Research method of fibreglass resistance to exposure of aggressive medium
SUBSTANCE: study the interaction of fibreglass with cement stone within the specified time. Previously, the fibreglass is glued on the plastic plate, put into the mould to prepare cement samples and filled with cement slurry. Plastic plate with the glued fibreglass is put in such a way that the fibreglass is in contact with the cement slurry. After solidification the cement specimens are removed from the mould and the fibre is separated from the plate. Then, the fibre is investigated by means of X-ray spectrum analysis and electron microscopy. Method allows to determine the element composition, structure of interaction products of fibre with cement stone. Besides, the resistance of fibreglass compared with the diameter of fibreglass after test with the diameter of raw fibre is evaluated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to compare the use of fibreglasses of various compositions as reinforcing materials.
The invention relates to methods for studying the composition and structure of substances and can be used to determine the optimal mode optical fiber to disperse the reinforcement and microkeratome concrete.
Disperse reinforcement of concrete used to increase the crack resistance of concrete. One of the perspective types of reinforcing material is fiber glass of different composition. A significant obstacle to the use of fiberglass for this purpose is a low alkali resistance of glass fiber.
Known methods of studying the stability of the glass to the effects of alkalis, for example the method described in GOST 19810-85. Glass medical. Method for determination of alkali resistance. The method consists of exposing the glass to a boiling mixture of equal volumes of a solution of sodium carbonate (Na CO) concentration of 0.5 mol/DM and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration of 1 mol/DM and determining the relationship of mass loss of the glass sample after the test to the unit area of the surface of the sample.
The disadvantage of this method is the fact that it is not possible to determine the composition and structure of products of interaction of glass with alkaline components.
Also known a method of determination of alkali resistance of glass fiber described in the work of Zak, F. A., Physico-chemical properties of glass fibre�. M: Wasteheat, 1962. 224 C. the Fiber is introduced into the mortar samples-beams, and determine the change in strength of specimens under tension depending on time in comparison with the same samples without fiber.
This method also makes it impossible to determine the composition and structure of the products of the reaction between the fiber and alkali.
These methods are essentially incomplete models of the process under investigation.
Criterion alkali resistance of glass fiber in accordance with the above methods is to change the size of the glass sample or changing the diameter of an optical fiber in the alkaline solution, measured under the microscope. However, the interaction of the fiber with model cement does not take into account neither the composition of the cement, the influence of the products of the interaction of minerals of cement with water, no real balance of system components "fiberglass-cement-water".
Closest to the proposed method is described in the article Sarakinos K. A. and Zamkovoy E. N. Study of the process of leaching of mineral fibers in a cement environment. / / Science. Technology. Innovation: proceedings of all. sci. Conf. - Novosibirsk, 2012. According to the study of stability of fiberglass is produced in contact with the real component, which is one of the products of hardening of cement is calcium hydroxide. After exposure of restoreamerica calcium determine the diameter of the optical fiber. The criterion of intensity of interaction with fiberglass hardening concrete is the change in fiber diameter. This method is adopted for the prototype.
The features of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed invention: the interaction of an optical fiber with a corrosive environment within specified time; subsequent determination of the diameter of an optical fiber; about the durability of fiberglass is judged by the change in the diameter of the parts free from reaction products of the fiber compared with the diameter of the original fiber.
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of determining the composition and structure of products of interaction.
The object of the invention is to provide a method of research of durability of the optical fiber to interact with the cement stone, which allows to determine the composition and structure of the products of this interaction.
The task was solved due to the fact that in the known method for studying the durability of fiberglass to aggressive environments, including the interaction of fiber with a corrosive environment within specified time and subsequent determination of the diameter of an optical fiber, to change the diameter of the parts free from reaction products of the fiber compared with the diameter of the original fiber is judged on the strength of an optical fiber according to the invention in Kutch�as aggressive media used cement stone, in this pre-fiberglass glued on a plastic plate, put it in a form for the preparation of cement samples and pour cement paste, and put in the form of a plastic plate glued with optical fiber so that the fiber was in contact with cement paste, after the necessary period of hardening cement samples extracted from the mold, separating the plastic plate glued with fiberglass and fiber from the plate, the fiber is then examined using x-ray analysis and electron microscopy, determining the elemental composition and structure of products of interaction of fibers with the cement stone.
The features of the proposed technical solution, distinctive features of the solution according to the prior art: as the aggressive medium is cement stone; pre-bonded fiberglass on plastic plate; put it in a form for the preparation of cement samples and pour cement paste; put in the form of a plastic plate glued with optical fiber so that the fiber was in contact with cement paste; after the necessary period of hardening cement samples extracted from the mold; separating the plastic plate glued with fiberglass; separate the fiber from the plate; examine the fiber through a rent�espectrales analysis and electron microscopy, determining the elemental composition and structure of products of interaction of fibers with the cement stone.
Pre-gluing fiberglass to plastic plate gives the possibility of extracting fibres from hardening of cement in any period of hardening of the samples.
The introduction of optical fiber in the cement paste at the time of molding of a cement sample and the presence of fibers in the sample during the whole period of hardening will determine the composition and structure of products of interaction of fibers with the cement stone in any period.
The proposed method is illustrated by drawings, shown in Fig.1-7.
Fig.1 shows a sample label.
Fig.2 - rasplavlennyi the sample is a cube with a liner.
Fig.3 shows the structure of the surface of the glass fibers after contact with the cement stone within 28 days.
Fig.4 - the results of x-ray elemental analysis of the raw fiber.
Fig.5 - results of x-ray elemental analysis of the raw fibers after 28 days of contact with the hardening of cement.
Fig.6 - diameter optical fiber to the experiment.
Fig.7 - the surface of the optical fiber after the interaction with the cement stone. Visible area free from tumors whose diameter can be measured.
Method research of durability of fiberglass to the effects of aggression�VNOM environment is accomplished in the following sequence.
Pre-made samples in-ear (Fig.1). For this optical fiber is glued to a plastic plate. As an aggressive environment using cement stone. Put the samples in the form for the preparation of cement samples and pour cement paste. The specimen (plate glued with optical fiber) is inserted into the form so that the fiber is in contact with cement paste on one side and another side in contact with the plastic plate. The place of attaching the fibers to the plate should be above the level of the cement paste in the form.
After hardening of the cement samples within a specified time (usually 3, 7, 14, 28 days, 3, 6, 12 months or more) are extracted from the form, splitting the samples in the plane of the plate (Fig.2). Next, separate the plastic plate glued with fiberglass and separate the fiber from the plate. Then examine the fiber under electron microscope, producing photographs of the structure (Fig.3) and specifying a parallel x-ray elemental chemical analysis of the products of interaction of the fiber with cement (Fig.4, 5) and the diameter of the fiber. The intensity of interaction between fibers is judged by the change in the diameter of the parts free from reaction products of the fiber compared with the diameter of the fiber (Fig.6, 7).
The advantage of the inventive method consists in t�m, what it allows you to monitor the changes of the diameter of the fiber and determine the composition and structure of products of interaction of the fiber with cement.
Method research of durability of fiberglass to aggressive environments, including the interaction of fiber with a corrosive environment within specified time and subsequent determination of the diameter of an optical fiber, to change the diameter of the parts free from reaction products of the fiber compared with the diameter of the original fiber is judged on the strength of an optical fiber, characterized in that as an aggressive medium is cement stone, fiberglass pre-glued on a plastic plate, put it in a form for the preparation of cement samples and pour cement paste, and put in the form of a plastic plate glued with optical fiber so that the fiber was in contact with cement paste, after the necessary period of hardening cement samples extracted from the mold, separating the plastic plate glued with fiberglass and fiber from the plate, the fiber is then examined using x-ray analysis and electron microscopy, determining the elemental composition and structure of products of interaction of fibers with the cement stone.
FIELD: testing technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular to determining the parameters of deformation of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading to a level not exceeding the tensile strength of concrete to compression Rb and extension Rbt. Essence: securing a test concrete sample in the form of a prism in the jaws of the test stand is carried out using a centring device which provides a central application of load during loading. The force and deformation of the prism in time is registered by using the dynamometer and the strain-gauge station. The multiple static or dynamic loading is performed by rotating and short-term changing the diameter of the axis in the place of junction of the lever and the compensating element.
EFFECT: simplification of the test method, expanding the functional capabilities of the experimental determination of the static-dynamic characteristics of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading, which consists in alternating application of static and dynamic loads on the sample.
SUBSTANCE: method is realised by fixation of an experimental concrete sample in the form of a prism in clamps of a test bench using an alignment device, providing for central application of stretching load in process of loading, and registration of a force and deformations of the sample in time using a dynamometer and a strain gauge station during loading executed via a lever system in two stages: at the first stage - stepped static loading of the sample to the specified level by means of laying of piece weights onto a load platform, at the second one - instant or stepped dynamic additional loading or unloading by means of short-term variation of the axis diameter in the point of force transfer from the lever to the compensating element, setting, if necessary, the value of movements in the elastic element.
EFFECT: simplified methodology and increased validity and reliability of test results.
5 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to test methods of porous water-saturated bodies. It provides for production of a series of concrete specimens, saturation of specimens with water, measurement of specimens, determination of their initial volume, their frosting/defrosting to specified temperatures and recording of deformation. In addition, long-term strength limit of each specimen is determined by a non-destructive method under tension conditions. After defrosting, relative residual deformation of specimens is determined and energy dissipated in unit volume of each specimen is determined during its frosting/defrosting. Then, they are loaded under conditions of uniaxial compression to an extreme load meeting short-term strength limit; energy dissipated in unit volume of the specimen is determined during its compression to an extreme load, and as per the obtained results, grade is calculated as per freeze resistance of each specimen. Grade of concrete as to freeze resistance is determined as an arithmetic mean for grades of specimens.
EFFECT: increasing flexibility, reducing labour intensity and enlarging the number of hardware.
SUBSTANCE: previously prepared samples with various quantity of a filler in a highly dispersed condition for a dry construction mix are placed into a hollow part of metal washers, placed on a metal plate, are compacted by any available method under permanent load of up to 5 MPa per 1 cm2 of sample surface for 10-15 seconds, then marks are applied on the surface of each sample in the form of drops of a solution of various concentration, wetting angles of samples are measured θ, a curve of dependence is built cosθ-1=f(1/σl), where σl - surface tension of the liquid, they determine the angle of inclination of this functional dependence a for each sample of different composition, the curve of dependence a is built on quantity of mix components, and by the point of break of the curve of dependence they define the optimal content of a modifier in the tested object.
EFFECT: reduced number of tests and higher accuracy of mixture composition selection.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage they determine process mode of manufacturing of ceramic items providing for required operability reserve. Using the produced operability reserve and knowing the suggested time, during which ceramic items must preserve strength parameters, they assess the permissible rated speed of produced reserves consumption. At the second stage, modelling conditions of real operation by means of reproduction of accelerated cyclic variations of temperature with simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors, they determine actual speed of consumption of the same reserves. Received results of rated permissible speed and actual speed produced for imitation of operation conditions are compared, and results are produced, making it possible to judge on ceramic items.
EFFECT: possibility to determine durability of ceramic items with regard to certain conditions of use.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of tests of cement plastering compounds for tensile strength under static loading. Substance: the value of the limit tensile strength is defined by testing steel beams with applied plastering compound according to the scheme of the double-point bend with smooth loading by small steps and fixation of the loading step corresponding to the moment of cracking, and the value of the limit tensile strength is calculated using the formula.
EFFECT: simplified technology for testing, exclusion of the necessity to apply strain metering facilities, higher accuracy of detection of limit tensile strength and completion of tests on plaster layers with specifically small thickness from several mm to 2-3 cm.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement of hardening concrete temperature at given time moments and calculation of concrete strength over three days for hardening in standard conditions by the formula:
EFFECT: reduced labour consumption of monitoring.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has at least two sealed chambers with a U-shaped pipe filled with water for releasing excess pressure in the chamber, inlet and outlet gas-distributing manifolds, filters for cleaning the gas-air medium collected from the chambers and the inside of each chamber is fitted with a ventilator and a bath with a saturated salt solution for creating and maintaining given relative air humidity inside the chamber, connected to the sealed chambers through the inlet gas-distributing manifold and, installed on pipes, electromagnetic valves, a carbon dioxide gas source, an automatic gas analyser with a gas flow activator, a gas distribution switch for alternately collecting samples from the chambers and transferring the samples to the gas analyser through the gas flow activator; the gas analyser is also connected to a computer for automatic monitoring of gas concentration in the sealed chambers and feeding gas into the chambers through the electromagnetic valves.
EFFECT: high information value and faster determination.
SUBSTANCE: previously they make at least two samples with different water-cement ratios, thermal cycling and cyclic compression of the sample with the least water-cement ratio are alternated until proportion is disturbed between relative residual deformation and number of cycles, the ratio is calculated between relative reduction of threshold load and relative residual deformation, the concrete grade of frost resistance is determined, as well as relative residual deformation εm, corresponding to reduction of the strength limit specified by the standard for the frost resistance grade of the investigated concrete, they alternate thermal cycling and cyclic compression of other samples with higher water-cement ratios until residual deformation is achieved εm, the number of cycles required for this purpose is accepted as the grade of concrete frost resistance with higher water-cement ratio, using the produced results, they calculate parameters of the function that approximates experimental results.
EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities for detection of concrete frost resistance dependence on water-cement ratio.
SUBSTANCE: in the method including drying of a sample to permanent mass, hydraulic insulation of its side surfaces and water saturation, nonwetting of the upper end surface of the sample is provided, and a light-reflecting water impermeable coating is applied on it, and continuous even water saturation is carried out via the bottom end surface of the sample, at the same time the sample is installed onto fixed supports inside a reservoir for water saturation, the reservoir is filled with water, and even contact is provided between the lower end surface of the sample with water during the entire cycle of measurements, then with the help of laser radiation a series of holographic interferograms is registered on a non-wetted surface of the sample in process of water saturation, at the same time position, speed and acceleration of moisture movement front are determined by comparison of changes in the field of movements of the registered surface, produced according to interferograms, with the rated field of movements of a geometrically similar sample.
EFFECT: improved information value and reliability of detection.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes making a pellet holder with samples of the analysed glass fibres from epoxy resin and performing subsequent analysis of the samples on a scanning electron microscope, wherein samples of the analysed glass fibres are placed vertically on the pellet holder made of epoxy resin, after which the pellet holder is irradiated with X-rays and immersed simultaneously with the pellet holder containing reference samples of the glass fibres into the working chamber of the scanning electron microscope with an optical detection channel; the lateral distribution profile of germanium impurities on the cross-section of the glass fibre is then visually determined from the appearance and size of concentric annular luminescent areas with different luminescence intensity on the end surfaces of the analysed and reference glass fibres.
EFFECT: providing an express and visual method, which meets metrological requirements, for determining the lateral distribution profile of germanium impurities in the core and in boundary areas of the cladding of germanium-doped glass fibre adjacent to the core.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to gas-charging container, atom probe device containing the above container and to the analysis method of hydrogen position in material using that atom probe device. Container includes sample holder that retains needle-shaped material and has thermal contact to needle-shaped material, and cooling part that cools down the needle-shaped material and sample holder. Also, container includes the part supplying gaseous deuterium, which charges the gaseous deuterium to needle-shaped material, and heating part that warms up the end part of needle-shaped material and blocks the heat after heating, when gaseous deuterium has been charged to needle-shaped material. Needle-shaped material is cooled and retained with the sample holder. End part of needle-shaped material is cooled by blocking the heat released with the heating part during cooling of the sample holder with the cooling part after the needle-shaped material has been heated with the heating part.
EFFECT: preventing the contamination of the sample at measurement with atom probe and protecting deuterium against sample leakage.
7 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed electron detector represents a convexo-convex optically transparent disk with conical recess at its center. Note here that disk surface facing the beam of electrons to be detected is coated by layers. Outer layer makes a diffraction grating, while inner layer makes a scintillator to emit photons due to falling of detected electrons. Note also that conical recess surface is coated by reflecting metal film. Waveguide is arranged on disk external rib to transmit photons into analysing receiver.
EFFECT: efficient collection of detected electrons and increased number of photons coming into waveguide after emission from scintillator.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: purpose of the invention is to upgrade quality of generating a topographical image of an object in a digital form by means of obtaining a micro relief of the surface due to topography contrast conditioned by collecting and registration of secondary electrons with a probe equipped with measuring head of a scanning tunnel microscope (STM); emission of the said electrons results as an inelastic interaction of a focused electron beam of SEM (electro scan microscope). Collecting and registration of secondary electrons is performed with the probe of the measuring head of STM located at a minimal distance from the surface of an object which allows registering current of secondary electrons. At that registering is carried out synchronised with a scanning mode of the electro scan microscope.
EFFECT: upgraded accuracy of topography image generation of an object.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: physical methods for analyzing material composition and structure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method that can be used for secondary ion mass spectrometry to analyze structure and energy state of material surface layer and in particular to build structure and to enhance wear resistance of new materials designed for manufacturing important parts includes irradiation of specimen surface with primary ion beam in vacuum chamber and measurement of secondary ion currents to identify material component having maximal percentage; in the process at least two specimens having different content of doping and modifying additives are analyzed at the same time and secondary ion current is measured for maximal-percentage component while varying primary beam energy; dependence obtained is used to find maximal current for each specimen; structure and energy characteristics of solid material specimens are evaluated from results of comparison of values obtained.
EFFECT: ability of obtaining data on relative variations in structure and energy characteristics of materials being analyzed.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, diagnostics, assessment of the efficacy of osteoporosis medications. Diagnosing osteoporosis and controlling the progression thereof are implemented by X-ray absorption method using an osteometers; a diagnostic criterion of osteoporosis is the presence of cavitary lesions in trabecular bones; the lesion closure behaviour enables stating the efficacy of the medication or medications.
EFFECT: method provides the objective diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of the effective action of the osteoprotective medication or medications, with assessment of a severity of the disease not by mineral density, but by the presence of the cavities in the trabecular bones.
3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: there performed is a core sample preparation, modelling of core sample reservoir conditions, joint filtering of salt water and oil through core sample, measurement of intermediate intensiveness of X-rays passed through the sample during filtering and determination of water-saturation by expressions. Note that the intensity of X-rays passing the sample with initial and final water-saturation is measured, the reference signal is obtained. The value of residual water-saturation is obtained after filtering experiment of water evaporation from the sample at 110-160°C. The values of initial, residual water-saturation and reference signal are used for determination of intermediate water-saturation via certain mathematical relation.
EFFECT: reduction of time for core water-saturation measurement, increase of water-saturation values determination accuracy.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: double-spectrum illumination mode with separate selection of signals arising from radiation absorption in a background substance and signals arising from radiation absorption in overlapping layers of the background substance and inclusion substances is executed, wherein the X-ray exposure procedure is carried out not in one but two mutually perpendicular geometric projections, which enable mutual quantitative comparison of the mass thickness of the inclusion in one of the projections with the value of the linear dimension of that inclusion in the other projection and determine density of the inclusion substance from their ratio.
EFFECT: high probability of detecting hazardous inclusions and significant reduction of the probability of false alarm.
3 cl, 1 dwg