Device for determining geometric parameters of plants

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a horizontal platform with a vertical tripod mounted on it, equipped with a device for hanging plants, electronic scales with compensator of container, mounted on the platform, and a vessel with liquid, mounted on the scales. At that the device comprises the linear motion sensor of the device for hanging plants, which is made in the form of the arrow, rigidly fixed to the carriage, moving on the guide along the tripod using the mechanical drive, and is equipped with a clip to attach the plants, as well as the microprocessor measuring unit of geometric parameters of plants.

EFFECT: additional determining of development indicators of above-ground part of plants - the cross-sectional area and diameter of the stem and increase in productivity of the procedure of control of geometrical parameters of plants.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of crop production, namely to the means of control of the geometric parameters of the plants used for the assessment of their quality, mostly rooted cuttings and seedlings of horticultural crops.

When you run a breeding and research work for commercial horticulture, as well as in the industrial processes of cultivation of horticultural crops and the finished product (cuttings, seedlings, fruits) required instrumental control, including geometrical parameters of plants. One of the indicators of development of the aerial part of the plants are cross-sectional area and the diameter of the trunk (for reference, the trunk is the aboveground part of the plant between the root and the first branch) and the underground part - the volume and length of roots (including total) [GOST R 53135-2008. Planting material of fruits, berries, subtropical, nut, citrus and tea. Technical conditions. - C. 6-33]. Measuring the cross-sectional area and diameter of the trunks of plants are carried out by means of calipers or micrometers [GOST R 53135-2008. Planting material of fruits, berries, subtropical, nut, citrus and tea. Technical conditions. - P. 38] that do not take into account peculiarities of the object of control: soft tissue, irregular geometric shape. The presence of measurement�about efforts in these devices causes deformation of the object and, therefore, additional measurement errors. Root length is determined using measuring probes [GOST R 53135-2008. Planting material of fruits, berries, subtropical, nut, citrus and tea. Technical conditions. - P. 37]. Measuring rulers have insufficient resolution and do not take into account the length of fine roots, which have greater suction power. In addition, the procedure is time-consuming measurements. Methods of measuring the volume of roots to evaluate the quality of planting material devoid of most of these shortcomings and more preferred. Known devices for measuring the volume of roots-based displacement fluid (e.g., water) when immersed in her roots and studied to measure the volume of displaced fluid [Educational-methodical complex on discipline "plant Physiology". Penza state pedagogical University. V. G. Belinsky. - Penza, 2007. - 34 p.], [Programme and methodology of analyses on fruit and berry plants in the conditions of Siberia: methodical instructions for students. - Novosibirsk, 1971. - P. 39]. The volume of displaced fluid in known devices is determined by dividing the mass of the drained liquid located above the initial level on its density or directly by means of the measured capacitance. The volume of displaced fluid is defined�tsya measurement of the lifting height of the liquid column with a constant and known cross-sectional area [A. S. THE USSR №430285, MKI G01F 17/00. The device for determining the volume of objects with complex geometric shapes]. The volume of roots in this case is calculated as the product of the cross-sectional area of the liquid column on the increment of its height. The disadvantage of the aforementioned devices is the impact of incomplete drain, for example, due to the residue on the walls of the drain channel, the measurement accuracy with small volume of drained fluid. In addition, the devices have low productivity because of the need to perform multiple measurements to obtain the final result. The closest analogue of the invention (prototype) is a device for determining the volume of roots [Mineev, V., Aleynikov A. F., Zolotarev V. A., the Use of methods of force measuring equipment in industrial production of sea buckthorn // Siberian Bulletin of agricultural science. - 2010. - No. 11. - P. 79-85], in which the volume of liquid (water) displaced by the roots, is determined by measuring electronic balances the buoyancy force arising in accordance with the law of Archimedes, the body is placed in the liquid, the latter acts with the force applied at the center of gravity of the immersed part of the body, directed vertically upwards and equal to the weight of displaced body of liquid, i.e. the weight of the fluid in the volume of the immersed part. In accordance with Newton's third law in the same rocketsnail counter force of the same magnitude that enhances the reading of the scale on the value of this force and, therefore, can be determined. The prototype's advantages in comparison with analogues: a small error of modern electronic weighing scales - major component unit - (not more than 0.01 g when the mass of the vessel with liquid to 6000 g, which is equivalent to 0.01 cm3when the density of water is 1.000 g/cm3with accuracy up to several units of the third decimal place); a slight dependence of the density of the liquid (water) temperature (change in the third sign); high performance; simple operations measurement; low requirements for operator skill; the ability to connect external devices for the processing and recording of results. The disadvantage of the prototype is that it can be used to determine only the rate of development of underground parts of plants, and for information about the development of their aboveground parts necessary to carry out additional measurements, which leads to additional costs, including time.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the productivity of determining the geometric parameters of the plant by extending the functionality of the device due to the additional definition of indicators of development of the aerial parts of plants - PLO�ADI cross section and diameter of the trunk.

The technical result of the invention is achieved in that the device for determining geometric parameters of plants containing a horizontal platform with built-in vertical stand is provided with a fixture for hanging plants, electronic scale with tare compensator mounted on the platform, and a vessel with liquid, mounted on the scales, introduced the linear displacement sensor fixture for hanging plants, which is in the form of arrows are rigidly secured to the carriage moving along the guide along the tripod using a mechanical drive, and provided with a clamp for fastening plants, as well as a microprocessor-based measuring geometrical parameters of plants. This microprocessor measuring the geometric parameters of the plant consists of operation buttons, a memory module, encoder, alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD) and the microcontroller, the first input coupled to the output of the sensor linear displacement of the fixture for hanging plants, a second input connected to the output of electronic scales, a third input connected to the memory module, a fourth input connected to the output of the encoder, the inputs of which are connected with the control buttons, and the output of the microcontroller is connected to an alphanumeric LCD. Mechanical drive obespechivayushchuyu and the rise of plants in liquid and can be performed either by friction, either a gear or a worm, driven by the operator manually or with the help of a micro motor. Clamp for fastening plants made in the form of clothespins with non-traumatic sponges covering the trunk of the plant. Clamp with plants installed so that the roots when immersed in the liquid does not touch the walls and bottom of the vessel, thus eliminating the effect of friction and compression on the value of the buoyancy force. On the vertical stand, which is made rotatable about a horizontal platform about its vertical axis, the sensor is fixed linear displacement. Installation of the sensor linear displacement and fixtures for hanging plants on the same tripod provides the stability of their relative position when cornering a tripod. Thus, the combination of the aforementioned features of the proposed technical solution allows, in addition to the volume of the roots, to determine the amount and length of any segment of the trunk of the plant and, consequently, the cross-sectional area and the diameter of the cylinder, the volume of which is equivalent to the selected area of the trunk of the plant, similar in shape to the cylinder. The volume section of the trunk of the plant is determined by the buoyancy force, electronic scales measured by their pre-zeroing tare compensator when submerged plants to lower bounds� selected area of the trunk and reading scales when submerged plants to the upper border of the selected area of the trunk, and its length is the linear displacement sensor fixture for hanging plants as the magnitude of its displacement when submerged plants from the lower and upper bounds of the selected area of the trunk. According to electronic scales and linear displacement sensor microcontroller microprocessor of the meter are determined by the first volume (taking into account the values of the density of the liquid), and then cross-sectional area and diameter of the selected area of the trunk as the ratio of its volume to the length and geometrical relations of the square and the diameter of a circle, respectively. The microcontroller, in addition, provides the results of measuring the volume of roots, cross-sectional area and diameter of the trunk on the screen alphanumeric LCD display and recording to the memory module together with the attributes of the object and measurement mode (date; serial number, name and age of the plant; the value of the density of the liquid), and the entry in the memory module of the intermediate results of measurements (volume and length of the selected section of the trunk) and remove it for calculations of cross-sectional area and diameter of the trunk. The attributes of the object and mode of measurements, as well as the designated parameter ("Volume of roots", "cross-sectional Area of the trunk", "trunk Diameter") is entered and selected by the control buttons through the encoder. Improving proizoditelnostyu control operations is achieved by combining in a single device multiple control operations: determine the volume of the roots, the cross-sectional area of the trunk diameter and the trunk.

Fig.1 shows a drawing explaining the principle of operation of the device for determining geometric parameters of the plant, and Fig.2 is a structural diagram of a device for determining geometric parameters of plants.

A device for determining geometric parameters of the plant consists of a horizontal platform 1 with fixed, rotating around its axis, a vertical stand 2 provided with a device for suspension of plants 3 and fixed by the locking mechanism 4, the linear displacement sensor 5, the cable 6 is attached to the fixture for hanging plants 3, the carriage 7 which is made of moving along the guide along the tripod 2 during rotation of the operator handle 8 friction mechanical drive (not shown in the figures), and the clamp 9 is in the form of clothespins with non-traumatic jaws 10, covering the trunk 11, electronic scales with 12 button 13 tare compensator, which placed the vessel 14 with the liquid, for example distilled water 15, and a microprocessor 16 gauge geometrical parameters of plants connected by communication cables (not shown in the figures) with electronic scale 12, the linear displacement sensor 5 and a power source (not shown in the figures). For opening the jaws 10 of the hand is provided by the shank 17. Vertical� tripod 2 is installed in the sleeve 18, fixed with screws on the horizontal platform 1 and is provided with a locking mechanism 19 which prevents rotation of the vertical tripod 2 in working condition. To rotate a vertical tripod 2 around its axis in its upper part by a handle 20. Microprocessor measuring 16 geometrical parameters of plants consists of the control buttons 21, a memory module 22, the encoder 23, alphanumeric LCD microcontroller 24 and 25, the first input coupled to the output of the linear displacement sensor 5, a second input connected to the output of electronic scales 12, a third input connected to the memory module 22, and a fourth input connected to the output of the encoder 23, the inputs of which are connected with the control buttons 21, wherein the output of the microcontroller 25 is connected to an alphanumeric LCD 24. Fixture for hanging plants 3 for possible pairing with electronic scales 12 and 14 vessels of different sizes can be made with adjustable length. The linear displacement sensor 5 may be contactless, for example a laser. When installing the linear encoder 5 cable 6 and the laser beam must not have a deviation from the vertical axis.

A device for determining geometric parameters of the plant works as follows. Before starting the measurement on the scale 12 is mounted to the vessel 14 with distilled water 15, dimensions and weights cat�which correspond to the size of the root system 26 of the studied plants and the limit of measurement electronic scales 12. Control buttons 21, the device turns on and enters a "Programming" to enter the attributes of the object and measurement mode (dates; ordinal numbers, names and age of the plant; the values of the density of the liquid - distilled water is 0.998 g/cm3in the memory module 22 by means of the encoder 23 and under program control of the microcontroller 25. To determine the geometrical parameters of the plants of the control buttons 21 and the device is in the "run" mode, the device reset to the zero state by the button 13 tare compensator electronic scales 12 and start the measurement mode", the Volume of roots". Then you install the investigated plants in the clamp 9. For this handle 8 device for hanging plants 3 up to the required height, vertical tripod 2 is released by the locking mechanism 19 and is rotated by the operator by means of handle 20 so that the clamp 9 is not positioned above the vessel 14 water 15. Sponge 10 of the clip 9 are moved apart by squeezing the shanks 17 hand. Between the jaws 10 is placed in the trunk 11 plants, which can be fixed when you release the shanks 17. After you install the investigated plants in 9 vertical clamp tripod 2 is rotated by the operator handle 20 so that the plant had been approximately over the center of the vessel 14 with water 15 and is clamped by the clamp 19. Then handle 8 mehanicheskog� drive the roots 26 of the plant are immersed in water 15 to the lower edge of the trunk 11, that it does not touch the bottom and sides of the vessel 14. This electronic scale 12 in units of force (GS) measure the weight of the water displaced by the roots 26, whose value in the digital code is supplied to the second input of the microcontroller 25, which by dividing by the density of the liquid (is 0.998 g/cm3for water) calculates the volume of the roots 26 and its value is displayed on the alphanumeric LCD 24 in units of volume (cm3), and when pressing the corresponding button on the control button 21 is stored in the memory module 22. To assess indicators of development of the aerial part of the plant is similarly immersed in water 15 so that its level corresponded to the lower boundary of the selected area of the trunk 11, the button 13 of the compensator packaging of electronic scales 12 is reset to the zero state and dip the plants in water 15 to the upper boundary of the selected area of the trunk 11, and the control buttons 21 is launched into the measurement mode "cross-sectional Area of the trunk". In this e 12 scales measure the weight of the water displaced by the selected plots of the trunk 11, and the linear displacement sensor 5 is its length. Digital codes from the outputs of electronic scales 12 and the linear displacement sensor 5 are received respectively in the second and first inputs of the microcontroller 25, where the volume of the selected area of the trunk 11 is calculated similarly to the roots volume 6, a cross-sectional area of the selected area of the trunk 11 - as the ratio of its volume to length. The value of cross-sectional area of the trunk 11 is displayed on the alphanumeric LCD 24 in square units (cm2), and when pressing the corresponding button on the control button 21 is stored in the memory module 22. The value of the diameter of the trunk 11 is calculated by the microcontroller 25 and is stored in the memory module 22 when the control buttons 21 measurement mode "trunk Diameter" based on known geometric relationships of area and diameter of a circle:

S=πD2/4,

where S is the cross sectional area of the trunk;

a π - number, equal 3,14;

D - the diameter of the trunk.

The invention may be implemented, for example, on the basis of the following components:

electronic scales 12 HRM company METTLER TOLEDO [URL:http://www.mtrus.com];

the horizontal platform 1, vertical tripod 2 and a mechanical drive from the enlarger;

the linear displacement sensor SX50 5 (cable) or LAS-Z (laser non-contact) [URL:http://www.sensor-systems.ru];

microcontroller 25 on the chip part no pic16f876;

encoder 23 on the chip KEV;

the memory module 22 on the chip FM24C64 or, alternatively, consisting of the microcontroller 25;

alphanumeric LCD 24 company Fordata (16×2, led backlight) with managing core microcontroller SunPlus780D.

1. For the determination of geometrical parameters of plants, containing a horizontal platform with built-in vertical stand is provided with a fixture for hanging plants, electronic scale with tare compensator mounted on the platform, and a vessel with liquid, mounted on the scales, characterized in that it introduced the sensor linear displacement of the fixture for hanging plants, which is in the form of arrows are rigidly secured to the carriage moving along the guide along the tripod using a mechanical drive, and provided with a clamp for fastening plants, as well as a microprocessor-based measuring geometrical parameters of plants.

2. A device for determining geometric parameters of the plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the microprocessor measuring the geometric parameters of the plant consists of operation buttons, a memory module, encoder, alphanumeric LCD display and the microcontroller, the first input coupled to the output of the sensor linear displacement of the fixture for hanging plants, a second input connected to the output of electronic scales, a third input connected to the memory module, and a fourth input connected to the output of the encoder, the inputs of which are connected with the control buttons, while the output of the microcontroller is connected to an alphanumeric LCD display.

3. Us�master to determine the geometric parameters of the plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the mechanical actuator is performed either by friction or gear, or a worm, driven by the operator manually or with the help of a micro motor.

4. A device for determining geometric parameters of the plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the clamp for the fixation of plants made in the form of clothespins with non-traumatic sponges covering the trunk of the plant, and installed so that the roots of the plants when immersed in the liquid does not touch the walls and bottom of the vessel.

5. A device for determining geometric parameters of the plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the linear displacement sensor is mounted on a vertical stand, which is made rotatable about a horizontal platform about its vertical axis.



 

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2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.

EFFECT: increase of yield.

7 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to all-the-year-round cultivation of vegetables with rotation of cultures. The method includes the cultivation of sprouts, planting of sprouts in a hothouse, care of the planted cultures and harvesting. The planted sprouts are the enrooted second caulises from mother plants - overgrown stepsons taken at the phase of blooming - lignifying with the growth 15-18 cm with two or three flower-bearing stems and additionally grown up to 20-30 cm. And the stepsons expelled from bases of the second - third leaf of mother plants, treated after separation with root-forming stimulators and grown afterwards in substrate are used. Meanwhile the additionally grown enrooted overgrown stepsons are planted with enrooted medium. Root forming stimulators are the preparations Epin- extra or NV-101. Rootage id performed in a substrate of the types Vipon within 10-20 days. Meanwhile the mother plants for vegetative propagation in Ural region are early varieties and hybrids, in particular F1 Energo, F1 Kupets or Cherry (Sweet Cherry).

EFFECT: meanwhile the mother plants for vegetative propagation in Ural region are early varieties and hybrids, in particular F1 Energo, F1 Kupets or Cherry (Sweet Cherry).

2 cl, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to horticulture. The method includes cutting the cuttings, treatment of the lower part of the cuttings before rooting with low-concentration aqueous solution of growth regulator for 12-24 hours and rooting. The growth regulator is uses as β-(3-indolyl)propionic acid in a concentration of 100 or 400 mg/l.

EFFECT: method enables to shorten the period of rooting by 5-10 days and to increase the rooting rate of the cuttings by 4,5-8%.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises autumn pre-sowing soil treatment, planting seed tubers in the ridges, inter-row treatments, mowing the stalks for fodder and harvesting the tubers. At that artichoke is places by predecessors, which are used as green manure - winter legume-grass mixtures. In the first year in spring on shoots of green manure artichoke tubers are planted in two to four rows with the width between the rows of 20-40 cm to form after the emergence of the ridge with the width of 120 cm, alternating with the technological gap with the width of 60-120 cm for the passage of harvesting and transport machines. After harvesting of artichoke on the harvested rows the formation of two to four rows on each ridge is carried out by the cultivator. On the second year in spring period prior to the emergence of plants of artichoke the cultivation and the formation of ridges is carried out, harrowing weeds and rows with small tubers. After sprouting of artichoke the thinning or bunching of rows is carried out with bringing the distance between the remaining slots of plants up to 60-80 cm.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the growing conditions, to reduce damage during inter-row cultivation and harvesting the stalks for fodder and tubers.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the field crop production. The method comprises estimation of the soil composition of the cultivated land and its production potential based on soil samples, the status monitoring of crop development on video images of crops, obtained by visual control module, and man-made impacts on technological processes. Taking and delivery of soil samples and fragments of crops from depressed sites of the cultivated land is performed using robotic devices, in the operation of which the harmful effect on soil and crops is eliminated. At that, assessment of soil composition and its production potential and the status monitoring of crop development is carried out in two stages. At that, at the first stage the assessment of the soil composition and its production potential is carried out by comparison of video images of crops, located on the cultivated land. According to the results of comparison of video images the cultivated land is divided into areas that are homogeneous in composition of the soil and its production potential. At the second stage of assessment the depressed areas of the cultivated land are revealed, on which the man-made impacts are necessary, increasing the production potential of the soil. From these depressed areas the delivery of fragments of crops and soil samples is carried out. After that, the laboratory analysis of comparison of soil and crops is carried out for each depressed area of the cultivated land. The man-made impacts are developed and implemented on the technological processes of cultivation, the crops and soil to increase crop productivity on depressed areas of the cultivated land. The device comprises the laboratory-control complex and the module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land. The device comprises the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land into the laboratory-control complex. At that the module of delivery of plant fragments from the cultivated land is used as unmanned flying machine. The module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land, the laboratory-control complex, and the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land are interconnected infocommunication bond.

EFFECT: group of inventions enables to increase the efficiency of control of processes of crop growing in real time without damaging the soil and crops.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing and feed production, may be used for growing of spring rape in fodder crop as postcut forage crop.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing soil and seeds; sowing; providing care for young crops; harvesting. Seed sowing is carried out during period of mass development of cruciferous weeds and die-off of first generation of wintered cruciferous fleas Phyllotreta spp. Spring rape is grown in postcut forage crop. Before seed sowing, soil is cultivated by rotavation or two-three-staged disking by means of harrows to 8-10 cm depth immediately after harvesting of preceding crop. Seed sowing is performed during 2-3 days after harvesting of said crop. Spring rape is cultivated in single-course complete fodder crop rotation mode. Winter wheat is used as preceding crop. Early ripening rape seeds with growing period of up to 100 days are commonly used. In the Middle Urals zone, rape seeds are sown in June, 15 to 30.

EFFECT: increased yield of spring rape grown for forage in risky agriculture regions at intensive utilization of plowed field in fodder crop rotation mode without use of pesticides.

4 cl, 6 tbl

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