Vessel launching structure
SUBSTANCE: proposed structure comprise beach wall, floating balloons with ballast system and hinged platforms secured at the wall by pivot joints with horizontal turn axis tat feature concaved cylindrical bearing surfaces of one curvature radius whereat wheeled tricks are mounted. It comprises at least two rows of platforms with parallel rotational axes spaced apart over beach wall height. Platforms of every row incorporate turn control mechanisms, edge guards to limit carriage displacement and are shifted relative to platforms so that at mutual turn they are located between platforms to be conjugated with said cylindrical surface. Beach wall is equipped with recesses to house turning platforms.
EFFECT: higher performances.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to shipbuilding and relates to devices for launching the vessel from shore building places, mostly located at high altitude above the water level or in the area of the large difference in water level in the reservoir.
Known various devices for launching the vessel, but not all of them can ensure the descent vessels from a great height, in particular dry and floating docks.
Known, for example, slips that can provide the boat with any height (see M. J. Atin, N. And. Chekletsov. "Ship-carrying equipment". L., "Shipbuilding", 1977, pp. 4-10). However, for shipyards with large height differences to the level of the water the length of the slip will be significant due to its relatively small angle, so the coastal area of this shipyard, which will be the track trigger trucks, would be unreasonably large. In addition, the track slips have the underwater part, and therefore for the construction of these facilities will be required to perform a large amount of underwater work, which will lead to their appreciation.
Vertical lifts with lifting platforms, suspended on the cable of the winch (see A. P. Grachev. "Salvaging facilities abroad." M., 1966, pp. 347-364), can provide the boat with any height, but with increasing elevation� lowering/lift vertical lift will increase demands on the strength of load-bearing walls/columns lift, will be complicated positioning system platform lift cable suspension at high altitude lowering. In addition, vertical lifts have at least one wall (the number of support columns installed in the waters of the reservoir, due to the implementation during the construction of the lift of a large amount of underwater work. In General, the lack of vertical lifts when used for the launching of vessels from a great height is their high price.
The closest to the claimed is a lift according to the invention of the USSR №1641700, which has a rotatable cargo platform is made of a submersible Ballesteros part with a concave cylindrical bearing surface and a flat portion connected tangentially to the cylindrical surface, and a pivot connected to the coastal wall. The ship on cargo trucks served on horizontally positioned dry part and then roll on the descending part with its simultaneous ballasting. When the rotation of the loading platform relative to the axis of the swivel truck with the ship rolled on a cylindrical surface with simultaneous descent. The disadvantage of the invention is limited altitude range in which the lift can be lowered/raised court, its failure to make the descent vessels with large heights� and/or when a significant water level fluctuations in the reservoir.
The object of the present invention is to expand the functionality of sudokusolver facilities that support the launching of vessels with horizontal building places.
The technical result provided by the invention, which solves this problem, is to improve the manufacturability of the descent vessels with horizontal construction locations with a large difference to the level of the water.
Said technical result is achieved when using the claimed stosunkowo facilities, including coastal wall, floating tank ballasting system and turntable mounted on the wall by a hinge with a horizontal axis of rotation and having a concave cylindrical bearing surface of the same radius of curvature, which has a wheeled transport cart. In addition, the structure contains at least two rows of platforms with parallel axes of rotation, spaced along the height of the coastal wall, wherein each platform is provided with a number of mechanisms for tilt, hedges, limit movement of the trolleys, and offset from the platforms of adjacent rows so that mutual rotation is located between the platforms these series, filleting into a single cylindrical surface, coastal STE�equipped ka niches, hosting the platform in their turn.
In the particular case of the regulation mechanisms of rotation of the platforms contain floating tanks that are installed on the platforms of the lower row, and the rod connecting each pair next to each other the platforms of two adjacent rows and having a pivot mounting at the free end of the upper platforms and moving the connection from bottom platforms.
The invention is illustrated in Fig.1÷3. Fig.1 shows stosunkowo structure of Fig.2 - rod device, connecting platform of two levels, Fig.3 - the sequence of the boat in the water with stosunkowo facilities.
Stosunkowo the construction includes several platforms 1, secured by means of cylindrical hinges 2 with a horizontal axis of rotation on the coastal wall 3. Platform 1 are located on several (at least two) levels of the coastal wall with a vertical offset relative to each other, and at each level can be from one to several platforms (number of levels, mainly depends on the height difference between the shore-built location and water level). Each platform 1 has a cylindrical support surface 4; wherein the bearing surface of all platforms have the same radii of curvature. Platforms of different levels are located along �Beregovoy wall so any platform when rotated around the hinge 2 and the way down was held between the platforms of the other levels. On all platforms of each level are transportation truck 5, is provided with wheels 6, resting on the cylindrical surface 4 platforms. The trolleys are free to roll on the supporting surface of the platform when turning and lowering the latter. Thus when lowering the platform overlying a number of their bearing surface mated in position with the bearing surfaces of the platforms nearest the lower row, which is in its upper position. The platform is equipped with mechanisms for tilt to control the speed of lifting/lowering and the possibility, if necessary, stop the process. To avoid vanishing trucks with platforms the latter is equipped with limiters that prevent displacement of the trolleys in the transverse direction (along the wall) and stopping the movement of carts at the free ends of platforms. In addition, trucks can be equipped with a braking system to prevent accidental, not required by the process of descent, movements. The upper support surface of the trolley on the platform of the top row, which is in its upper position, is flush with-built venue 7, which made the vessel 8.
Mechanical�we regulate the rotation of the platform around 1 joints 2 may be made, for example, as follows. The lower level platform fixed on the coastal wall near the water level of the water area 9 and is provided with a floating tanks (pontoons) 10 having a total buoyancy that can hold the total weight of the descent to the water vessel and platforms. The tank is provided with a ballasting system - valves for water inlet and a pump for pumping. All overlying platforms rely on the underlying rods 11, which are fixed at the free end overlying platforms hinges 12 and movably connected with the underlying platform, for example, using the wheeled carriages 13 moving along the cylindrical surface of these platforms and having the drive motors and brake system.
Coastal wall has niches 14 in which are the platforms when they turn and exit.
Descent vessels is performed as follows. Vessel 8, is made on the site 7, is moved by any known method (for ship-carrying rail trucks, trailers, etc.) in the transverse direction (side to stosunkowo construction) on the upper surface of the trolleys 5 the top row of platforms, which in its extreme upper position, and transplanted to a stationary support (keel blocks, cells, etc.) trucks; after that, the vehicle is returned on the place. In the process pyo�of Emesene vessel stosunkowo the construction of the lower platform are in a floating state (from tank 10 is pumped out the water), all overlying platform is located in its uppermost position, based on the coming of the underlying platform rods 11, the carriage 13 which is fixed in place, their braking system. After placing the vessel on the platforms of the upper row release brake carriages rods connecting the upper platform and the platform of the second row; the carriage is restrained by the brake system, begin to move on the cylindrical surfaces of the underlying platforms, with the free ends of the upper platforms are beginning to fall, the platforms themselves - to turn around the hinges 2, and truck 5 with the vessel 8 is rolled on the platforms to the far edge and simultaneously lowered. When the cylindrical support surface 4 of the upper platforms and platforms of the second row will be aligned, and accordingly, align the upper surface of the trolley first and second row, the hull will enter into interaction with the supports in carts platforms second row. After that, the brakes are released carriages rods connecting platform of the second and third level from the top. There is turning and lowering of the platform of the second level to match their bearing surfaces with the surfaces of the platforms of third-level. The upper platform is moved over the rod to the side and prop trucks top platforms out of contact with the hull; pic�ednie thus grafted onto the truck platform of the second level. The process is repeated until the sinking of the ship on truck lower platforms. After that, the tank bottom platforms filled with water, and the platform is submerged in water until the ascent of the vessel. When turning and lowering the platforms they're leaving in 14 niches in the coastal wall 3.
Following the withdrawal of the vessel from stosunkowo the buildings of the last return to the starting position. This pumped water from the tank 10 to the ascent of the lower platforms in their upper position. Then raise upwards overlying the platform by moving the carriage and the rods connecting the upper platform with the underlying, on the cylindrical surface of the underlying platforms with drives carriages.
1. Stosunkowo construction including coastal wall, floating tank ballasting system and turntable mounted on the wall by a hinge with a horizontal axis of rotation and having a concave cylindrical bearing surface of the same radius of curvature, which is set wheeled trolley, characterized in that the construction comprises at least two rows of platforms with parallel axes of rotation, spaced along the height of the coastal wall, wherein each platform is provided with a number of mechanisms for tilt, hedges, limiting the movement of trucks, and shifted �otnositelno platforms of adjacent rows so so during mutual rotation located between platforms these series, filleting into a single cylindrical surface, in addition, coastal wall equipped with niches in which are placed the platform in their turn.
2. The construction according to claim 1, characterized in that the regulation mechanisms of rotation of the platforms contain floating tanks that are installed on the platforms of the lower row, and the rod connecting each pair next to each other the platforms of two adjacent rows and having a pivot mounting at the free end of the upper platforms and movable connection with the lower platforms.
SUBSTANCE: ship-raising construction includes a ship-carrying trolley, precast reinforced concrete slabs, a ship-carrying track with inclined and horizontal platforms and is equipped with a metal rack for placement and movement of precast reinforced concrete slabs along it in process of construction erection. The metal rack is made in the form of a metal frame including bearing metal beams with rigidly fixed retaining planks, which form an inclined guiding upper belt /IGUB/ with higher and lower sides, at the same time the higher side of IGUB is installed closely to the coastal ledge, and the lower side is installed with a support to the underwater coastal slope, at its end there is a support of the end block rigidly fixed with the end wall. L-shaped brackets are fixed to the lower side of each precast reinforced concrete slab. In the middle part of each reinforced concrete slab there is a hole for supply of concrete mix. Also the method is proposed to erect a ship-raising construction.
EFFECT: increased resistance of a ship-raising construction to erosion and abrasive effect of drifts.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and repair, particularly, to device used for ship launching from shore slip or rising it thereto. Proposed device comprises ballastable floating pontoon including ship transfer tracks to be coupled with those at inclined shore slip. Pontoon body is equipped with internal wedge-shaped recesses to house said ship transfer tracks.
EFFECT: simplified design and process.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; ship launching complexes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed launching complex has slip for ship mounted on its supports made in form of launching trolleys with technological pads mounted on them. CG of support areas and ship's CG are located in one vertical plane of slip which is perpendicular to ship's BL. Heights of technological pads are determined from the following formula: hi= hmin + Vi, where hi is height of technological pad; hmin is minimum height of technological pad, constant for all supports; Vi is height of varying part of technological pad equal to sag of each support selected from calculation of total strength of ship placed on two rigid supports under action of distributed weight loading of ship equalized by reaction forces in sections of slip intermediate supports.
EFFECT: extended operational capabilities of launching complex without its updating at retained local and total strength.
SUBSTANCE: installation for vessel propulsive machinery testing contains chamber with flow-guiding channels. Additionally the installation is provided with device for hydrostatic pressure creation which device is connected with chamber, liquid speed sensors installed in flow-guiding channels and stop valves permitting regulation of hydraulic resistance and installed in flow-guiding channels. Directions of flow-guiding channels outlet sections coincide with directions of vectors of liquid speeds resulting from vessel hull motion.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of propulsor testing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to ship building by modular assembly and may be used at shipyards with horizontal building sites and vertical lifters or floating docks for launching. Proposed method comprises prefabrication of hull freight part units, making hull ends units and tanks, and assembling the ship from prefabricated units and tanks. Note here that every unit of freight part is made without deck and one crosswise bulkhead that make unit open compartment to be transferred to launching structure located at pool embankment to be arranged so that its open part is directed ashore. Then, said unit is lowered unless its bottom supper surface is aligned with embankment surface to use surface carrier to move the tank and to complete unit assembly by installing deck structures and second bulkhead, or final assembly is completed at launching structure.
EFFECT: faster building, lower labor input.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to practical methods of analysing available index of hulls of ships of length over 80 metres using nondestructive diagnostics on the basis of investigation of structural destruction of hull structural steel caused by material fatigue. Ship hull available index is estimated by comparing residual design life with specified life. Said residual design life is determined analytically using the steel endurance strength defined on the basis of structural damage of one of cover plates measured by metallographic method at the hull major-load section. Specified life represents total duration of probable wave effects onto ship hull during ship residual life estimated by probability of said wave effects and probability of ship serviceability during said period.
EFFECT: higher validity of estimation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to making butt joints of ship structural components made from composite materials. Proposed joint comprises skins secured there inside along butt edges, angular sections, butt isolator and butt edges tightener. Hull skin is made from composite material glued by, at least, one layer of glass fabric. Angular sections are glued by at lest one layer of glass fabric and jointed together by their flanges. Aforesaid tightener is composed by bolts with nuts and washers fitted through coaxial holes in flanges of said angular sections. Angular section surface directed inside the ship arranged are strip-shape ledges rigidly secured thereto and directed parallel with each other angular section edges. Heads of bolts and their nuts are fitted flush in straps locked on angular section flanges. Triangular inserts are arranged along the edges of angular section abutting the skin. Butt joint inside the hull is coated with at least two layer of glass fabric glued thereto in tight fit with free surface and angles, their inserts and skin area adjoining the angles. Skin butt edges are chamfered to make obtuse triangular slot filled with glass fabric bands glued one on the other with gradually increasing width. At least, two layers of glass fabric are glued on skin surface to fill in the slot.
EFFECT: higher reliability and strength.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method a half-block of a cylindrical insert for a vessel with a double hull is formed on receiving platforms of a rotary device making it possible to weld all welding seams in a technologically convenient lower position, for this purpose operations of device rotation are repeated technologically for a required number of times. In the rotary device used to realise the method there is a casing, the external surface of which is arranged in the form of a cylinder with a horizontally arranged axis, along which in the body there is a prismatic groove forming two adjacent congruous planes on the inner surface arranged at the angle of 90° to each other and arranged in the form of platforms. On these platforms there are fixators for fixation of planar sections, and also on them there are rail tracks installed along the casing axis coupled with workshop rail tracks. The device casing rests on rollers fixed on axes in rotary shells installed on the foundation. Besides, the device is added with the third congruous plane arranged at the angle 90° to the second plane and parallel to the first one, and besides, axes of all or some of the specified rollers are connected by a drive with an electric motor.
EFFECT: reduction of production areas, labour intensiveness and reduced duration of a technological process, possibility to manufacture finished half-blocks at one production position with a different angle of a transverse inclination of a deck.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to updating and repairing ship bulkheads with insufficient wall thickness or that of connection belts. Proposed method consists in predetermination of tolerable thickness of bolt-on element or elements (in the case of double-side reinforcement) depending upon actual thickness of wall to be repaired and that of bolt-on belt of skin plates, fabrication of bolt-on sheet element of definite thickness, laying the latter on element to be reinforced, adjusting and bolting in place along edges and in plane. In compliance with second version, bearing elements are reinforced by bolt-on elements, in their turn, reinforced by stiffness ribs or corrugated elements. In compliance with third version, bearing elements are reinforced on both sides by bolt-on sheet element, on one side, and, on opposite side, by stiffness ribs. In compliance with fourth version, initial bearing element is reinforced by bolt-on elements reinforced by stiffness ribs or corrugated elements, on one side, and by stiffness ribs, on opposite side.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity.
4 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship repair, particularly, to straightening of ship hull knuckle. Proposed method comprises measuring ship draught by all deadweight scales for ship fully loaded and empty. Results obtained allow calculating residual knuckle of the ship. Ship upper element cutting line is traced. Ship is placed in dock on dock floor to measure hull knuckle. Not here that hull center gives under gravity to reduce knuckle and eliminate clearances in supports pressed loosely to hull. Ship upper elements are cut along traced line. Cut edges at compressive stress converge. After convergence said edges are fitted in and welded together. Ship is launched and residual knuckle is measured to be eliminated, is required, by repetition of above jobs.
EFFECT: increased dead weight.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can be used for estimating and forecasting ship hull available index. For this, ship hull is conditionally divided into elements for them to assigned the numbers. Then residual thickness of said elements is measured. All measured data are entered into table to calculate service life for every element. γ-percent life of elements is determined. Available index is analyzed by comparing γ-percent lives calculated with the ship operating life.
EFFECT: higher validity of estimation.
3 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: ship building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to ship repair, particularly to estimation of the state of ship hull structural elements. Proposed method comprises using tools, gages and breadboards. Residual strain is preliminary estimated. Errors inherent in these defects are analysed using a notable volume of statistical data and with due allowance for limiting error in definition of said statistical error with respect to sag, goffering, buckles. This error makes 6 mm, while, in respect to sag of dent, said error makes 20 mm. Note here that to make estimation and error more precise, gages and breadboards are used, while instrumental measurements of damaged structures are effected at values that, with errors allowed for, approximate to tolerances or exceed them.
EFFECT: simplified measurements in ship repair.
FIELD: ship building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair of hips, particularly to determination of ship residual thickness. Proposed method comprises determining deformation of ship hull elements, e.g. desk and bottom, with the help of deflectometre, or determining the difference between common deformations at different loads, namely between ship hull flexible lines at various loads, for example at full load and unladen. For bow-, stern- and midship-drafts, equivalent bar neutral line position is determined with the help of tensometre measurements made at ship extreme links. Coefficients of individual influence of cross section areas of all ship hull links, apart from those of deck and bottom flooring, in fractions of the moment of inertia of the entire equivalent bar of the hull at common strains, e.g. bending and hogging. Then reduced cross section areas of the deck and/or bottom flooring are determined to reveal residual thicknesses. It is expedient, in using this method, to determine individual coefficient of influence of reduced area of aforesaid flooring by its elements and with due allowance for losses caused by dent formation.
EFFECT: simplified determination.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technology of repairing ships; elimination of residual longitudinal bending of ship's hull in shipyards equipped with building and launching facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of elimination of residual bending of ship's hull in form of sagging or hogging consists in placing the ship on building and launching facilities whose supports may be independently adjusted in height. Then, ship's hull is cut transversely in parallel with frame planes cutting all longitudinal hull structural members below upper deck, after which cut parts of hull are turned relative to each other towards reduction of sag and continuity of cut structural members is restored by welding. Additional cut may be made in all vertical structural members at end of transversal cut adjoining upper deck; this additional cut is parallel to ship's hull to both sides from transversal cut; additional cut is welded-up after turning the hull parts. Holes may be drilled at ends of additional. It is good practice to make additional cuts at level of webs of longitudinal framing of upper deck.
EFFECT: reduction or complete elimination of residual longitudinal bending of ship's hull at minimum labor consumption.
16 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; ship's rigging at automatic control of sail blade in space.
SUBSTANCE: proposed rigid automatic sail has blade and mast. To ensure preset angle of attack, sail is provided with motor-reduction gear for rotation of sail blade during operation of electric system instruments. Rigidly secured in upper part of mast are two limit switches and revolving pendant wind indicator. Two circular switches are rigidly secured to pendant wind indicator.
EFFECT: improved properties of sailing ships at automatic control of their rigid sails.
FIELD: processes for manufacturing welded constructions, possibly in ship-building, transport machine engineering, car manufacture and other branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for making metallic thin-sheet welded structures is realized by assembling and mutually welding metallic sheets and rigidity ribs. Method comprises steps of preliminarily uniformly heating sheets on their whole area till temperature determined according to formula : T = εs /α ± 10°C where T - heating temperature; εs - percentage deformation of sheet metal corresponding to limit yield; α - linear expansion factor of sheet metal. In order to prevent compression of sheets, they are secured to assembling bed or to intermediate structures and after cooling sheets are assembled and welded.
EFFECT: compensation of welding deformations by method not needing complex power equipment and high efforts.
FIELD: shipbuilding; connecting hull parts (pontoons) of large-capacity ships when afloat.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has angle-piece mounted on one of ship's hull parts being connected and engageable with elastic sealing-up member made in form of tape. Device is provided with metal box mounted on second part of ship's hull to be connected. One vertical wall of this box projects beyond edge of joint and tape of elastic sealing-up member is P-shaped in section formed by conjugation of circular cylinder with rectangular strip. Sealing-up member is secured on angle-piece web.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sealing-up joints when afloat; low labor input due to avoidance of diving work.
FIELD: repair technologies; shipbuilding.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship repair technologies. According to proposed method of reinforcement of panel of metal construction, reinforcement metal layer is welded to panel with formation of space in between for at least one space between inner surfaces of panel and reinforcement metal layer; intermediate layer, consisting of nonvulcanized plastic material having thickness not less than 10 mm, is forced into at least one space; said plastic material is solidified to provide adhesion with inner surface of panel and reinforcement metal layer with force sufficient for transmission of shifting loads between panel and reinforcement metal layer. Said panel is held by girders, cross-bars and beams. Reinforcement metal layer is arranged so that girders, cross-bars or beams are located between panel and reinforcement metal layer. Panel reinforced by proposed method can be ship panel.
EFFECT: simplified technology of reinforcement of metal panels, including ship panels.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: operation and repair of water transport facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of operation of ships and ship trains includes analysis of state of structures and hydrodynamic characteristics of ships. Proposed method includes preventive maintenance jobs, such as cleaning, filling with putty and painting. Roughness parameters are restored. Proposed method includes repair jobs, such as dressing and application of sheets, elimination of residual deformation in form of corrugations and bulges in shell plating. In forming the ship trains, ships possessing worse hydrodynamic characteristics are positioned behind and/or in between of ships possessing better hydrodynamic characteristics.
EFFECT: optimal operation of ships.