Composition, fuel and process for reemulsification of fuel based on vegetable and/or mineral oil

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an emulsifying composition intended to homogenise and re-emulsify a fuel, comprising by weight, with respect to the total weight of the said composition, the following mixture i), comprising a) from 5% to 40% of N-oleyl-1,3-propylenediamine, b) from 60% to 95%, by weight, of N,N′,N′-polyoxyethylene-N-tallowpropylenediamine and ii) from 5% to 40% of isopropylbenzene or kerosene, added to the initial mixture. The invention also relates to a fuel, containing the above composition and a process of the fuel manufacture. The present invention also relates to the process of preparation and to the use of the (re)emulsifying composition.

EFFECT: improved fuel performance, the fuel is stable over time.

12 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex

 

The present invention relates to (re)emulsifying composition capable of homogenizing and regulirovanie mixture based on mineral oils and/or vegetable oils and water.

The present invention also relates to a method for obtaining and using this (re)emulsifying composition.

The present invention also relates to a homogeneous fuel resistant for a certain period of time (at least one year), and how it is produced.

The level of technology

Different fuels are many applications, for example in aircraft, vehicles and ships or for heating.

The fuel is a mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbons, which are products of processing of crude oil of fossil origin. Essentially, the fuel is typically a mixture of hydrocarbons: when it comes to gasoline, it may contain about 20-30% of alkanes WithnN2n+2, 5% cycloalkanes, 30-45% alkenes and 30-45% of aromatic compounds.

The EU Directive of 1998 on fuel quality defined by European standards for petrol, diesel and gasoil. These standards have been tightened Directive 2003 in order to promote the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels in order to ensure traffic.

Biofuels or agrofuels is a fuel produced from non-fossil organic matter, the source of which is biomass. There are two basic methods for its preparation: from the oil (which is oil palm, sunflower, canola, castor bean or castor bean) and its derivatives (biodiesel) and ethanol (bioethanol, produced by yeast fermentation of sugars) from hydrolyzed starch, hydrolyzed cellulose or hydrolyzed lignin.

Considering the growing concern about environmental issues it is expected that these fuels will become more widespread. In addition, can also be used a mixture of fuels of vegetable origin (about 10% according to existing standards soon - 30%) and fuel of mineral origin. In addition, currently, the amount of residual water in the fuel should not exceed 200 parts/million.

Actually over time problems arise Miscibility of various fuels based on vegetable and/or mineral oils.

This is due to the fact that contained significant amounts of water can cause separation of alcohol from diesel fuel or gasoline fuel. The water content in the fuel can be, in particular, the result of: (i) absorption �odes from the air, (ii) water content and (iii) acquisitions of diesel/gasoline fuel in the processing of water from the pipes, which are usually moistened with water.

Thus, during storage in the tank will be a gradual disintegration of the various components of the fuel layers (phase separation) due to differences in density of different components. Therefore, in the tank under the space that remains at the time of the Bay and filled the air with more or less high content of water vapor, will be the first phase of the fuel mixture (gasoline, gasoil, etc.) containing suspended microdroplets of water. Under this weight of fuel will be the second phase consisting of vegetable oils with more or less high content of suspended solids and bacteria, and even lower will be the third phase consisting of water with bacteria. Essentially, this phase separation adversely affects fuel efficiency.

As for ethanol bio-fuel, it was found that the ethanol attracts moisture from the air and combines with it, forming a mixture of water-ethanol. Contained water in the fuel causing detonation during operation of the engine and the accumulation of soot that can damage some components of the engine. The natural content of suspended water in the fuel is 0.5%. If you exceed this limit the content �odes water droplets accumulate and are separated from the fuel. A mixture of water-ethanol is heavier than water molecules, and it accumulates on the bottom of the tank. This is called phase separation. As for ethanol accounts for a significant portion of the octane number of the fuel that provides energy, in the separation of ethanol and its deposition on the bottom of the tank remaining fuel no longer has sufficient octane number suitable for feeding into the engine. In addition, a mixture of water-ethanol is only partially combustible, which can cause serious problems in the engine. Even in the case of mainly dehydrated ethanol because of its hygroscopicity it will quickly absorb moisture from the atmosphere, except subject to specific methods of storage.

The prior art discloses a product Aquazole®production company ELF, which is composed of 85% oil, 13% water and 2-3% from oil and chemical additives to "dilution" of water in the oil. However, this product was withdrawn from sale because of its instability. In particular, the lifetime of the emulsion was about three weeks.

In addition, the prior art also known additives, such as ORGANOMETALLIC compounds (toxic), which increase the octane number (gasoline engine), or additives that increase the cetane number (diesel engine) with the aim of increasing the force of vosplamenyaemostb. However, these additives do not allow to emulsify the fuel that does not necessarily already divided into phases.

Therefore, in addition to stability at low temperatures, resistance to abrupt temperature changes, resistance to oxidation and bacterial contamination of the fuel based on mineral and/or vegetable oils should also possess stability during storage.

A brief summary of the invention

The present invention is to create a new emulsifying compositions, which overcome all or part of the above-mentioned disadvantages.

In the present invention proposed (re)emulsifying composition for homogenization and regulirovaniya fuel containing in terms of the total weight of the composition:

a) from 5% to 40% by weight of N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine,

b) from 50% to 95% by weight ofN,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tallow Propylenediamine,

b) from 5% to 40% by weight of solvent.

In the field, which for many years research was carried out and in which, despite the presence of expensive and essential means of processing, has not been found convincing decision, the applicant has developed a new composition having certain advantages.

Proposed in the invention composition can regulirovanie fuel based on mineral oils (small drop�gorodov) and/or vegetable oils and water, even if the fuel is already divided into phases, and restored to form an emulsion having a resistance within a certain time. Thus, the advantage of the proposed in the present invention compositions is the ability to regulirovanie the above-mentioned third phase, in other words, the aqueous phase with bacteria, and mixing and homogenizing it with other phases.

In addition, due to the proposed in the present invention the composition of the recovered emulsion fuel has a resistance within a certain time.

In addition, during storage, this restored emulsion obtained several positive results in terms of waste of fuel, namely improves the homogenization of the various components (mineral oil, water, vegetable oil, etc.), peptization and rheological properties (viscosity fuel is substantially constant), which in turn improves combustion (homogeneous combustion), optimizes the efficiency of the diesel engine, gasoline engine, etc. (reduces fuel consumption, ensures clean surfaces, gradual cleaning of the engine) and reduce pollution (reduces carbon dioxide emissions, fouling).

These results will be illustrated by the following examples.

The composition is preferably �will win in terms of the total weight of the emulsion:

a) from 12% to 16% by weight of N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine,

b) from 60% to 78% by weight of N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tallow Propylenediamine,

b) from 12% to 18% by weight of solvent.

N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tall Propylenediamine preferably represents a tallow diamine containing 7 moles of ethylene oxide. This compound, containing 7 moles of ethylene oxide is liquid at ambient temperature (25°C) and contains approximately 3% With14, 30% C16, 40% C15, 26% C18and 1% C20. It is known as a wetting, dispersing and emulsifying agent. In the proposed composition, in particular, apply the product Dinoramox®S7 production of EUFOR Arkema Group.

Coupling of N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine corresponds to CAS No. 7173-62-8. In particular, the present invention is applicable to a product manufactured in the company of EUFOR, sold under the trade name Dinoram® O.

The solvent is preferably selected from isopropylbenzene and kerosene.

The present invention also proposed a fuel containing at least one mineral oil, one oil and water, and further comprising emulsifying the composition in accordance with one of the above characteristics.

Mineral oil is preferably contained in an amount of from 0% to 97% by weight, the vegetable oil in an amount of from 0% to 9% by weight, and water in amount of from 0.001% to 8% by weight calculated on the total weight of the said fuel.

Emulsifying composition is preferably contained in an amount of from 3% to 48% by weight calculated on the total weight of the said fuel.

One of the objectives of the present invention is to provide a method of obtaining the above described emulsifying composition, characterized in that it includes a stage on which:

(i) is heated with N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine and N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tall Propylenediamine to obtain a first liquid mixture,

ii) add solvent to the first mixture with simultaneous stirring to obtain a liquid emulsifying composition.

According to one feature of the invention, stage (i) heating is carried out at a temperature from 30°C to 50°C, preferably from 35°C to 45°C, more preferably at 40°C.

Mixing at the stage (i) heating is preferably carried out with the rotation speed from 20 to 50 rpm.

According to one feature of the invention, the heating and stirring is carried out for at least 5 days.

Since the solvent is preferably isopropylbenzene, emulsifying the composition obtained in stage (ii), remains liquid at temperatures from 0°C to + 20°C.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for manufacturing�and fuel in accordance with any one of the above characteristics, includes a stage on which add from 3% to 48% by weight as described above emulsifying composition to the base fuel containing from 0% to 99% by weight vegetable oil, from 0% to 99% by weight of mineral oil and from 0.01% to 8% by weight of water calculated on the weight of the mentioned base fuel.

Emulsifying composition preferably receive as described above.

The present invention also relates to the application described above emulsifying compositions for homogenization and regulirovaniya fuel based on mineral oils, vegetable oils and water.

Detailed description of the invention

To ensure better understanding of the subject of the invention hereinafter will be described a device that allows you to obtain the emulsion according to the invention. The following further description is set forth only in the form of illustrative and non-limiting examples; emulsifying device shown in the drawings only schematically to illustrate the principle of operation of devices used in the implementation of examples of emulsions according to the invention.

In the drawings:

Fig.1 shows an axial section emulsifying device, which allows to obtain compositions according to the invention,

Fig.2 shows a partial schematic view of the blades of the rotor and stator, the interaction of which provides a high degree�ü shift and, therefore, sufficiently finely dispersed emulsion according to the present invention,

Fig.3 shows a photograph of illustrated plates of boilers to use fuel enriched regulirovanie composition according to the invention,

Fig.4 illustrates the same plate as that in Fig.3, but after two and a half months after treatment regulirovanie composition according to the invention.

Although emulsifying device shown in Fig.1 and 2, is not included in the scope of the invention, the following is a brief description. Position 1 generally denoted by the stator emulsifier. The stator 1 consists mainly of two parts1a_and1b_connected to each other by screws 2. In the stator 1 includes a rotor, generally indicated at 3, while the rotor 3 is reported rotation relative to the stator via a shaft 4. The rotation of the rotor 3 and the shaft 4 relative to the stator 1 is possible through the system sealed bearings 5.

Part of1b_the stator includes an inlet pipe dsproducts, intended for the formation of the emulsion: for example, component (a) is transported in the direction of arrow F1, as component b) the emulsion is transported in the direction of arrow F2 (or Vice versa). The combined mixture enters the stator, which has a round holder 6 blades attached with screws to the part of1b_stator, wherein the blades of6a_the holder 6 is held in the radial direction towards the rotor 3, i.e. the opposite side income emulsified products. The end of the rotor 3 opposite to the holder 6 blades has the shape of a plate which supports the radial vanes3a_. Scapula3a_and6a_located along concentric circles, with the blades of3a_are placed in a round the annular gaps between two adjacent circles of blades 6a_.

Emulsified products coming into the area between the holder 6 blades and the rotor 3 through the Central round hole of the holder 6 blades, under the action of centrifugal force to cross the gap between the holder 6 blades and the rotor 3 and are pushed to the periphery of the said space, so that they can be unloaded from the device along the arrow F3. It is clear that the flow of products is subjected to the concerted efforts of the shift between the fixed blades6a_and blades3a_who reports the rotation shaft 4. The degree of dispersion of the obtained emulsion is known dependencies, in particular, from the number of concentric circles of blades3a_and6a_from the annular gap between the edges of the mentioned blades and shaft speed. In other words, deletednode device and within the specified bandwidth characteristics of the obtained emulsion depend on the frequency of rotation of the rotor.

The rotational speed of 6,500 rpm is preferred to obtain fluid emulsions according to the present invention.

The described method makes it possible to continuously obtain a homogeneous and unchanging emulsion, this also may receive periodic emulsions according to the invention (periodic method).

As stated above, the object of the present invention is, in particular, realigious composition, which allows to homogenize and regulirovanie all the various components of the base fuel consisting of vegetable oil, mineral oil and water. Vegetable oil or mineral oil may be 99% of the total number of the base fuel and the water can range from about 0.1 to 8% of base fuel.

In emulgirujushchej compositions are applied, in particular, two specific diamine: a) N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine (such as Diniram®A) and b) N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tall Propylenediamine (in particular, tallow diamine containing 7 moles of ethylene oxide, such as Dioramox®S7), which are contained in high specific concentrations of the order of 5-40% by weight for the first diamine and about 50-95% by weight for the second diamine (based on the weight of the whole composition).

The author has concluded that these two features, namely the choice of amines for use issah available amines, having an emulsifying effect, on the one hand, and the choice of high specific concentrations, on the other hand, provides a composition which makes it possible to regulirovanie fuel based on mineral oil and/or vegetable oil and water.

These two diamine are dissolved thanks to the third connection: the solvent, such as isopropylbenzene (CAS No. 98-82-8) or kerosene.

Can be added to other compounds, such as fungicides, bactericides and other additives that are commonly used in fuels.

Various advantages of the present compositions can be achieved by chemical structures of various compounds emulgirujushchej composition.

This is because complex compounds containing functional amino groups, consisting of long macromolecular chains, which can be partially ethoxycarbonyl can significantly weaken the interfacial tension between the more or less soluble components and hydrocarbon fuel and thereby provide dispersion "peptizing" type (at molecular level) of the insoluble components and to give the fuel a high degree of homogeneity. It peptizyde action gradually "clear" tanks of vehicles processed by the composition according to the invention. In addition, polar compounds�Oia compositions protect tank and engine, etc.) against corrosion.

A weakening surface tension also leads to a reduction in the viscosity of the fuel and reduces the angle interfacial tension of the fuel-metal and thereby improve the flow properties of fuel by converting turbulent flow to laminar flow.

The result of this twofold action is the formation of a more homogeneous fine mist, which brought to the maximum area of contact with oxidizing air.

This ensures more complete combustion of these mixtures of oils, regulirovaniya in this way, and significantly reduces the formation of non-combustible residues and reduced ash content.

In addition, as described further demonstrated by the test, expressed antioxidant properties emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention make it possible to suppress the corrosion caused oxidizable compounds in the fuel. This is because aminosidine counteract dissociation of oxides which release atomic oxygen and dissociation of molecular oxygen. Atomic oxygen "O" is able to oxidize the sulfur trioxide (SO3) to sulfate (SO4. Realigious composition counteracts the ability of metal oxides dissolve under the influence of Vanadate alkali metals and their "otravlyayuscikh" action on catalysate�s, consisting, in particular, of the oxides of sodium and vanadium.

In addition, as a "limiter" acid corrosion are nitrogenous derivatives.

Next will be described examples of the emulsion according to the invention, which are merely to illustrate and not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The tests were carried out to demonstrate the sustainability of the proposed in the invention of fuel for a certain period of time, as well as its efficiency.

Example 1: quality control engine oil

Composition (d)emulsifying compositions according to the invention

In this and the following tests (tests 2-4) realigious composition according to the invention contains, in terms of the total weight of the composition:

a) of 14.76% N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine (Dinoram®O),

b) 69,53% N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tallow Propylenediamine (Dinoramox®S7),

in) 15,71% isopropylbenzene.

The test was conducted on the diesel engine truck Volvo type F10 with the following characteristics:

Mileage before treatment: 603 025 km
Mileage at the end of treatment: 612 042 km
Δ mileage Change: 9017 km
Lubricant: oil SAE40

Protocol

To confirm the quality of engine oil used sheet of filter paper in a horizontal position with a cell size of 0.1 µm.

The procedure was that the diesel engine operating on gas oil without the use of a composition according to the invention, ran for 10 minutes at an ambient temperature of 25°C. the Oil thus had the normal operating temperature. A drop of oil using the dipstick was placed in the middle of the filter paper. Filter paper for 24 hours kept in a horizontal position without contact with a solid surface except dust. Then identified various areas formed by spreading a drop of oil. This method was first obtained "control" paper.

Was carried out the same procedure, but this time the fuel contained (d)an emulsifying composition according to the invention in a concentration of 30 part/million in This way was obtained the second filter paper.

The way of interpreting results

Stain detergent oil consists of four elements, more or less visible depending on the spot and arranged in the following order from inside to outside:

1) more or less impenetrable grey of the Central part, n�permeability which allows to determine the degree of oil contamination;

2) a darker stain, surrounding the Central portion and corresponding to the maximum spreading of drops of oil on the surface of the paper;

3) less diffusion dark area, which corresponds to the scattering abilities of the detergent oil; a diffusion region formed only of an oil containing soot particles in a suspension of 0.5 micron;

4) light transmissive region, oiled, and free from soot. More or less yellow color gives an idea of the degree of oxidation of oils and the presence of fuel.

The oil is acceptable and is able to stay on the surface, these four elements of the stain should be visible. Also be aware that in the case when the engine is in good condition, the spots formed during the first hours, only have a grayish halo, and all four elements start to become visible only after a certain period of operation, which, moreover, varies depending on the engine type.

From this analysis you can display four numbers: washing effect, pollution, acidification and liquefaction.

Cleaning action: the width of the diffusion region 3) gives an idea of the washing action; the emergence of this field indicates that the oil has lost all scattering power. This may be due to the saturation�Oia excess detergent karboidov or flocculation additives (element, providing a cleaning action) in the presence of water.

Pollution: opacity area 1) spot increases with the increase of the percentage content of karboidy: if the quantity of sludge is about 5%, the Central part 1) becomes black and the halo 2) vanishes; if the oil is still washing effect, the diffusion region 3) remains visible; if, as often occurs when there is severe contamination, there is a saturation detergent additive, the spot has only entirely white Central part, surrounded by a light transmissive region 4.

Oxidation: more or less dark yellow color part of the light transmissive region 4) bordering diffusion region 3), is a measure of oxidation of oil: pale yellow color indicates that the oil is not subjected to a harmful influence to a considerable extent, and dark yellow color indicates that the oil has oxidized.

Liquefaction: when the oil is diluted with fuel, light transmissive region 4) ends inside light edge, the width of which increases with the degree of dilution.

Observations concerning oxidation and, in particular, liquefaction, it is difficult to formulate; these two phenomena are not reflected on paper quite distinctively different in color, but can be podcherpnet information, for example, regularly controlled engine./p>

Results

After 9017 km run test was repeated, then the engine gave an oil, processed (d)an emulsifying composition according to the invention.

Filter paper was placed vertically opposite to the light to be clearly visible the different areas. From the simultaneous comparison of two filter paper obtained as described above, before treatment and after treatment according to the present invention, it is clear that on filter paper obtained after the processing, is visible:

significantly lighter Central region, indicating a decrease in the number of carbon particles;

the outside area much more bright Central region - particles well-distributed, which indicates a good level of dispersion; and

the region on the outer boundaries, which are scattered in the previous area and on the edges of the spot, indicating no dilution.

Conclusion

Thus, this test clearly shows the importance of the cleaning action of the compositions according to the invention: after purification of the combustion chamber of each cylinder, segmentation starts to play a role in terms of tightness, and it becomes possible to restore the properties of motor oil.

Example 2: corrosion test

2.1 In respect of copper

2.2 the gas oil was added 100 ppm(d)emulsifying compositions according to the invention. There were two tests: first, a baseline test (test strip) strips not treated with the composition, and the second test strips, processed emulgirujushchej composition according to the invention.

Test conditions

The applicable standardNF [standard French] m-015
The test specimenA strip of 100×25×3 mm from 99.9% pure electrolytic copper, rolled, polished (sandpaper No. 400, steel wool) and defatted three times with acetone, digidrirovanny over activated molecular sieve
FuelGasoil
Test duration3 hours
The bath temperature50°C±1°C
MixingMagnetic, using a bar magnet (50 rpm)

Both strips were immersed in a bath heated to a temperature of about 50°C gas oil, respectively, of the treated and untreated emulgirujushchej composition according to the invention, and carried out magnetic stirring for three hours.

You�od

In the presence of distilled water copper strip is treated with the composition according to the invention, are corroded in contrast to the control strips and untreated strips.

2.3 In respect of steel

To the oil was added 100 ppm (d)emulsifying compositions according to the invention. There were two tests: first, a baseline test (test strip) strips not treated with the composition, and the second test strips, processed emulgirujushchej composition according to the invention.

Test conditions

The applicable standardASTM D665-92: "Determination of corrosion characteristics of turbine oil in the presence of water"
The test specimenA strip of 100×25×3 mm, rolled steel, polished (sandpaper No. 400, steel wool), defatted three times with acetone and digidrirovanny over activated molecular sieve
FuelGasoil
Test duration24 hours
The bath temperature60°C±1°C
Mixing Magnetic by using a bar magnet (50 rpm)

Both strips were immersed in a bath heated to a temperature of about 60°C gas oil, respectively, of the treated and untreated emulgirujushchej composition according to the invention, and carried out magnetic stirring for 24 hours.

On rough strip there were spots of corrosion, whereas on the strip treated with the composition according to the present invention, spots of corrosion was absent.

Conclusion

The test demonstrates anti-corrosive nature emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention in relation to steel.

Example 3: a fracture test sediment

This test was conducted on the finned tubes of the heater kit boiler of 300 MW. In the fuel boiler added 100 ppm emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention. This fuel had the following characteristics:

Viscosity at 40°C3032 cSt
Density at 15°C0,847 g/cm3
The temperature of gelation-21°C
The ignition temperature68°C
Net calorific value9800 kcal/kg
Sulfurwith 0.13%
Sodium0,4771 mg/kg
Potassium0,1525 mg/kg
Vanadium<0.1 mg/kg
Water315 part/million
The cetane number47

To add emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention the edges of the tubes were covered with sediment and corrosion (Fig.3), and at the joints was visible sulphuric acid.

After adding 100 ppm emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention and processing for 2.5 months finned tube cleansed in a natural way (without mechanical or other interference) (see Fig.4).

Conclusion

Realigious composition allows gradually destroy the precipitate on the finned tubes and provides their content in a clean condition with no visible corrosion.

Example 4: test on the control and recovery of the compression pressure

Measurements were conducted of the compression pressure of each cylinder of the diesel engine IR 795 00 power 250 HP truck Pegaso running on gasoil�. The mileage of the car before the test was 115 533 km (in other words, before you start working on the oil, enriched with 100 ppm emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention) 116 and 135 km after the test, i.e., at 602 km more.

By using the device type of the device Henry, installed on the nozzle of each cylinder, measure the compression pressure of each cylinder.

Was carried out the operation without the use of and the use emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention in a concentration of 100 part/million.

The following results were obtained:

Pressure compression
The number of cylindersWhen tested only using gasoilWhen tested with the use of gas oil, enriched emulgirujushchej composition according to the invention in a concentration of 100 ppm
12626
22525,7
32425,5
424 25,5
522,725.4 mm
622,225,5

Comparative analysis of the results for each cylinder and all cylinders shows recovery of the compression pressure and the total pressure equalizes compression when adding to the oil emulgirujushchej compositions according to the invention.

These results clearly demonstrate the cleaning and destructive effect emulgirujushchej composition in the combustion chambers of the engine.

Thus, the proposed in the present invention the composition allows, first, to regulirovanie tiny drops of water that are present in mixtures of mineral and/or vegetable oils. Furthermore, the composition is excellent peptisers, stabilizing, wetting, detergent and corrosion inhibitor, which, being in the tank, acts even on the pipe to release the exhaust gas. In addition, it reduces the spread of bacteria by destroying organic and/or inorganic precipitation due to the cleansing action reguliruyushego product, ensuring cleanliness of surfaces.

Although the invention has been described in relation to a particular variant of implementation, it is clear that it would �the Braz is not limited to them and includes all technical equivalents of the described means and their combinations, if they are within the scope of the invention.

1. Emulsifying composition for homogenization and regulirovaniya fuel containing in terms of the total weight of the composition of the first mixture (i) containing (a) from 5% to 40% N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine, b) from 60% to 95% by weight of N,N',N'-polyoxyethylene-N-tallow Propylenediamine and (ii) from 5% to 40% of isopropylbenzene or kerosene added to the first mixture.

2. A fuel containing at least one mineral oil, one oil and water, characterized in that it further comprises an emulsifying composition according to claim 1.

3. Fuel according to claim 2, wherein the mineral oil is contained in an amount of from 0% to 97% by weight, the vegetable oil in an amount of from 0% to 97% by weight and water in an amount of from about 0.001% to 8% by weight calculated on the total weight of the said fuel.

4. Fuel according to claim 2, wherein the emulsifying composition is contained in an amount of from 3% to 48% by weight calculated on the total weight of the said fuel.

5. A method of producing an emulsifying composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes a stage on which:
(i) is heated with N-oleyl-1,3-Propylenediamine and Ν,Ν',Ν'-polyoxyethylene-N-tall Propylenediamine to obtain a first liquid mixture,
ii) add solvent to the first mixture with simultaneous stirring to obtain a liquid emulsifying composition.

6. A method of producing em�lyroudi composition according to claim 5, in which stage (i) heating is carried out at a temperature from 30°C to 50°C, preferably from 35°C to 45°C, more preferably at 40°C.

7. A method of producing an emulsifying composition according to claim 5, in which the mixing stage (i) heating is preferably carried out with the rotation speed from 20 to 50 rpm.

8. A method of producing an emulsifying composition according to claim 5, in which heating and stirring is carried out for at least 5 days.

9. A method of producing an emulsifying composition according to claim 5 in which the solvent is isopropylbenzene or kerosene, and emulsifying the composition obtained in stage (ii), remains liquid at temperatures from 0°C to + 20°C.

10. Method of production of a fuel according to claim 2, comprising a stage on which add from 3% to 48% by weight of an emulsifying composition according to one of claims. 1-3 in the base fuel containing from 0% to 99% by weight vegetable oil, from 0% to 99% by weight of mineral oil and from 0.01% to 8% by weight of water calculated on the weight of the mentioned base fuel.

11. Method of production of a fuel according to claim 10, wherein the emulsifying composition according to claim 1 obtained by method according to one of claims. 5-8.

12. The use of an emulsifying composition according to claim 1 for homogenization and regulirovaniya fuel based on mineral oils, vegetable oils and water.



 

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2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cylinder lubricant, having a base number (BN) determined according to standard ASTM D-2896 greater than or equal to 15 mg KOH/g of lubricant, containing: one or more lubricating base oils for marine engines, at least one detergent based on alkali or alkali-earth metals, overbased with metal carbonates, optionally in combination with one or more neutral detergents, one or more oil-soluble fatty amines containing 16-22 carbon atoms and having BN determined according to standard ASTM D-2896 from 150 to 600 mg KOH/g. The present invention also relates to use of the cylinder lubricant (versions) and an additive concentrate for preparing the cylinder lubricant.

EFFECT: obtaining a lubricant having neutralisation power with respect to sulphuric acid formed during combustion of high-sulphur liquid fuel, while limiting formation of deposits during use of low-sulphur liquid fuel.

29 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lubricant compositions to be used in operation of rail-mounted vehicles, particularly, to lubing wheel flange-wail pair friction surfaces. Greaser for rail wheel flanges comprises shell filled with composition composed of grease Litol-24 and additives. greaser shell consists of MG-1-grade graphite and filled with lubing composition containing zinc powder with particle size of 0.3-0.5 mcm, graphite powder, autoscoring additive, sulfur-containing lubricant-coolant emulsion and paraffin as a binder at the following ratio of components, wt %: Litol-24 - 42.3±1.5; zinc powder - 33.3±1.5; graphite powder - 3.0±1.0; lubricant-coolant emulsion - 1.6±1>0, paraffin making the rest.

EFFECT: decreased wear and friction factor.

Marine oil // 2496859

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cylinder oil having BN of at least 40 mg KOH/g oil, which contains ship engine base oil and at least one ultra-alkaline detergent based on alkali or alkali-earth metals, characterised by that it further contains 0.01-10 wt % of the total weight of the oil of one or more compounds (A) selected from esters of saturated fatty monoacids containing at least 14 carbon atoms, and alcohols containing not more than 6 carbon atoms, where the compounds (A) are selected from monoesters of monoatomic alcohols and diesters, and where at least one ultra-alkaline detergent based on alkali or alkali-earth metals is selected from a group consisting of phenolates, sulphonates, salicylates and mixtures of said detergents, where said detergent is ultra-alkaline due to calcium carbonate.

EFFECT: improved characteristics.

27 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: lubricant contains the following in wt %: sulphided C16-C18 α-olefins 5-15, mixture of 2,5-diheptyl-3,4-fullero[60]tetrahydrothiophene-1-oxides

, where n=1 (50%), n=2(30%), n=3(15%), n=4(5%), 0.003-0.007, rapeseed oil 10-30, industrial oil - the rest.

EFFECT: improved anti-wear and anti-welding properties.

4 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: lubricant contains wt %: sulphidised α-olefine of C16-C18 fraction 5-15, colza oil 10-30, mixture of 2-phenyl-3, 4-fulleren[60]tetra-hydro-thiophene of formula (1) where n=1(65 %), n=2(10 %), n=3(25 %), 0.003-0.007, industrial oil - the rest.

EFFECT: improved ecological properties, raised wear resistant and anti-scoring characteristics at reduced concentration of sulphur containing additive.

4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lubricating compositions, particularly to compositions for lubricating friction couples, and can be used in mechanical engineering for lubricating friction assemblies, as well as in various mechanisms and machines for increasing interrepair time. The lubricant core-composition has coating, made from epoxy adhesive "ЭДП" with serpentinite additives Mg6{Si4O10}(OH)8 of technical furnace electroconductive carbon and fluoroplastic F-4. The coating of the lubricant core contains filler, which contains Litol-24 lubricant, serpentinite Mg6{Si4O10}(OH)8 and thermolysis carbon at the following ratio of components, wt %: coating: serpentinite Mg6{Si4O10}(OH)8 - 1.0-2.0; technical furnace electroconductive carbon - 0.1-0.2; polytetrafluorethylene in form of powdered fluoroplastic F-4 - 0.2-0.4; epoxy adhesive "ЭДП" - the rest; filler: serpentinite Mg6{Si4O10}(OH)8 - 1.0-2.0; thermolysis carbon - 0.1-0.2, consistent lubricant Litol -24 - the rest.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of the lubricant core-composition due to increase of its adhesive and antifriction properties, which reduces wearing in the wheel flange-rail friction couple.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to foundry engineering. Said coolant contains, wt %: gear oil 25-35, polymethylsiloxane 0.2-0.5, semi-synthetic unsulphonated liquid "Caraidel 2" 25-44 and water - the rest.

EFFECT: improved separative power of coolant ensured.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate and, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine in liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which contains less than 50 ppm of water, to reduce or essensially eliminate the formation of ice particles with the weight average particle size larger than 1 mcm, in the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel, when the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel is cooled to temperatures, which are in the range from 0 to -50°C, where the quantity of the said, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate in the said fuel constitutes from 45 to 4575 ppm by weight, and the quantity of the said, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine constitutes from 5 to 425 ppm by weight. Described is aviation fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particles formation. The invention also relates to a method of reducing or elimination of the formation of ice particles in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Also described is a method of an aircraft refuelling with the liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particle formation.

EFFECT: reduction or elimination of formation of ice plugs in fuel and fuel tanks of an aircraft with gas turbine engines.

13 cl, 4 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: starting hydrocarbon motor fuel is mixed with distilled water in equal weight proportions; the water-fuel mixture obtained in a tubular flow reactor is exposed to microwaves with frequency of 10-30 GHz and then treated in a vortex tubular reactor at excess pressure of 0.5-3.5 MPa and temperature of 10-30°C in the presence of Cr, Ni, Fe metal alloys, from which swirl vanes of the vortex tubular reactor are made.

EFFECT: simple process of producing hydrocarbon motor fuel by exposing a water-fuel mixture in a vortex tubular reactor to microwaves at excess pressure, reduced usage of fossil material - oil - to produce motor fuel.

2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises oil slime heating and cleaning. Cleaned and heated mix of hydrocarbons with water is fed into working vessel and separated into at least two flows. Separated flows are fed for their homogenisation into vibratory cavitation homogeniser at different flow rate magnitude of at least 1.5. Homogenisation is executed in vibratory cavitation homogeniser with spinning rotor with perforated surface and stationary stator at the mix specific flow rate not over 2.5 g/cm2 of rotor working surface per second and peripheral speed not over 20 m/s. Processing is conducted three times: primary processing is performed unless hydrated fuel emulsion with water drop sixe not over 15 mcm, subsequent processing is conducted unless water drop size does not exceed 5 mcm.

EFFECT: higher stability.

4 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.

EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.

9 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dissolution of solid organic materials. The invention relates to a method of solubilising solid organic materials, which comprises reacting a solid organic material with an oxidising agent in superheated water in order to form a solubilised organic soluble substance. The oxidising agent acts on the solid organic material in a reactor which does not have a free space over the superheated water, and temperature of the superheated water ranges from 100°C to 374°C.

EFFECT: efficient method of solubilising solid organic materials, which ensures high output and minimal environmental impact.

18 cl, 13 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of air-coal fuel (ACF). Proposed method comprises the use of the device including mining machines of coal plants (CP) with cutter-crusher-sucker working tool (WT) to produce coal powder with localisation of methane gas and coal dust, air transfer units (ATU), final terminal of thermal electric power station (TEPS) to combust ACF as coal powder. Note here that ACF is produced at CP and combusted at TEPS at continuous transfer of ACF from CP work face to TEPS terminal (heat carrier) via series of hollow intake-force ATU parts.

EFFECT: simplified production of air-coal fuel, continuous feed of heat carrier.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hybrid emulsion fuel which contains a hydrocarbon, water, an alcohol and a surfactant, characterised by that the fuel is a stable direct emulsion, and the hydrocarbon used is gasoline or kerosene or diesel fuel, with the following ratio of components, vol. %: gasoline or kerosene or diesel fuel 70, water 18-30, ethyl alcohol 0-12, surfactant OP-7 0.3-0.8.

EFFECT: hybrid emulsion fuel is characterised by easy preparation which does not require use of special equipment and is easily restored when using hybrid fuel.

1 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the area of hydrocarbon waste processing and purposed for output of burning oil. Invention is referred to device for processing of oil waste including unit for raw mixture preparation, dispergator, ready emulsion tank; between unit for raw mixture preparation and dispergator there is an auxiliary regulator for maintenance of permanent raw mixture consumption; ready emulsion tank is connected by pipeline through return valve to the unit for raw mixture preparation and a vortex pump connected to jet cavitating unit is used as dispergator.

EFFECT: improving reliability of the device for oil waste processing.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of stable fine water-hydrocarbon emulsion for ecologically safe fuel additives and bitumen binder in road construction from water and hydrocarbon components pre-cleaned of mechanical impurities. Proposed method consists in mixing and blending water-hydrocarbon emulsions by micro vortex mincing and conversion in viscous fluid at micro vortex hydrodynamic structures. Said structures are formed in boundary layer in displacement of viscous fluid relative to solid surface and/or displacement of viscous fluid relative to itself at 0°C to 95°C. Note here that this occurs at pressure varying from 0.5 kg/cm2 to 10000 kg/cm2. Invention relates also to emulsions produced by above described method.

EFFECT: production of stable fine water-hydrocarbon emulsion for ecologically safe fuel additives and bitumen binder in road construction.

12 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method to produce oil fuel, in which mixing is carried out and reaction of hydrolysis is done with water containing a ferment, which a hydrocarbon oil product, besides, water containing a ferment, is produced by means of mixing of a natural vegetable ferment, containing, at least lipase, in water. The natural vegetable ferment may additionally contain cellulase. The invention also relates to a device for production of oil fuel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of fuel, which is stable, and also suppression of hazardous substances formation.

10 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition of aircraft non-ethylated gasoline, which contains gasoline of catalytic reforming, alkylgasoline, toluene and an antiknock additive, and the composition additionally contains a gasoline fraction, boiling out in ranges of 62-85°C, and as the antiknock additive - monomethylaniline and methyltertbutyl ether with the following component ratio, wt %: alkylgasoline 15.0-25.0; toluene 10.0-20.0; gasoline fraction, boiling out in the range of 62-85°C, 20.0-35.0; monomethylaniline 1.5-3.0; methyltertbutyl ether 5.0-10.0; catalytic reforming gasoline - the remaining part.

EFFECT: reduction of the toxicity of the non-ethylated aircraft gasoline without the deterioration of exploitation properties, regulated by the GOST requirements 1012-72, with the simultaneous extension of the nomenclature of piston engines of internal combustion of the domestic and foreign production, using aircraft gasoline.

3 tbl

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