Adsorption-type thermal pump

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal pump. Thermal pump comprises multiple hollow elements provided with adsorbent. Said hollow elements house working fluid displacing between adsorbent and phase transition area. Hollow elements force the flow of heat transfer fluid in fluid circuit (101) by valve device over said hollow elements for them to be brought in thermal contact with fluid. Flow over hollow elements is alternated in cycles. At least two hollow elements, in every position of said valve, are flown over by fluid in parallel and at least two hollow elements are flown over successively. In every position of said valve, at least two sets of multiple hollow elements are flown over in parallel. At least one set of multiple hollow elements is arranged directly upstream or downstream of heat exchange (105, 106). The number of hollow elements flown over simultaneously in parallel makes at least one fourth, preferably, one third of the quantity of hollow elements flown over successively.

EFFECT: expanded applications.

18 cl, 17 dwg

 

The invention relates to an adsorption heat pump of the type in accordance with the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims.

WO 2007/068481 A1 describes an adsorption heat pump, consisting of several hollow elements with respectively one area of adsorption/desorption and field evaporation/condensation or phase transition region. The hollow elements are streamlined in each field of a heat transfer fluid, wherein the hollow contact element relative to the fluid flow varies cyclically with the location of the valves.

The task of the invention consists in the creation of such an adsorption heat pump that has a particularly wide application.

This problem is solved for a given heat pump by signs of paragraph 1 of the claims. Through parallel fluid flow through a number of hollow elements in the field of adsorption (adsorption heat pump) can be achieved considerable alignment of the temperature of the hollow elements on the side of sorption, which will be expanded mainly occurring thermodynamic cyclic process.

This can be used, for example, to increase the temperature lift of the heat pump. In particular, in this context may be relatively small temperature�th rise. Under temperature rise in this case refers to the temperature range in the workflow or between the low temperature heat source (NQ) and medium temperature chiller (MS), that is, in the case of use as a cooling device in a low evaporation temperature and/or high temperature reverse cooling (respectively condensing temperature and temperature of adsorption). Under the temperature shift in this calculation is the temperature range in the ascending process, namely the temperature range between (high temperature) heat source and reverse cooling, respectively, the average temperature of heat sink in case of cooling mode, respectively, the temperature of the return cooling. Particularly advantageously using the corresponding solution of the invention to increase the ratio between temperature rise and temperature shift without severely reducing the range of the loading process, so that an extended area of application.

Additionally, the invention can be used in order for a given temperature rise to increase the useful range of the load and thus also thermal COP (coefficient of efficiency) of the device.

In accordance with one of preferred forms of the invention, herewith provided�, in each position of a valve device, at least two groups of a plurality of hollow elements, respectively, are washed in parallel, where at least one of the groups is located directly behind the heat exchanger in the flow direction. The heat exchangers are located in the exchange with the respective thermal reservoirs at different levels of temperatures, for example a heat source on one side and the tank return cooling from the other side. Examples of the heat source can be solar batteries module or received by the heat of a thermal power station unit. As for the tank return cooling, it may be, for example, external air, wherein the corresponding heat exchanger makes it possible to "dry" heat blowout of the environment.

In General seeks to optimize the relationship between the temperature shift and the temperature rise provided that the number of simultaneously streamlined hollow elements is at least approximately one-quarter, in particular at least one third of the total number of consistently streamlined hollow elements.

According to the most preferred form of the invention in this case provides that the hollow elements in changing the fluid circuit through the valve Optionals�STV region of the phase transition are washed through the heat transfer fluid (coolant) region of the phase transition, whereby the hollow elements are introduced into thermal contact in the region of phase transition, wherein the washing of the hollow elements of the subsequent fluid is cyclically changed. Due to the partial parallel flow not only in the field of adsorption, but also in the region of phase transition can be achieved a further increase in temperature rise. Depending on the specific equipment, the fluid circuit side of the phase transition is completely separated from the adsorbent party, for further optimization can be applied to various liquids. In the specific case of the fluid contours can also be connected to each other, for example, for the purpose of the joint and efficient use of these heat exchangers as return of coolers. Examples for particularly suitable heat transfer fluid of the heat pump, corresponding to the invention, are water-glycol mixture, respectively, with additives for protection against corrosion, as they are used in cooling circuits.

It is appropriate as provided for fluid circuit side of the adsorption, and also for fluid circuit side of the phase change in each case its valve device for cyclically alternating the flow of the hollow elements. In General, it is also advisable that both parties were controlled by the same single vent�to enhance device. The invention basically includes all designs of valve installation.

In preferred detailed view are streamlined liquid region of the phase transition, at least at every position especially valve device region of a phase transition of at least two parallel hollow element in the region of phase transition. Wherein at least two of the hollow element are washed successively one after another. In a preferred, but not required further improvement, provided that in every position especially the further provisions of valves at least two groups of a plurality of hollow elements in the region of phase transition parallel to each time washed by the liquid region of the phase transition, the heat exchanger is located immediately before or after, at least one group of a plurality of hollow elements..

Particularly effective according to the concept of the invention a heat pump in which both the sorption and on the side of the phase transition is washed several hollow elements in parallel and several hollow elements sequentially. While these various washed by hollow elements must be installed in a certain phase position relative to the two sides. So can particularly preferably be washed in parallel with each d�yeah those hollow members of the group, which in their fields of adsorption, on the side of the phase changes every time sequentially washed, and Vice versa. For fine optimization of heat pump is that the prescribed procedure for washing hollow elements on the side of sorption in parallel (in series) and on the side of the phase changes in series (in parallel) may have in relation to each other, the phase shift, for example on one or two elements. Alternative or additionally, the time point of switching the valves relative to each other can be moved for a certain time step. This may be taken into account thermal inertia of the system.

According to a preferred form of execution of the invention in a predetermined position of installation of the valves, a portion of the hollow elements is connected to a part of the circuit, and heat transfer fluid with additional circulation pump circulates on the part of the circuit. As a result, basically, you will create a degree of freedom to the mass flows of the different groups in parallel and sequentially washed by hollow elements at least partially set independently from each other. In the first possible detailed configuration there are only two of the circulation pump, and the first part of the loop circulates through the first circulating pump and the second part of the circuit resistance�wife with the first part of the circuit and circulates through the second circulating pump. As a result, a good compromise is achieved between structural complexity and manageability of mass flows. For optimal determination of mass flows for different groups of hollow elements, washed in parallel or in series, can also be envisaged that there are three parts of the contour that are separated and each time one of the three circulating pumps are driven.

When low-cost alternative designs may also be provided only one circulation pump, which is easy to distribute mass flows to the hollow elements is achieved through splitters.

In another optimized shape of the heat pump at least every time one of the hollow elements, especially in the region of phase transition is not washed a heat transfer fluid. In a preferred detailed configuration besides nevmyvany hollow member located between each time a group of hollow elements, receiving heat at the phase transition, and a group of hollow elements, radiating heat in the phase transition. As a result, creates an adiabatic zone between the regions of phase transitions of adjacent hollow elements with a particularly large temperature difference, whereby unwanted heat flow decreases, and the efficiency of warm�new pump in General is improving.

In a preferred form of execution of the invention, the valve device includes at least one rotary valve with a cylindrical housing and placed in it with the possibility of rotation of the rotary valve body. Thus, as a rule, as a party of sorption and the phase changes are of one and the same valve device that can be similarly or identically constructed.

In a preferred further development of simple and efficient design, the rotary valve has a mechanical inputs and outputs for connection to a separate hollow elements.

A single preferred form of construction of the rotary valve of the heat pump provides that the valve body constitutes an annular space, and at least two axial channel included in the annular space and is connected in parallel with the connected hollow elements, and at the same time provides at least one radial bore annular space, through which annular space is connected, at least two axial channels. This enables a simple implementation of a parallel connection of groups of hollow elements through the axial channels, and also alternate connected in parallel hollow elements by further rotation of the valve body. RA�Yelnya connect the annular space is advantageously connected to the heat exchangers, which are respectively connected before or after with parallel-connected hollow elements, depending on the flow direction.

Object of the invention is solved for mentioned at the beginning of the heat pump, also with signs of paragraph 13 of the claims. Due to the fact that at least the first part of the hollow element is located downstream from the first circulation pump and the second part of the hollow element is located downstream from the second circulating pump, it is possible to achieve, in particular, a particularly effective heat exchange for a given structural size. In accordance with one of preferred forms of the invention covers at least one part of at least two hollow element, which are arranged parallel to each other downstream of the corresponding circulation pump. Usually provides a large number of hollow elements, for example 8 or 12, and each of the parts in each respective working position contains two or more hollow element. Under appropriate requirements may also happen that at least one of the parts includes only the minimum number in one hollow element.

In a particularly preferred form of execution of the invention provides that the two parts of the hollow elements belong to at least �bottom mounting position of the valves to the two partial circuits of the liquid, separated from each other. As a result, it becomes possible to achieve a particularly high power density heat pump. Particularly preferably, the separate parts of the circuit can have a different number of hollow elements, depending on what kind of heat source or separate cooling circuits consist of the exchange. Is, for example, in connecting the first part of the circuit with high-temperature heat source (HQ) and the second part of the contour of the medium-temperature cooler (MS), then it is preferable to a smaller number of hollow elements of the first part of the circuit in comparison with the second part of the circuit. The distribution of hollow elements between the two parts of the contour is carried out preferably in a ratio of between 1:3 and 1:1, more preferably between about 2:5 and about 4:5. If the total number of hollow elements allows a particularly advantageous distribution of 1:2.

In alternative or complementary form of execution of the invention provides that the first part of the hollow element belongs to a first fluid circuit and the second part of the hollow element belongs to the second part of the circuit, and both parts of the circuit are connected with each other, at least one hollow element. In the result, there is an effective heat exchange, and therefore, good power density, and besides who�can increase overall efficiency due to the inverse of the generated heat of the mating parts of the circuits. In a particularly preferred configuration is available and the connection of the respective hollow element parts of the contour with the corresponding other part of the circuit. This may occur, for example, via the inflow connection of the output of the respective hollow element with a circulating pump another part of the circuit.

Further, in General it is preferable to optimize the heat pump can be provided that the valve device comprises a transverse fixtures and/or throttle elements for wrapping individual connected hollow elements that lead to maximization of return produced heat.

In General, it is preferably provided further that the heat pump in accordance with paragraphs 13 to 17 has, in addition, typical features of any of paragraphs 1-12, to make possible further optimization.

Other advantages and features of the invention are derived from the subsequently described examples of embodiments and from the dependent claims.

The following sections will describe many examples of embodiment of the invention and explained in more detail by the attached drawings.

Fig. 1 shows a switching circuit of the first example implementation of a heat pump according to the invention.

Fig. 2 shows a chart of temperature/pressure with cyclic side processes of sorption and the sides of the phase transition �alboga pump of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 shows an enlarged schematic view of the rotary valve to control the flow of fluid side through sorption heat pump from Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 shows a longitudinal section through a schematic illustration of the rotary valve of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 shows a cross section of the rotary valve of Fig. 4 along line A-A.

Fig. 6 shows a cross section of the rotary valve of Fig. 4 along line b-B.

Fig. 7 shows an enlarged schematic view of the rotary valve to control the flow side of the phase transition fluid through the heat pump from Fig. 1.

Fig. 8 shows a longitudinal section through a schematic illustration of the rotary valve of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9 shows a switching diagram of a second example of an embodiment of a heat pump according to the invention.

Fig. figure 10 shows the temperature/pressure process circuit side of sorption and the sides of the phase transition of the heat pump from Fig. 9.

Fig. 11 shows a switching circuit of the third example embodiment of a heat pump according to the invention.

Fig. 12 shows a switching diagram of a fourth example embodiment of a heat pump according to the invention.

Fig. 13 shows a switching circuit of the fifth example embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 14 shows to�mutation scheme of the sixth example embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 15 shows an enlarged schematic view of the rotary valve to control the flow side of sorption of the liquid through the heat pump from Fig. 14.

Fig. 16 shows an enlarged schematic view of the rotary valve to control the flow side of the phase transition fluid through the heat pump from Fig. 14,

Fig. 17 shows an idealized process control in the form of a rectangular schemes by switching from Fig. 13-16 in the form of a diagram in the coordinates Log p - 1/T extended range of saturation.

The heat pump, which presents a functional schematic way in Fig. 1, includes a variety, in this case 12, the hollow elements, which are preferably of identical design and are arranged one next to the other. The exact hardware realization of such hollow elements from the point of view of the equipment is known and presented, for example, in WO 2007/068481 A1. Tubular elements may be, for example, in the form of sealed longitudinal bodies, and in terminal areas provided on one side of the adsorbent, on the other hand means for accumulation of fluids, such as capillary structures.

Each of the 12 hollow elements is respectively the area of sorption (SZ1 to SZ12), which is shown in the left half of Fig. 1. In the field of sorption is accordingly to some�icesto absorbent, such as, for example, activated carbon. In addition, each of the hollow elements shown in the right half of Fig. 1., has the region of phase transition (PZ1 to PZ12) in the form capillary structures.

Contained in the drawings, reference signs 1 to 12 respectively refer to the numbering of the hollow elements and/or their areas of sorption and areas of phase transitions depending on the context.

In the hollow elements accordingly concluded a certain amount of working medium, in this case methanol, so that the working environment can alternate between the absorbent and capillary structures depending on the temperatures achieved in the field of sorption and/or the phase transition.

On the side of sorption (Fig. 1 left) and on the side of the phase transition (Fig. 1 right) respectively provided circuits 101, 102 of the fluid through which are washed by the fluid that transports heat, a separate area of the sorption and phase transitions of the hollow elements. To this end, in each case, there is one circulating pump 103, 103',103" of the fluid circuit and the location of valves, not shown in Fig. 1, through which the hollow elements, depending on their condition, cyclically further included in the fluid circuit.

On the side of sorption is carried out, along with the heat exchange fluid area�mi SZ1-SZ12 sorption, also the exchange with the heat source HQ (the heat reservoir of high temperature through the heat exchanger 105 and a heat source, MS (medium heat reservoir temperature) through the heat exchanger 106 as cooler return.

On the side of the phase transition is carried out along with the heat exchange fluid area of phase transitions PZ1-PZ12 well as the exchange with the source of heat NQ (heat reservoir at a lower temperature) through the heat exchanger 107 and the source MS heat (heat reservoir average temperature) through the heat exchanger 106'. Depending on the form of implementation, particularly the medium-temperature heat sources, may be identical, for example in the form of ambient air. The corresponding heat exchangers 106, 106' can then be structurally integrated or to be a single heat exchanger, for example, when connecting two circuits 101, 102 of the liquid.

In one possible use of the heat pump for air conditioning of residential buildings, the heat exchanger 107 corresponds to the evaporator, which is designed for cooling the air stream to a temperature level NQ, possibly below the dew point for the simultaneous dehydration of the air. Heat reservoir of MS may then correspond to the external air. The HQ source of heat may be, for example, waste heat power plant unit or also warm Solna�module. Finally, then, the cooled air from the MS to the level of NQ ("temperature increase" MS-NQ) due to the heat flow from the HQ level to the level of MS ("temperature shift" HQ-MS).

A cyclic process in Fig. 2, which is illustrated in the chart isostere, laid out here on 12 stages, which are offset in time to each other will be carried out each hollow element. Since the number of partial processes corresponds to the number of hollow elements, each partial process there is only one hollow element that extends this partial process. To simplify, the time of consideration chosen so that the number of the hollow element corresponds to the number of partial process. After a certain time interval, each hollow element is switched further by one step in the process and so on, until, while using 12 steps won't repeat the whole cycle.

From Fig. 1 it is obvious that heat transfer fluid flows around the hollow elements by sorption partially in parallel and partially in series in the direction of reducing the number of hollow elements. As a result, the stages of the process occurs with changing temperature of the adsorbent connection type counter flow hollow elements (decreasing the number of hollow elements) on the further switching of the hollow elements (increasing floor rooms�x elements). In contrast, the hollow elements with the same temperature sorption will objectsa in parallel.

According to the right part of Fig. 1 there are also on the side of the phase transition (evaporation zone/seal) region with parallel flow and consistent flow around the hollow elements, and the two are not streamlined hollow element (1 and 7).

As a result, from the point of view of the schematic there are 4 areas in the contour 101 of the liquid sorption zones (on the left in Fig. 1) and phase transition zones (to the right in Fig. 1), whose function will be described with reference to Fig. 2, first in General and then in detail:

The stages of the process from state 1 to state 5 in Fig. 2 include the extraction of high temperature, when the temperature decreases (1=>2: isothermic cooling & 2=>5: Isobaric adsorption). Attached to this phase of isothermal heat rejection with increasing pressure to state point 7 (isothermal adsorption). The stages of the process from state dots And 7 to characterize the heat supply with increasing temperature (7=>8: esoteric heating and 8=>11: Isobaric desorption). This joins the esoteric phase of heat supply by decreasing the pressure until you have reached a state 1 (isothermal desorption).

Additional information placed in parentheses in Fig. 1 to denote allstarecho element has the following meaning:

+Q: heat input, Q: heat transfer, And: adsorption, D: desorption, T: change in temperature; V: evaporation: condensation, (-): adiabatic phase.

Further details are described separately 12 stages of the process along the flow path side of sorption occurring in parallel processes occurring in parallel on the side of the phase transition starting from state point 1:

1. This condition is characterized by a fully desorbed and is still a hot area of sorption indicated (SZ1), which subsequently is cooled at constant pressure (isothermic). Thus, according to Fig. 1, the warmed heat transfer fluid coming from the connected field sorption (SZ2), is heated, before it then goes on to further heating to a high temperature heat source (HQ). Standing in the equilibrium pressure of the phase transition zone (PZ1) of the hollow element is not directly exposed to the coolant, causing it to adiabatically can be cooled without appreciable evaporation of the working medium from the state of V3 to the state of V1 (see Fig. 2).

2. When reaching the corner, paragraph 2 of the process, the area of phase transition will be washed with coolant coming from low-temperature heat source NQ, and the working medium evaporates at a low level (VI) evaporating pressure. At the same�military pre-cooled sorption region is washed slightly chilled work environment and thereby further cooled to a state of point 3, absorbing the evaporated working environment. Adsorption heat, which is still at a sufficiently high temperature level is supplied to the already relatively strongly heated transfer agent.

3. This adsorption process is first carried out at gradually lowering the water temperature to state point 4,

4. and continues bathed before flooring the item up to the state of point 5, with constantly low temperature of evaporation, but decreasing the temperature of adsorption.

5. Starting from state point 5, the hollow element on the side of sorption, in accordance with Fig. 1, is bounded directly by the liquid substantially re-cooled to ambient temperature (MS). By washing the phase transition slightly warmed coolant partial intermediate circuit ZK is lifted evaporating pressure to the level V2. The resulting increase of pressure in the sorption operates so that it can absorb a working environment without raising the temperature to state point 6.

6. Also belonging to this partial process hollow element in parallel connection with the hollow element from stage 5 of the process is filled with fluid coming from the return of cooler 106 (medium temperature heat source MS) and having the lowest possible temperature. Since obl�nce phase transition is filled with even more hot fluid making the process of evaporation occurs primarily at the level V3 of pressure, the area of sorption can also absorb other working environment without reducing the temperature. The increased temperature of the liquid intermediate cycle ZK sides of the phase transition was achieved by condensing absorption heat from a later-described step 11 of the process. As a result of increased adsorption pressure adsorption region can absorb other working environment with almost constant temperature.

7. In paragraph 7 of condition reached maximum saturation region of adsorption and phase starts supplying heat inside the field of adsorption. Since the area of adsorption is almost at ambient temperature, to heat up enough moderately warm liquid, which transfers its residual heat to the area of adsorption, whereby the temperature even further approaching the ambient temperature, before the return cooler 106 (MS) for cooling to ambient temperature will be increased. Since the relevant region of the phase change PZ7 due to the incident flux remains adiabatically, the pressure of the working medium increases almost isothermic to state point 8.

8. When this pressure level is supplied to the further heat at a higher temperature, Reza�the adds which the working medium is desorbed and condensed by correspondingly high temperature level of condensation (K6). As the diagram shows in Fig. 2, it is approximately at the level of both the final temperature of adsorption, resulting in the dissipation of heat of adsorption and heat of condensation can be used total return cooler 106, 106'. Due to the limited temperature of the liquid, this process ends at the point 9 of the condition.

9. In the next stage of the process, the hollow element is desorbed with a slightly higher temperature of the liquid in the state of point 10, and the region of the phase change cooled at the same temperature level K6 in parallel with the liquid, which is also cooled to the temperature level of the environment (MS).

10. This process continues with even more high temperature desorption state of point 11, and further the heat of condensation at the level of KB is given in returning the cooled liquid.

11. In the next stage of the process, the adsorption region is desorbed directly with the temperature of the heat source HQ, and the temperature of condensation in the change of phases is reduced to the level K5. According to Fig. 1, this temperature is set with pre-chilled coolant separate intermediate cycle ZK. Thus there is essentially isothermal desorption region of the adsorption at the point 12 of the process.

12. This process continues on the next�m stage of the process due to what if the same maximum liquid temperature for the desorption level of condensation pressure and the temperature are still going to crash. This is achieved in that the region of phase change directly filled with mostly pre-cooled coolant from stage 5 of the process the individual intermediate cycle ZK. This intermediate stage ends when reaching the start point 1.

In the above example considered a heat pump with both the sorption and phase transition respectively washed by a separate hollow elements parallel to each other, and some hollow elements sequentially one after another. In particular, the following groups:

Side of sorption in parallel: SZ5 SZ6 with, SZ11 SZ12 with.

Side of sorption consistently: SZ10 in SZ7 and in SZ4 SZ1.

Side of the phase transition in parallel: in PZ2 PZ4 and PZ8 in PZ10.

Side of the phase transition sequence: PZ5 with PZ6 and PZ11 with PZ12.

In particular, first of all, it is those groups of hollow elements which are connected on the side of sorption in parallel, on the side of the phase transition, respectively, in sequence.

Figures 3-6 show various views of a preferred structural implementation of a valve device for controlling the contour 101 of the liquid side of sorption Fig. 1. Valve device�in is the only rotary cylindrical valve housing 109 and installed in it a rotary casing 110, which is mounted on the shaft 110A rotatably fixed in the housing 109.

Fig. 3 shows the scan of the rotary body 110, which will be especially clear to the principle of work. Rotatable housing 110 has a total of four rotating annular space 111, which is sealed by sliding seals 112 relative to the housing 109. External radial holes 113 connects the annular space 111 from the outside with the corresponding heat exchangers 105, 106, so that each input and output of heat exchangers 105, 106 is in connection with one of the four annular spaces 111.

Rotatable housing 110 also has an axial through channels 114, which completely pass through it. In this regard, some isolated channels can be combined into one single channel (respectively branched), such as if the hollow elements 11 and 12 to the hollow element 10 (compare Fig. 1).

Rotatable housing has a centerline covert channels 116, which through inner radial holes 115 are opened in one of the annular spaces 111. In the expanded view in Fig. 3, these openings are shown as a top view of the ends of the shafts, and the shafts of arrows. Thus obtained compounds between one or more hollow elements and one of the heat exchangers 105, 106.

Cyclic�ski-varying switching is carried out by stepwise further rotation of the housing 110, resulting in end openings 117 in the housing 109 alternately overlap with axial holes through channels 114 and hidden channels 116 in the rotary housing. In the end region of overlap may be provided suitable means 121 of the seal, for example, ceramic washer seal.

In the Central region 118 of the rotary body may be provided (not shown) of the spring elements, which 119 first rotary body and the second part 120 of the rotary body will be pressing each other and, respectively, to press the axial end of the tool 121 of the seal. The connection flow channel 114 in the Central region 118 can occur through the hose elements. Branching and merging can be performed, for example, in one possible implementation, through the tubular elements.

The numbering of the end connections on the housing 109 corresponds to compounds with hollow elements on the side of sorption, respectively, the switching diagram according to Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 shows the rotary valve 108 as a gate device side of the phase transition. Design and function substantially similar to valve 108 side of sorption. Thanks to the various switches, rotary valve 108 side of the phase transition has just seven ring-p�of astranet 111 respectively with three internal radial holes 115 in the rotary body 110. Circulating pump 103 is connected to two of a total of six external radial holes 113, in order to use an intermediate circuit ZK.

Fig. 9 shows another example implementation of the heat pump in accordance with the invention. Unlike the first example, here on the side of sorption respectively connected three hollow element in parallel with each other, in particular, the group SZ4 to SZ6 SZ10 and up to SZ12. This can be achieved a further increase in the ratio of temperature rise to the temperature shift. Similarly, on the side of the phase transition are the same groups of hollow elements (PZ4 PZ6 to and PZ10 to PZ12) connected in series in the intermediate circuit.

Further improvement of temperature increase, which can be achieved by the example according to Fig. 9, are obtained by comparing the charts are placed in Fig. 10 with the corresponding diagram of the first example implementation (Fig. 2).

In principle, in the sense of the invention depending on the requirements, any distribution of hollow elements which are connected in parallel and in series, can exist to affect the temperature rise and temperature shift. In order to further optimize the increase of temperature, particularly preferably at least one third of the total number of hollow elements was �otkluchena in parallel on the side of sorption. In the first variant of implementation, this is exactly the case with four hollow elements connected in parallel, of the total number of twelve hollow elements. In the second variant of implementation according to Fig. 9, exactly half hollow elements are connected in parallel on the side of sorption.

In the two embodiments described above, in each case, a total of three circulating pump on the side of the phase transition, so that both groups of hollow elements which are connected in parallel, and an intermediate circuit can be set separately from each other with respect to the main fluid flow. As a result, in particular, a particularly accurate adjustment of the heat pump can be carried out with the aim of optimizing its effectiveness.

On the other hand, only one circulating pump 103' there on the side of sorption, where the main flow of the liquid is divided or combined in accordance with the branching in lines or installing valves. This cost-effective solution relative to the optimal corresponding main thread gives to adjust a few opportunities.

Fig. 11 is a third example of implementation, in which the switching side of sorption corresponds to the second example in Fig. 9. However, on the side of the phase lane�stroke no more of the intermediate circuit, and all the hollow elements included in the unified fluid circuit, which is driven by using only one circulating pump 103". In addition, there are two groups of hollow elements connected in parallel and the groups of hollow elements which are connected in series similarly to the example shown in Fig. 9. The example shown in Fig. 11, is particularly economical due to the small number of circulating pumps 103". It can be preferably used particularly when the hollow elements are made of several sub-modules and/or high temperature heating in the external heat exchangers are acceptable or desirable. This is particularly advantageous when using an external heat exchangers in cross - counterflow connection, preferably for air as the heat source and/or cooler.

Fig. 12 is another example of execution, wherein the selected compound with only one circulation pump 103" on the side of the phase transition, as in the example according to Fig. 11. On the other hand, on the side of sorption of the selected combination of two partial circuits, which are mixed with each other and which are distributed by means of two circulation pumps. It also splits the main stream of fluid coming from one of the heat exchangers 105, 106 respectively�about three hollow element, however, return flows of these two modules in the form of the connected partial circuits again supplied directly to the heat exchanger. The main flow of fluid to only one of these three parallel hollow elements served on the following series-connected hollow elements. By controlling both the pump and/or not represented by flow restrictors, can to a great extent so set a contentious primary fluid flows in series and parallel-connected groups of hollow elements, however, you can refuse a third circulation pump.

Example, according to Fig. 12 corresponds to the invention at least in the scope of paragraphs 1 and 12.

It is clear that features of the examples of execution of the invention can be appropriately combined with each other depending on requirements. In particular this applies, in particular, for the proposed compounds with one, two or three circulation pumps that can be used depending on the requirements of both the sorption and phase transition.

For example, a scheme with three separate partial circuits, respectively, with three circulation pumps can be used on the side of the phase transition in the example shown in Fig. 1, and on the side of sorption. � this case, all hollow elements connected in parallel and connected directly with the heat source 105 (HQ) and the heat sink 106 (MS), leading back to the external heat transmitters. An intermediate circuit performs the recovery of heat when the temperature changes from the temperature of the desorption to a temperature of adsorption and returning via another pump.

In all the above embodiments, the connection, the connection profile and the temperature profile is shifted by stepwise rotation of the rotary valve 108 in the direction of decreasing the numbering of the modules. You will additionally want to pay attention to equally directed passingan serial connection of the two valves 108. Preferably, however, it can also prove to be advantageous, the time switch to control the liquid region of sorption and the phase transition is compensated by time offset relative to each other in order to take account of different kinetic and time delays kinetic processors occurring in modules.

Characteristic of all compounds is on the one hand, the combination of parallel and serial connections of hollow elements for the field of sorption and, if necessary, for the phase transition. On the other hand, the characteristic is essentially an additional connection region of sorption and region f�basic transition all hollow elements, in the sense what groups of hollow elements which are connected in parallel on the side of sorption on the side of the phase transition are connected in series, and Vice versa.

Preferably not washed the corresponding hollow member (PZ1, PZ7), on the side of the phase transition, which changes the process from the process of evaporation to condensation process and, Vice versa, and on the side of the adsorption occurs almost isothermic change of pressure and temperature. By distributing additional modules in parallel and series-connected group may vary the ratio of the temperature rise and shear (MS-NQ)/(HQ-MS) without reducing the range of saturation of the adsorbent and to optimally align the desired relative temperature level of the available heat sources (HQ, NQ) and cooling (MS).

Fig. 13 shows a diagram of the switch, respectively, the location of the hollow element, which corresponds in particular to the invention under item 13 of the claims. While there are only 8 of the hollow elements with areas of sorption (SZ1 to SZ8) and with the regions of phase transitions (PZ1 to PZ8). Schematic representation and the notation is analogous to the previous examples of the invention.

In this embodiment of the invention, in accordance with left-hand illustration, all hollow elements on the side of sorption divided �and two groups of parallel adjacent elements, which together with the corresponding circulation pump heat exchanger 103 and HQ, MS form two completely separate circuits. The upper circuit is associated here with high temperature heat source HQ, and the lower circuit is connected to the medium temperature cooler radiator MILLISECONDS.

Particularly preferably, the group of hollow elements through which a parallel flow medium temperature circuit more than a bunch of hollow elements, washed by the high-temperature circuit. In this case, a ratio between the amounts of about 3:5. This takes into account, as a rule, most process kinetics of desorption compared to adsorption process.

The appropriate zone of phase transitions hollow elements (right illustration in Fig. 13) is particularly preferably washed at least on a group basis and also respectively in parallel. In the example of execution according to Fig. 13, the first group PZ1-PZ3 medium-temperature cooler (MS) and the circulation pump forms again a separate circuit. The second group of hollow elements PZ4-PZ8 divided into two parallel lapped by subgroups, in this embodiment, the implement is connected in series to form a separate circuit from the low-temperature heat source NQ and the second circulation pump 103 zone of the phase transition.

Circuit logs�and connection fluid flows, defined by the valve device, is moved in this case in stages relative to the image at certain stages up so that each module cyclically connects to different temperature contours. Preferably, the temporary switching point to which the valve is switched one position further shifted in time so that the time point of switching valves for zones of phase transitions occur later on one particular interval in relation to the time point of switching of the valves of the sorption zones. This takes into account thermal inertia in the formation of a new physical state of the hollow elements.

The example according to Fig. 13 in particular corresponds to the invention in the scope of paragraph 13 of the claims.

Fig. 14 represents another form of implementation that is similar to Fig. 13, in which both fluid circuit on the side of sorption is not fully separated for the implementation of the winning return of heating. Moreover, the reverse flow of the second hollow elements SZ1 and SZ4 respectively connected to the additional circuit. In this case we are talking about those hollow elements, which after switching the valves still have high thermal capacity.

In this case, it is proposed that volumetric flows parallel to the washed hollow elements, in particular the relevant transition�'s elements (represented in the scheme of switching is hollow elements SZ1 and SZ4) due to the location of valves applied transverse alignments and/or throttle elements so distributed, that change of temperature in transient hollow elements just completely occurs within the defined time interval of the switching valves. Thus, the temperature slope of the temperature profile, which is formed in the respective hollow elements, for the duration of the time interval, as will be fully moved, thereby returning the generated heat reaches a maximum. In the present setting of the valves according to Fig. 15, such measures due to the different widths of the passages in the valves is shown schematically. For example, the passages in the valve, following the hollow elements, indicated by the outputs "1" and "4" (respectively SZ1 and SZ4 in the representation according to Fig. 14) have a particularly small cross-section.

Because the hollow element SZ1 respectively connected this in series with parallel connected hollow elements SZ6, SZ7 and SZ8 and hollow member SZ4 included respectively in series with parallel connected hollow elements SZ2, SZ3 and SZ4, corresponds to the example according to Fig. 14 the invention at least in the scope of paragraphs 1 and 15.

In the example implementation in accordance with Fig. 14, on the side of the phase transition the phase transition zone (see the right side of the illustration) of the hollow element PZ4 is not washed, so that the hollow element� after switching the corresponding zone of sorption from the phase transition, first of all, spends adiabatic change process. Additionally or alternatively temporary switching point of the valve for the zone of the phase transition temporary shift points for the installation of valves for zone sorption be performed with a delay.

With exemplary switching options that combine between a parallel and serial types, washer flows through the hollow elements, so to act, subject to suitable adjustment of the mass flows of liquid that is almost rectangular profile process will proceed in accordance with the scheme according to Fig. 17.

The variants of these schemes, in particular, in accordance with Fig. 13 and Fig. 14, at the same time also have the advantage that the width of the load at a prescribed temperature rise and a temperature shift due to the temperature level of the reservoir of heat, can be significantly increased, as indicated by the double arrow. On the other hand, it certainly means that at comparable range of saturation can be implemented best ratio of temperature raising and temperature shift.

Figures on a rectangular process represent average conditions that arise from the numbers of the modules in Fig. 14.

Sliding temperature region, in particular the contour of condensation and contour of evaporation, can be� additionally used to operate the connected fluid contours with large input/output supply and a relatively small mass flows, in order to hold on to power pumps and fans small.

1. Heat pump adsorption type comprising a plurality of hollow elements having an adsorbent, wherein the hollow elements enclosed working substance with the ability to move between the adsorbent and the phase transition region, wherein the hollow elements are mounted for wrapping a heat transfer fluid in a changeable by means of a valve device (108') contour (101) of the fluid, whereby the hollow elements in the area of the adsorbent are introduced into thermal contact with the liquid, wherein the flow around the hollow fluid elements alternates cyclically, characterized in that in each position of a valve device (108') at least two hollow element are streamlined fluid in parallel and at least two hollow element are streamlined fluid sequentially, and at each position of a valve device (108') at least two groups of the plurality of hollow elements are streamlined in parallel, wherein at least one of a plurality of hollow elements located immediately before or after the heat exchanger (105, 106), wherein the number of simultaneously in parallel around�upgrading of the hollow elements is, at least one quarter, preferably at least one-third of the number consistently streamlined hollow elements.

2. The heat pump according to claim 1, characterized in that the hollow elements are installed in the circuit (102) of the fluid, changeable by means of a valve device (108"), with the ability to flow a heat transfer fluid region of the phase transition, due to which the hollow elements are introduced into thermal contact in the region of phase transition with a heat transfer liquid region of the phase transition, and the flow around the hollow elements of the heat transfer fluid region of the phase transition alternates cyclically.

3. The heat pump according to claim 2, characterized in that at least one, in particular, at each position, in particular, the valve device (108"), at least two hollow element in the region of phase transition are streamlined parallel to the liquid region of the phase transition, and at least two hollow element are streamlined sequentially.

4. The heat pump according to claim 3, characterized in that in each position, in particular, the valve device (108"), at least two of the plurality of hollow elements in the region of phase transition are streamlined parallel to the liquid region of the phase transition, and the heat exchanger (106', 107) is located directly to the Il� after, at least one group of the plurality of hollow elements.

5. The heat pump according to any one of claims. 1-4, characterized in that in a predetermined position of a valve device (108', 108"), some of the plurality of hollow elements included in the portion of the path, and the heat transfer fluid circulates through the cooling under the action of an additional circulation pump (103).

6. The heat pump according to claim 5, characterized in that it contains a total of three parts of the contour, and the parts of the circuit are separated and brought into circulation in one of three circulation pumps(103, 103', 103").

7. The heat pump according to claim 5, characterized in that in total there are two circulation pump (103', 103"), and the first part of the circuit is provided in the first circulation circulation pump (103') and the second part of the circuit is communicated with the first part of the circuit and is provided in the second circulation circulation pump (103").

8. The heat pump according to any one of claims. 1-4, 6, 7, characterized in that at least one of the hollow elements, in particular in the region of phase transition, not flown a heat transfer fluid.

9. The heat pump according to claim 8, characterized in that it is not streamlined a heat transfer fluid to the hollow element is located between the group of hollow elements, receiving in the region of phase transition heat, and a group of hollow elements, �Tausig in the region of phase transition heat.

10. The heat pump according to any one of claims. 1-4, 6, 7, 9 characterized in that the valve device (108', 108") includes at least one rotary cylindrical valve body (109) and installed it with the possibility of rotation of the rotary body (110) of the valve.

11. The heat pump according to claim 10, characterized in that the rotary valve has a mechanical inputs and outputs for connection with a separate hollow elements.

12. The heat pump according to claim 10, characterized in that the housing (110) of the valve forms at least one annular space (111), and at least two axial channel (116) is fixed in the annular space (111) and is connected to two hollow elements connected in parallel, wherein there is at least one radial hole (113) of the annular space through the annular space (111) is connected, at least two axial channels (116).

13. Heat pump adsorption type consisting of a plurality of hollow elements containing adsorbents, and in the hollow elements is enclosed working environment with the ability to move between the adsorbent and the phase transition region, wherein the hollow elements are installed in the circuit (101) of the liquid by changing a valve device (108') with the ability to flow a heat transfer fluid, wherein the hollow elements in the area of the adsorbent enter�tsya in thermal contact with the liquid, and flow around the hollow fluid elements alternates cyclically, characterized in that in each position of a valve device (108') is at least the first part of the number of hollow elements downstream of the first circulating pump (103') and the second part of the number of hollow elements located downstream of the second circulating pump (103").

14. The heat pump according to claim 13, characterized in that at least one of the parts of hollow elements comprises at least two hollow elements located parallel to each other downstream of the respective circulation pump(103', 103").

15. The heat pump according to claim 13, characterized in that both parts of the hollow element at least in one position of valve installation belong to two parts of the fluid circuit, separated from each other.

16. The heat pump according to claim 13, characterized in that the first part of the hollow element belongs to the first part of the circuit, and the second part of the hollow element belongs to the second part of the fluid circuit, and both parts of the circuit are interconnected at least by means of one of the hollow element.

17. The heat pump according to claim 13, characterized in that the valve device (108) comprises a transverse fixtures and/or throttle elements for wrapping individual connected hollow elements that lead � maximize heat regenerable.

18. The heat pump according to any one of claims. 13-17, including the distinctive features of any one of claims. 1-10.



 

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