Production of high-strength springs of steel and device to this end (versions)

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used for producing large-sized springs by hot winding. This process comprises feed and heating of steel rod to be wound in inductor to preset temperature and quenching of the spring. Temperature is stabilized in thermostat over the rod length to wind the spring on spinning mandrel displacing axially. Spring is removed from the mandrel and dipped in quenching device at the rate that allows a stable structure and properties of the spring over its entire length. Invention covers two versions of the design of above described device.

EFFECT: accelerated quenching, higher quality of springs.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

Group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for the production of large springs of any design, get hot wrapped.

A method for manufacturing of springs, AVT. SVID. The USSR №528989 from 31.01.1975 G., IPC B21F 3/04 using thermomechanical hardening, which consists in heating the billet to a temperature of austenization, cooling-down of the workpiece at 50-100°C, but not below the quenching temperature, produce further bending of the workpiece in the direction of winding, the winding on the mandrel and subsequent cooling, wherein the total degree of deformation during winding is 15-40%.

Used in the known method, an ad hoc cooling mandrel creates uneven metal structure in the cross section of the coil spring, as in the contact zone of the coil spring and the mandrel in the material of the spring zone is formed intermediate transformations with reduced hardness and variable along the length of the spring hardening effect, which degrades the quality of the springs.

Also known a method of manufacturing a large-sized springs of steel, as described in the patent of Russian Federation №2377091 from 27.06.2006 by which the rod is heated to a temperature that ensures the homogenisation of the high-temperature phase of steel. Then from rod at a temperature of heating the springs are coiled spring. When the spring is subjected powercobol quenching. �calcu each revolution of the lead after coiling and poslenovogodnee exposure over time, ensuring the processes of polygonization began to impede recrystallization realignment of its structure. Final heat treatment of the spring is produced by vacation.

The disadvantages of this method are the low productivity of the manufacture of springs, so as to complete the hardening of the spring on the mandrel requires a period of time of a few minutes, and the unevenness of the metal structure in the cross section of the coil spring due to the formation in the zone of contact of the coil spring and the mandrel in the spring material of the intermediate zone transitions with low hardness, which degrades the quality of the springs.

A device for coiling on a bus. SVID. The USSR №1348040 from 16.06.1982 containing feeder nativeimage material, a heating unit, cooling bath and a vertical mandrel with a rotary drive and axial movement in the form of the tracing device.

The disadvantage of this device is the low productivity due to the need sequential execution of the operations of winding, shutter speed in the quenching bath and the return of the mandrel with a spring in the area of removing the springs before winding a new spring.

Known also design machine for coiling steel springs on the patent of Russian Federation №2373016 from 18.04. 2008, which contains mounted on the frame feeder on�supported material in the form of a steel rod, inductor for heating the rod placed on the body of the feed unit nativeimage rod along the axis of the feeder, rotating the mandrel with a rotary drive and driven axial movement in the form of a drive screw and nut and the cooling device. The rotating mandrel is positioned horizontally, and the cooling device made in the form of sprayer, are placed on the frame coaxially with the rotating mandrel at a distance from nativeimage coil springs, depending on the feed of the mandrel for each brand of spring steel with providing poslenovogodnee endurance needed to complete polygonizations adjustment patterns formed in the coiling process.

The disadvantage of this unit is low productivity caused by the displacement of the spring mandrel in the cooling device. In this case, the mandrel is busy, and for the winding of the next coil springs need time at which the hardening process of the spring mandrel, which also affects the quality of the spring.

The object of the invention is to increase the productivity of manufacturing high-strength springs and improving the quality of manufactured springs. The technical result is to stabilize the temperature along the length and cross-sectional nativeimage material in the form of a steel rod, and hardening the springs after removing � mandrel in the free state. The lack of the mandrel in the implementation of the hardening process also accelerates the hardening process of the spring and increases the quality of the springs.

The task of manufacturing a high-strength spring steel, is achieved by applying and heating nativeimage material in the form of steel rod in the inductor to a predetermined temperature, the coiling on a rotatable and movable in the axial direction of the mandrel, hardened springs. Before winding rod is placed in a thermostat for the temperature stabilization of the entire length of the rod. The coiling is performed at a speed that ensures the permanence of the structure and properties of the spring along its entire length. After winding of the spring is removed from the mandrel and immersed in a quenching device at a speed that ensures the permanence of the structure and properties of the spring throughout its length.

The task is also achieved in that the device of manufacturing a high-strength spring steel contains a site feed nativeimage material in the form of steel rod, pipe heating coil rod to a predetermined temperature, rotating the mandrel with a rotary drive and driven axial movement and a quenching device. Additionally there is thermostat located downstream of the inductor of the heating rod, and a mechanism for removing the spring from the mandrel and moving it in a quenching device along the axis at a given speed is perpendicular� the surface of the liquid.

The task is also achieved in that the device of manufacturing a high-strength spring steel, contains a site feed nativeimage material in the form of steel rod, pipe heating coil rod to a predetermined temperature, the mandrel with a rotary drive and driven axial movement and a quenching device. Additionally introduced thermostat, which is located after the inductor of the heating rod, and a mechanism for removing the spring from the mandrel and placing it at a given speed along its axis into a quenching device. The quenching device is positioned horizontally and is made in the form of a sprayer, which hardened spring tempered pushes the previous spring.

The proposed method of manufacturing a high-strength spring steel can be implemented using the device shown in figure 1 and the device shown in figure 2.

The device of manufacturing a high-strength springs consists of inductor 1, which is fed into the rod 2 and it is heated to a predetermined temperature. Further, the rod 2 is included in thermostat 3, which is the stabilization of the temperature along the entire length of the rod. At the outlet of thermostat 3 is a sleeve 4, which guides the rod 2 on the mandrel 5 for coiling. The rotation and axial movement of the mandrel 5 is performed by the actuator 6. Removing the springs with the frames�and 5 and further movement is effected by the mechanism 7, which plunges wound the spring along its axis into a quenching device 8 is perpendicular to the surface of the liquid in the quenching device. In the quenching device 8 (Fig. 1) made in the form of baths, is located the conveyor 9, which spring goes on the conveyor 10.

In case of horizontal arrangement of the quenching device 8 (Fig. 2) it is made in the form of a sprayer, which tempered spring arrives on the conveyor 10.

Method and manufacture of high-quality spring steel is as follows.

The feed rod 2 passes through the coil 1, which is heating rod 2 to a temperature of 1000-1050°C. the Heated rod 2 enters thermostat 3 for the entire length of the rod. Thermostat 3 maintains a constant temperature of the rod during its movement to the mandrel 5. This process is necessary to stabilize the temperature of the rod at full length. Also, thermostat 3 is necessary in order to ensure the speed of movement of the rod 2 when the winding greater than the rate of movement of the rod 2 when heated in the inductor 1. Greater speed of movement of the rod 2 when the winding will provide a slight temperature difference between the first and last turns nalivaeva springs and the permanence of structure and properties along the entire length of the spring. After thermostat 3, the rod 2 is directed through the sleeve 4, which coordinates the movement�moving rod 2, on the mandrel 5. The rotation and axial movement of the mandrel 5 is performed by the actuator 6. Wound spring mechanism 7 is removed from the mandrel 5 and is moved to a quenching device 8. Spring along its axis immersed in a quenching device 8 vertically, the process of immersion of the spring into a quenching device 8 start with the first round at a speed that provides the stability of the structure and properties along the entire length of the spring. Removing the spring from the mandrel can improve the quality of the spring due to the lack of zones with reduced hardness and simultaneously to improve the performance of the springs, as the tempering of the springs is in a free state without mandrel, which at this time, the circumferential next spring.

Tempered spring passes in all further operations of the process.

The proposed method for the manufacture of springs and device for its implementation were tested at winding springs of steel SA.

The results of the structure by turns the springs testify to its uniformity, the winding of one spring is placed in 20 seconds.

1. A method of manufacturing a high strength helical springs made of steel, comprising feeding and heating nativeimage material in the form of steel rod in the inductor to a predetermined temperature and the tempering of springs, characterized in that the implementation�give the stabilization of the temperature in thermostat for the entire length of the rod, the winding spring to rotate and move in the axial direction of the mandrel, removing the spring from the mandrel and immersed in a quenching device at a speed that ensures the permanence of the structure and properties of the spring along its entire length.

2. Apparatus for producing high strength helical springs made of steel containing feeder nativeimage material in the form of steel rod, pipe heating coil rod to a predetermined temperature, the mandrel is mounted for rotation and movable by an actuator, and a quenching device, characterized in that it has a thermostat, located after the inductor, and mechanism for removing the spring from the mandrel and move it along the axis in a quenching device, wherein said mechanism is arranged to dip the spring in the liquid quenching device perpendicular to its surface.

3. Apparatus for producing high strength helical springs made of steel containing feeder nativeimage material in the form of steel rod, pipe heating coil rod to a predetermined temperature, the mandrel is mounted for rotation and movable by an actuator, and a quenching device, characterized in that it has a thermostat, located after the inductor, and mechanism for removing the spring from the mandrel and move it along the axis to tempering at�ful, in this case the quenching device is flipped horizontally sprayer with the possibility of pushing through hardened spring previous hardened springs.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: spring consists of an X-shaped element containing two flat elastic rings of rectangular or square cross-section with a radial cut-out. Rings are combined crosswise relative to each other through radial slots. Width of the radial cut-out of each ring is equal to thickness of the ring. Planes of rings in non-compressed state of spring are mutually perpendicular.

EFFECT: increasing working travel and force of a spring, reducing mass and dimensions parameters of a spring.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in production of spring for car and railway car bogie suspensions. Proposed method comprises rejection of springs at initial step and heating the bars for spring winding at mandrel. Then spring being wound is subjected to continuous sequential quenching by dipping the mandrel with wound turn into quenching bath and holding it therein. Spring is tempered in furnace at preset temperature for preset time interval defined by steel grade and cooled down to 30-80°C. Then, spring is squeezed, its operating parameters being controlled, and subjected to shot-blasting. Proposed production line comprises bar rejection device, integral technological module composed of bar heater, spring winder and spring continuous sequential quenching device, cooler, squeezer, sand-blasting unit and device to control spring performances, all being functionally and kinematically coupled.

EFFECT: stable characteristics and quality.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: linear drive comprises linearly displacing skids guided by two springs. Every said spring incorporates components with stiffness selected independently in three spatial directions. Thanks to appropriate 3D design and/or shape of components, greater length variations are possible compared with geometrical dimensions.

EFFECT: sufficient fatigue strength of components and springs, no shits in skids travel.

7 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: device includes upper and lower inserts and shell for installation of inserts in it and spring between them, puncheon with ball surface contacting with ball surface of upper insert. Lower insert is installed so that it can be rotated relative to the shell axis, and upper insert is installed so that it can be rotated and moved along the shell axis and the axis can be deviated from puncheon axis. Inserts are provided with grooves for 3/4 of the turn which are flat and for 1/4 of the turn which are screw, which have the diameter corresponding to inner diameter of the spring with the depth of not less than by the height of spring turn with lift height of the turn by the height of edge of the spring turn, and shell has inner diameter within diameter of compressed spring to diameter of coiled spring.

EFFECT: providing the possibility of plastic strengthening of springs with ground edges of extreme turns.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used for improving spring performances. Device comprises top and bottom inserts and barrel to accommodate said inserts and spring there between, punch with spherical surface in contact with that of top insert. Bottom insert is arranged to rotate about barrel axis and bottom insert may rotate and translate along barrel axis and deviate from punch axis. Inserts are provided with screw rectangular grooves on their face to feature diameter equal to that of spring ID and depth making at least spring coil diameter, coil rise being equal to spring coil diameter. Note also that barrel features inner diameter varying from contracted spring diameter to coiled spring diameter. Screw groove section may be made along spring coil radius and have depth making at least half the coil radius.

EFFECT: plastic hardening of springs with unfinished faces of extreme coils.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used in spring hardening devices. Proposed device comprises top and bottom inserts and cup to accommodate the former and the latter and springs arranged there between, male mould with ball surface in contact with that of the top insert. Bottom insert is arranged to revolve about the cup axis, while top insert can revolve about and move along cup axis and have its axis departing from cup axis. Said inserts have circular grooves on their faces with diametre mating inner diametre of the spring to accommodate polyurethane circular gasket so that the spring enters the inserts grooves for at least the height of spring turn. Cup inner diametre varies from compressed spring diametre to coiled spring diametre.

EFFECT: reduced labor input and higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used in spring hardening devices. Proposed device comprises top and bottom inserts and cup to accommodate the former and the latter and springs arranged there between, male mould with ball surface in contact with that of the top insert. Bottom insert is arranged to revolve about the cup axis, while top insert can revolve about and move along cup axis and have its axis departing from cup axis. Said inserts have circular grooves on their faces with diametre mating inner diametre of the spring and depth making at least the height of spring turn. Cup inner diametre varies from compressed spring diametre to coiled spring diametre.

EFFECT: reduced labor input and higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to machine building and can be implemented in facilities for increasing load-carrying capacity and working characteristics of spring. The facility consists of an upper and lower insertion, of a cartridge wherein insertions with a spring between them are installed, and of a puncheon with a ball surface contacting ball surface of the upper insertion. The lower insertion rotates relative to axis of the cartridge, while the upper one both rotates relative to axis of the cartridge, travels along its axis and deviates from the axis of the puncheon. The insertions have circular grooves on ends with diametre equal to internal diametre of the spring and depth not less, than height of a spring coil; stops of height not exceeding height of the end of a spring coil are arranged in the grooves. Internal diametre of the cartridge is within limits from diametre of a compressed spring to diametre of a wrapped spring.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of spring fabrication, increased efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented for fabricating big-size high loaded springs subject to heavy loads, and for screw springs of rolling stock of railroad transport with diametre of rod 17-23. Steel contains carbon, silicon, manganese, aluminium, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, chromium, nickel, copper and iron at the following ratio of components, wt %: carbon 0.55-0.63, silicon 0.10-0.35, manganese ≤0.20, aluminium 0.02-0.06, nitrogen 0.004-0.016, sulphur ≤0.025, phosphorus ≤0.020, chromium 0.10-0.20, nickel 0.15-0.20, copper 0.15-0.20, iron the rest. Point of austenite grain of steel is 11-13; structure of steel is fine-needled martensite of tempering on surface and sorbite in core after surface-volumetric quenching and tempering.

EFFECT: upgraded level of operational characteristics, mechanical properties, relaxation resistance, cyclic durability and corrosion resistance.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented for fabrication of big size heavy loaded springs subject to high loads, particularly to fabrication of screw springs of rolling stock of railroad transport with diametre of rod 27-33 mm. Steel contains carbon, silicon, manganese, aluminium, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, chromium, nickel, copper and iron at the following ratio of components, wt %: carbon 0.55-0.60, silicon 0.40-0.75, manganese 0.25-0.35, aluminium 0.02-0.06, nitrogen 0.004-0.016, sulphur ≤0.025, phosphorus ≤0.020, chromium 0.15-0.20, nickel 0.15-0.20, copper 0.15-0.20, iron the rest. Point of austenite grain of steel is 11-12 and structure is fine-needled martensite of tempering on surface and sorbite in core after surface-volumetric quenching and tempering.

EFFECT: upgraded level of operational characteristics, particularly mechanical properties, relaxation resistance, cyclic durability and corrosion resistance.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: high-speed heating of a rod up to a temperature above the Ac3 point of phase transformations, plastic deformation of the rod by screw compression with twisting in the direction of compression of the spring coil, instant hot coiling of the spring at a temperature above Ac3 with immediate coil quenching and tempering, ensuring anisotropically oriented steel structure is carried out.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of springs and reduction of energy consumption.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be sued for making helical springs for rolling stock. Proposed method comprises hearing of the bar, coiling the spring at heating temperature, quenching of the spring, its tempering and upsetting, grinding of spring ends, blasting and controlling of spring parameters. Spring parameters and those of production process are set. Prior to coiling, heated bar is reduced to spring end shape approximating to that of spring nonworking coils to roll said bar axially. Quenching is carried out using mechanical effects applied to ambient medium while spring parameters are controlled continuously at every production step by comparison with preset magnitudes and process parameters and corrected by appropriate program. Cyclic fatigue is controlled at arbitrarily selected springs prior to grinding their ends and after blasting. Invention covers also the device to implement abode described method. Stable performances of springs in production and correction.

EFFECT: higher quality.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used for producing springs by hot winding. Proposed method consists in using mandrel with outer surface layer made of metal that features lower heat conductance. This allows making the spring coil in tempering with metal martensite structure owing to eliminated heat removal from spring coil inner surface in contact with mandrel outer surface layer.

EFFECT: higher quality of springs.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in production and application of springs at industrial enterprises. Proposed device comprises top and bottom inserts, barrel to accommodate said inserts and tested spring, and punch with spherical surface to get in contact with that of top insert. Bottom insert is fitted to rotate about barrel axis while top insert rotates and displaces relative to barrel axis and deflects from punch axis. Said inserts have circular grooves at their ends. Diameter of said grooves equals spring ID while groove depth makes, at least, spring turn height. Barrel ID varies from contracted spring diameter to coiled spring diameter. Top insert and punch are coupled by stepped screw with provision of clearance between screw body outer surface and that of holes in inserts and between screw head and insert mating surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of spring hardening.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used for making high-loaded helical springs subjected to both axial and radial forces. Proposed method comprises spring coiling, thermal treatment, preparing thrust coils, cold upsetting, and shot-blast cold-hardening of spring outer surface section. Length of said section makes one fourth of spring turn circumference to half the circumference. Preset spring outer surface section is subjected to ordered shot-blast cold-hardening.

EFFECT: higher fatigue resistance, quality and strength.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in production of spring for car and railway car bogie suspensions. Proposed method comprises rejection of springs at initial step and heating the bars for spring winding at mandrel. Then spring being wound is subjected to continuous sequential quenching by dipping the mandrel with wound turn into quenching bath and holding it therein. Spring is tempered in furnace at preset temperature for preset time interval defined by steel grade and cooled down to 30-80°C. Then, spring is squeezed, its operating parameters being controlled, and subjected to shot-blasting. Proposed production line comprises bar rejection device, integral technological module composed of bar heater, spring winder and spring continuous sequential quenching device, cooler, squeezer, sand-blasting unit and device to control spring performances, all being functionally and kinematically coupled.

EFFECT: stable characteristics and quality.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves supply of wire and its shaping by means of forming mechanism tools. The required nominal geometrical parameters of helical spring are specified. Actual position of the chosen element of helical spring structure relative to reference element is measured at least at one instant of time between beginning and end of helical spring production process in measurement zone that is located at final distance from forming mechanism as to length of helical spring. The above distance is shorter than total length of finished helical spring. The measured actual position of the structure element is compared by means of CNC programme to its nominal position for the specified instant of time in order to determine the current difference of positions, which represents difference between actual position and nominal position at instant of time when the measurement was made. Depending on difference of positions, control of tool (130) of step mechanism included in the forming mechanism is performed.

EFFECT: manufacture of a series of long helical springs with inconsiderable variation of total length.

15 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in devices intended for increasing spring capacity and working performances. Proposed device comprises barrel to receive inserts and spring to be tested arranged there between. Barrel ID varies from compressed spring diameter to that of coiled spring. Punch with ball surface stays in contact with ball surface of top insert attached to said punch by screw with washer to rotate and displace relative to barrel axis and allow its axis to deflect from punch axis. Spline grooves are made on punch screw and top insert central bore to arrange spring-loaded alternating friction discs jointed by splines with punch screw spline grooves and top insert spline grooves. Insert end faces are provided with surfaces with thrust that features depth making, at least spring coil height to follow profile of the spring extreme coil end faces. Overrunning coupling with screw surface is fitted inside bottom insert to interact with screw surface of the rod coupled with press bottom cylinder ejector. Rod cylindrical section has alpines or spline groove to interact with mate splines or keys of the device bottom plate.

EFFECT: possibility of use in quantity production, ruled out hand work.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used for producing compression springs. Proposed method comprises spring winding with pitch exceeding that of finished spring, stress relief, luminous capillary control, face grinding, shotcasting cold working and chamfering of coil ends. After shotcasting cold-working, spring plastic hardening is performed at 200…250°C by axial stress of (10…300)F3, where F3 is spring force at maximum strain.

EFFECT: higher operating properties.

2 cl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method to strengthen cylindrical helical springs includes operations of winding, hardening and tempering, grit blasting and pre-stressing. At the final stage the internal surface of springs is cold worked. Cold working is done by means of core pulling or by impact action at the internal surface of the spring turn.

EFFECT: targeted action at an inner surface of spring turns by means of plastic deformation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be sued for making helical springs for rolling stock. Proposed method comprises hearing of the bar, coiling the spring at heating temperature, quenching of the spring, its tempering and upsetting, grinding of spring ends, blasting and controlling of spring parameters. Spring parameters and those of production process are set. Prior to coiling, heated bar is reduced to spring end shape approximating to that of spring nonworking coils to roll said bar axially. Quenching is carried out using mechanical effects applied to ambient medium while spring parameters are controlled continuously at every production step by comparison with preset magnitudes and process parameters and corrected by appropriate program. Cyclic fatigue is controlled at arbitrarily selected springs prior to grinding their ends and after blasting. Invention covers also the device to implement abode described method. Stable performances of springs in production and correction.

EFFECT: higher quality.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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