Method of intensive plastic deformation by torsion under high cyclic pressure

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method includes billet deposit and further torsion ensuring shear deformation. The billet deformation is made in Bridgman peens with specific pressure 3-6 GPa application. The movable peen is rotated relatively to its axis with speed 0.02-1.5 rpm. During the peen rotation the cyclic change of the specific pressure is performed by 10-20% of current value with rate 0.1-1.5 of specified speed of the peen rotation.

EFFECT: cyclic load application at intensive plastic torsional deformation ensures uniform microstructure and increases strength and microhardness of the billet material.

4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used for severe plastic deformation (SPD) for the purpose of homogeneous crushing of the microstructure of metals and increase the microhardness and strength.

In the last 10-15 years old processing methods that implement intensive plastic deformation, i.e. deformation under high applied pressures, has been significantly developed to produce ultrafine-grained (nanostructured) metals and alloys. Such ultrafine-grained materials exhibit increased mechanical and physical properties that are very attractive to many innovative applications [1]. Among the various methods IAPS drew special attention to severe plastic deformation by torsion or torsion under high pressure. This method is carried out in a special device-the camera Bridgman, is widely used to produce ultrafine-grained and nanostructured materials in the blanks in the form of discs.

A method of processing intensive plastic deformation, including deformation of the workpiece is placed in a closed volume of the matrix, draught and torsion in terms of quasi-hydrostatic pressure [2].

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the deformation process, the possibility of uneven�opernogo strain distribution and the heterogeneity of the microstructure on the volume of the workpiece.

A method of processing an amorphous magnetic materials severe plastic deformation for the purpose of nanocrystallization [3], according to which severe plastic deformation is carried out by torsion under quasi-hydrostatic pressure at cryogenic temperature. The deformation is carried out in the chamber Bridgman at 1-10 rpm movable anvil.

The disadvantage of this method are the limited functionality in connection with using it exclusively for the treatment of magnetically soft amorphous alloys.

The known method of processing of metals, intended for nanostrukturirovaniya metals through severe plastic deformation, which is the closest on the task at hand and adopted as a prototype. Common in the known device and the claimed invention are sediment and torsion of the workpiece. In the prototype, the precipitation amount of force and torque is calculated according to mathematical formulas, depending on the workpiece diameter, the limiting shear stress of the workpiece material and friction coefficient on the contact surface of the punch-workpiece [4].

The known method allows to efficiently grind the microstructure, but does not usually provide a homogeneous microstructure over the entire area of the workpiece, in particular in the Central part of the sample, and therefore Tr�required parameters of physico-mechanical properties of the material.

The problem to be solved by the invention, consists of intensive plastic deformation by torsion ensuring uniform grinding of the metal structure throughout the volume of the workpiece.

The technical result achieved by the new method of processing of metals, is to increase the microhardness and strength of the workpiece material, as well as their uniformity in area of the workpiece.

The problem is solved by the method of intensive plastic deformation, including sediment and the subsequent twisting of the workpiece with obtaining the shear strain, which, unlike the prototype, the deformation is carried out on the Sears Bridgman with application specific compressive pressure of 3-6 GPA and subsequent rotation of the movable firing pin on its axis at a speed of 0.02 to 1.5 rpm, whereby during rotation of the striker perform cyclic change of the specific pressure by 10-20% from the current value with a frequency of 0.1-1.5 from the set speed of rotation of the striker.

In addition, the task is achieved by the fact that the speed of rotation of the striker in the deformation process change cyclically.

In addition, the task is achieved in that in the process of deformation change the direction of rotation of the firing pin with a step of 0.1-1.5 turns.

However, the task is achieved by the fact that the process of deformat�and conducted at a temperature of -100°C÷+450°C.

The technical result is achieved in that the Cycling of the load during IAPS torsion leads to the change of the vacancy concentration in the material of the workpiece, which in turn affects the rate of "crawling" through dislocation and that on the deformation mechanisms and the mechanisms of formation of fine-grained structure, which ensures its homogeneity. The Cycling of the load during SPD twisting like rotating the sample during equal channel angular pressing, which leads to the change of slip systems during treatment and thereby provides a more homogeneous microstructure of the material and, consequently, improving the physical and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and microhardness.

The Cycling speed spinning of the workpiece (the speed of rotation of the firing pin) contributes to further improving the uniformity of the microstructure of the workpiece material.

The invention is illustrated Fig.1,2, 3, 4 and 5.

Fig.1 is a schematic diagram of the processing of the workpiece by way of SDI by torsion under pressure R.

Fig.2 shows a photograph of the original microstructure of titanium alloy VT-6 prior to treatment by the proposed method (light microscope, magnification X500).

Fig.3 shows a photograph of the microstructure of titanium alloy VT-6 after treatment by the proposed method (translucent e�Tronic microscope, the increase H).

Fig.4 shows the values of microhardness along the diameter of the billet of titanium alloy VT-6 after processing by torsion under pressure torsion (mean value of 360 HV, the variation ±23 HV).

Fig.5 shows the values of microhardness along the diameter of the billet of titanium alloy VT-6 after treatment with torsion with the Cycling of the pressure (average 410 HV, the variation ±12 HV).

The essence of the claimed invention is illustrated by the scheme of torsion (Fig.1), which contains a metal workpiece 1, the movable anvil Bridgman 2 and the stationary anvil Bridgman 3.

The method is as follows.

The workpiece 1 is placed between the movable 2 fixed and 3 strikers Bridgman (Fig.1). Boiky is compressed with a specific force 3-6 GPA, after which the movable firing pin 2 start to rotate on its axis at a speed of 0.02 to 1.5 Rev/min While the surface friction forces cause the workpiece to deform by shear, thus ensuring the refinement of the structure. During rotation of the movable firing pin unit pressure compression cyclically change 10-20% of the current value with a frequency of 0.1-1.5 from the set speed of rotation of the striker. According to the method the speed of rotation of the firing pin can be changed cyclically, and change the direction of rotation of the firing pin with a step of 0.1-1.5 turns. The deformation process can be conducted at tempera�ur -100°C÷+450°C, it changes during processing within the specified limits. The temperature change contributes to the plasticity of the end of the workpiece.

The claimed invention was tested in the laboratory of St. Petersburg state University. The experiments confirmed the achievement of specified technical result: increase of microhardness and strength of the workpiece material. Below is an example of a specific testing of the claimed method.

An example of a specific implementation.

From hot-rolled bar of titanium alloy VT-6 with a diameter of 20 mm were cut from the workpiece with thickness of 2 mm on the spark installation. Each blank is placed between the dies in the groove, then the movable and stationary dies ached with a specific capacity of 6 GPA. The movable anvil is started to rotate at a speed of 0.2 rpm to 10 rpm. During rotation of the movable firing pin unit pressure compression changed cyclically from 6 GPA to 5 GPA during each 360°rotation.

After processing the received workpiece thickness 1 mm, of which cut the samples for mechanical testing in tension with the database size of 4 mm and a length of 12 mm. Each sample was polished with diamond pastes to prevent scratches hub of destruction.

Mechanical testing of all samples was performed on a standard tensile testing machine PR� room temperature with a strain rate of 10 -4with-1to their complete destruction.

In addition, specimens were investigated with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To do this, from the obtained samples were made of thin foil by electrolytic polishing, then it was placed in the column of the microscope, where he observed the microstructure of the alloy in the source and nanostructured state. Fig.2 and 3 show the structure of the source and nanostructured alloy VT-6. As can be seen in Fig.2 and 3 after the proposed processing structure is completely right grind.

Fig.4 and 5 shows the values of microhardness along the diameter of the billet of alloy VT-6 after torsion and after cyclic torsion force. Adding cycles to the applied effort gave the increase of microhardness up to 14%, with a range of values decreased.

The test results of the samples are presented in the table, which shows the comparative characteristics of titanium alloy VT-6 before and after treatment by the proposed method. As follows from the results of the tests processed by the proposed method the material has higher strength and elasticity.

Thus, the proposed invention allows to obtain a more homogeneous microstructure of the material throughout the volume of the workpiece and substantially improve its hardness and durability.

The invention may be applied for about�processing of materials to enhance their physical and mechanical properties due to the creation of ultrafine-grained structures for innovative applications in the field of energy, work at low temperatures, used in aerospace installations, sports and Biomedicine.

Table
The results of the test blanks of the material before and after processing IAPS torsion under cyclic pressure
The condition of the materialThe tensile strength σin, MPaPlasticity δ, %
Source96020
Nanostructured17605

Thus, the proposed invention allows to obtain a more homogeneous microstructure of the material over the entire area of the workpiece and substantially improve its hardness and durability.

The claimed invention can be applied to create a fundamentally new generation of functional and structural materials. The creation of homogeneous nanostructures in metals and alloys opens the way for new, unexpected and unusual properties of structural materials, it is extremely attractive to many innovative applications in different fields and areas: energy, R�beaute at low temperatures, used in aerospace installations, sports and Biomedicine. In particular, increased strength and wear resistance of ultrafine-grained metals with homogeneous distribution of the structure while maintaining sufficient ductility makes it possible to significantly increase the reliability and durability created with their use of the mechanisms and structures, as well as reduce the consumption of material for their manufacture.

Literature

1. R. Z. Valiev and I. V. Aleksandrov, Bulk nanostructured metallic materials. Obtaining, structure and properties. Moscow: Akademkniga, 2007. - 398 p.

2. Golovin Yu. I. Introduction to nanotechnolo. M.: Mashinostroenie, 2007. - 240 p.

3. RF patent №2391414, IPC C21D 6/04, publ. 10.06.2010

4. RF patent №2382687, IPC C21J 6/04, publ. 27.02.2010 G. (prototype).

1. A method of processing workpieces using severe plastic deformation by torsion under high cyclic pressures, including sediment and the subsequent twisting of the workpiece with the provision of shear deformation, characterized in that the draught of the workpiece is carried out on the Sears Bridgman with application specific compressive pressure of 3-6 GPA, followed by torsion of the workpiece with the receipt of shear deformation by rotation of the movable firing pin on its axis at a speed of 0.02 to 1.5 rpm, whereby during rotation of the striker perform cyclic change of Adelino� pressure by 10-20% from the current value with a frequency of 0.1-1.5 from the set speed of rotation of the striker.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of rotation of the striker in the deformation process change cyclically.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of deformation change the direction of rotation of the firing pin with a step of 0.1-1.5 turns.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the treatment process is conducted at a temperature of -100÷+450°C.



 

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1 ex

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