chamber 1 is identical to the generators of infrared radiation 3 on the inner surfaces of the side camera 1 vertically and in the roof of 2 horizontally.
Pairwise generators installed 3 made in the form of emitters of infrared radiation 4 curved sections of the reflector are AB, BC and CD with the lowest, average and maximum radii of curvature R1, R2and R3respectively. Each generator in the cross section of the centers of curvature are located on intersecting at an angle of 60° direct. Mouth�eusto also contains transport trolley 5, as well as insulated doors, control panel, devices and instruments governing the fluxes of radiation and internal pressure (Fig. 1 not shown) in the chamber 1.
The device shown in the example of heat treatment of porous concrete is as follows. In the device is moved the trolley 5, on pallets which are stacked concrete products after preliminary hardening. Doors tightly locked. Tubular quartz infrared emitters (manufacturer LLC "Leo Set) 4, electricity supply, infrared radiation hits the reflectors 3 evenly from all sides on the product placed on a cart. The temperature of 180-200°C is supported via eight-meter with alarm ARIES OCT-S and RTD sensor 50/100 (manufacturer LLP ACETO) for 6-7 hours and the pressure to 70 kPa using the sensor overpressure ARIES PD DI 311 to obtain concrete tobermorite structure.
Sources of infrared radiation emitters - 4 consists of a material having high electric resistance and can be made in the form of a spiral, stripes or carbon filaments, placed in a quartz tube and placed in the center of the smallest radii of curvature R1. Sections of the cylindrical surface of the infrared slocate�her 4 perform different functions: the area of the surface formed by the radius R1performs the function of a reflector, focusing the main stream infrared coherent radiation at the surface. The area formed by a radius R2performs the function of radiation concentrator. With the above mentioned guide surface increased the density of the flux of infrared radiation on a portion of the surface formed by radius R3that acts as a reflector for even distribution of the radiation flux across the plane of the surface of the object subjected to the heat treatment.
Thus, the present device for heat treatment can improve the strength and quality of products.
Simultaneously, the invention allows to expand the range of building materials and products for heat treatment, since the generators provide infrared radiation infrared radiation with a predetermined wavelength, frequency, and pulse energy of the photons, however, supply a certain amount of energy over time for regulation and intensification of physical and chemical processes initiated in the materials and products that undergo heat treatment.
Device for heat treatment of building materials and products containing the camera with the generators of infrared radiation, which is made in the form installed in pairs �americna infrared emitters and reflectors complex configuration, consisting of curved sections forming a reflector in the form of two mirror symmetrical relative to the vertical plane of the camera cylindrical surfaces having a common line in a cross-section of the centers of curvature of the curved sections of the reflector in the chamber located on a line passing through the centers of infrared emitters, wherein the radii of curvature of the curved sections of the reflectors are to each other as 1:π:π2and also insulated doors, control panel, devices and instruments governing the fluxes of radiation and internal pressure in the chamber, wherein the chamber is closed, the lateral interior surfaces of the camera vertically and set the camera horizontally installed identical generators of infrared radiation, wherein each generator in cross section the centers of curvature are located on intersecting at an angle of 60° straights, one of which passes through the centers of infrared emitters that are installed inside sections of the smallest radius of curvature and the centers of the largest radius of curvature are the vertices of equilateral triangles, which are based on the length of the line segment connecting the centers of the smallest radii of curvature, at the same time and by the end of greatest radius of curvature, wherein the radius of the largest Cree�Isny vertically and horizontally installed generators start from one point.
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture acoustic panels includes preparation of a water suspension from mineral wool, a binder, a filler and target additives. The produced suspension in the form of a raw mat is applied onto a continuously moving tape with a net. It is pressed with the help of vacuum. Drying and finishing treatment is performed. At the same time mineral wool for the suspension is additionally manufactured. After pressing moisture of the raw mat makes 55-60%. Before drying the raw mat is cut, drying is carried out in a multi-level moulding drying furnace with three heating zones, accordingly: 270-280°C, 330°C and 240°C. At the same time variation of temperature in the cross profile of the furnace makes +/-5°C, and moisture of panels at the outlet from the moulding furnace is not more than 0.5%.
EFFECT: ecological compatibility of the method, high efficiency, high acoustic and operational characteristics of finished items.
16 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of foam materials on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyether or polyamide or any other inorganic and organic fibres to be used in aircraft and ship building, machine building, etc. This method comprises the steps that follow. Production of foam bilk from initial mix of fibres and feed of said foam bulk to conveyor belt. Foam bulk is dried in drying chambers at stepwise increase in temperature in successive zones. Foam bulk is annealed in the kiln to foam material and cut reset-size boards. Note here that drying and annealing comprises simultaneous effects of IR radiation and convective heat. Note here that drying stepwise temperature increase occurs at 60°C-170°C. Annealing is performed at 190-280°C. Foam bulk is fed through drying chambers and annealing kiln at the rate of 6-12 m/h. Invention proposes also the conveyor line to this end.
EFFECT: accelerated drying, higher quality of foam material, continuous production.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, namely, to structures for electric heating of a concrete mix in construction conditions. The electric heating hopper of cyclic action is made as installed with the angle of inclination 70…75° to the bottom by steel plate electrodes having horizontal strip cuts with height of 8…10 mm, arranged along the height of the electrode via 5…6 cm.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to provide for increased evenness of heating of a concrete mix, to reduce duration of heating of a concrete mix, to reduce power consumption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to concrete and reinforced concrete article drying chambers. Proposed chamber comprises walls, detachable translucent cover and heat power feed system. Chamber guard structure and said detachable cover are made of combined material including metal, asbestos sheet, foil with heat insulation provided with air layer confined by two layers of foil. Layer of asbestos at chamber inner walls is covered by foil. IR radiators, portable heat sensor are arranged at chamber bottom while water like with sprinklers is laid around the periphery. Electrical protection contact device is arranged ay chamber r top part.
EFFECT: decreased heat losses.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to method of controlling concrete thermal treatment. Proposed device comprises heater to heat laid concrete mix by heating wire or electrodes, measure mix temperature by temperature pickups, and system for automatic control over concrete article heating. Said system is composed of nondestructive control electronic transducers and instruments, i.e. USB-1, Pulsar-2 to take readings directly from early concrete, heating transformer KTP, double-ended lamps, multichannel temperature, heating and data reading interval meter, bus line, feed and heating devices, registrator and computer.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of control, stabilised temperature difference and concrete article and ambient medium.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used for curing concrete articles. Proposed curing room comprises walls with inner flange, hydraulic gate frame mounted on wall edges, shield with inner surface provided with steam-and-water insulation coating and heat insulation, steam duct, and condensate drain chute. Hydraulic gate frame is made up of horizontal channels arranged horizontally along room walls to house elastic porous material for room sealing by absorbing condensed steam. Aforesaid shield is made up of carcass consisting of weight-reduced channels coated by heat-insulation material with inner cavities. Said shield serves to press elastic porous material against all edges of channel cavity.
EFFECT: high-reliability sealing.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening treatment of concrete products includes exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field with specified value of its intensity and frequency at components used in composition of initial concrete mix, when exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field is provided for all components making concrete without exception after their combination into integral volume directly in the product item itself after realisation of initial mixture components curing operation. This exposure is realised in moulded product without its extraction from used curb. The item itself performs function of closing connecting link in magnetic circuit used for generation of field. Treatment is carried out at intensity of alternating magnetic field 1×104-3×106 a/m; range of its frequencies 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours. Cycles of treatment are repeated twice: in 160-180 hours with a delay of 0.3-0.7 hr and in 480-500 hours with a delay of 0.1-0.2 hour. Device used to realise the method comprises circuit developing alternating magnetic field and electric windings-coils mounted on it and connected to external source of AC current supply. One of plates making magnetic conducting circuit has through slot, dimensions of which make it possible to install the concrete product itself in it together with curb used for its moulding, and its body when installed in circuit serves as closing connecting link that closes magnetic flow generated in it.
EFFECT: improved strength characteristics used to erect objects of concrete building structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly devices for thermal treatment of reinforced structures during in-situ structure erection with the use of automatic temperature condition control means.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises form, heat-sensing means, heaters and computer. Heat-sensing means are placed in form. Heaters are laid on reinforcing cage of monolithic reinforced concrete structure and fixed thereto. Heat-sensing means are linked to automatic digital power regulator including indication and control unit and digital control unit connected with control computer by means of signal converter. To provide visual control automatic power regulator is provided with concrete temperature display panel, which indicates concrete temperature in each measurement point and volumetrically weighed average concrete temperature.
EFFECT: decreased power inputs and possibility to control thermal field transformation after heater switching-on or switching-off in correspondence with thermal limiters of valid regulation documents.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.
FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.
12 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to fixation of lifting eyes on a concrete element during its installation. A lifting eye is made of a metal rod and is at least partially located inside a cavity made in the concrete element surface. The above method involves transfer of at least the forces acting in longitudinal direction of the concrete element and applied to the lifting eye to the above concrete element by means of a support. A support is placed at least partially into the above cavity of the concrete element in which the lifting eye is located.
EFFECT: improving lifting eye fixation efficiency.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disk-shaped working element of a concrete finishing machine includes a drive shaft that can transfer a torque moment to a smoothing disk, with that, in cavities of the smoothing disk there located are magnetrons creating microwave radiation, the electric power to which is supplied by means of sliding contacts through a rheostat, by means of which it is possible to control a microwave radiation gradient.
EFFECT: obtaining high quality of treatment of a surface of concrete items; obtaining a high-strength surface layer.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to production of cellular concrete particles. Proposed method comprises separate preparation of mortar and water, making foam of surfactant and water, mixing said mortar with foam, foam making, moulding the mix in the mould and thermal processing of article. Mortar is made by mixing water and cement at the following ratio, in wt %: cement - 25.0-58.0, water - 43.0-29.0. Cement is added into vessel with water at constant mixing to obtain homogeneous mortar. At a time, foam-like medium is made by mixing anionic and/or nonionic surfactant in amount of 0.05-0.2% per 30.0-9.0% of water degassed by thermal treatment at 20-95°C. Mixing is conducted by rubber disc fitted on drive shaft at 1000-3000 rpm. Obtained foam-like medium is added to mortar and mixer by mixer composed by piston engaged with drive to reciprocate vertically to produce homogeneous mass. Said mass is poured into molds and solidified at 1-37°C. Now, semi-finished moulded article is withdrawn to be cured at ambient temperature to solid state.
EFFECT: higher precision of finished articles.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Concrete surface finisher working disc tool consists of body, motor, drive shaft and smoothing disc. Besides, it comprises cathode immersed in concrete mix and rheostat to control electric field gradient and to transmit electricity via current collector to drive shaft and smoothing disc. Note here that is it possible to influence processed concrete surface by electric effects.
EFFECT: higher surface quality and hardness.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Finisher disc tool comprises drive shaft to transmit rotation to smoothing disc made from magnetically conducting material wherein high-power magnets are secured. Said smoothing discs can rotate in opposite directions at different angular velocities. Note here that outer smoothing disc is rigidly secured to planetary train. Inner smoothing disc is rigidly attached to the shaft. Outer and inner smoothing discs have recesses made in adjacent zone of rotation to accommodate alternating poles of high-power magnets.
EFFECT: higher surface quality and strength, decreased roughness and power consumption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction machinery and may be used for smoothing as-formed concrete surfaces. Proposed device consists of drive shaft with gear rigidly fitted thereon to actuate vertical cylindrical unbalanced gears. One-way bevel gears are rigidly fitted on primary horizontal drive shaft to engage with four unbalanced bevel gears with vertical axes.
EFFECT: higher quality of smoothing, better compaction.
SUBSTANCE: working element of a smoothing machine comprises a shaft, a frame, two rolls. Smoothening rolls have a barrel-like shape and are capable of rotating in a plane arranged at the angle to the axis of rotation of the working element itself.
EFFECT: production of wavy macrorelief of a processed surface with a specified pitch and a slant angle.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative concrete articles. Proposed method comprises preparing mix of intermediate layer of the mix of crushed glass cullet, liquid glass and water, laying concrete mix and intermediate layer mix, maturing and thermomoist processing, plasma fusion of article face surface at plasmatron power of 9 kW and plasma burner feed rate of 0.1 m/s.
EFFECT: higher quality, accelerated glasing, power savings.
3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used construction of industrial and civic structures. Proposed device comprises rotor of radial rotary automatic device for shaping slides arranged to reciprocate to make mould for moulding U-like carcass in mould closed position and withdrawing the latter with shaping slides opened.
EFFECT: lower production costs.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used for fabrication of tiles from asbestos-cement mixtures. Proposed device comprises stepped-transfer plate-type moulding conveyor with reusable moulds that allow mould walls sliding apart after complete hardening of tiles and shifting right and left dovetail joint shaping elements toward each other.
EFFECT: reduced production costs.
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for decorative finishing of concrete and reinforced concrete articles. Method comes to laying relief forming member in mould, covering it and laying concrete of decorative face layer. Used as relief forming member is porous hydrophilic material with layer of powder gas generator and layer of colouring agent applied in succession to its surface. Moisture permeable cloth is used as covering and structural concrete, as decorative face layer.
EFFECT: simplified process, increased service life of face surface of concrete articles.
1 ex, 3 tbl