Method of increasing thermal-oxidative stability of lubricating oils

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of increasing the thermal-oxidative stability of lubricating oils, in accordance to which samples of lubricating oil are thermostatted by heating in a hermetic cup without mixing for the constant time at atmospheric pressure and fixed temperature, which at each thermostatting of the new sample is step-by-step increased in the range of temperatures, determined by the purpose of the lubricating oil, after heating sampling and testing of the thermostatted samples for resistance to oxidation are carried out. Sampled is a constant weight sample, which then is heated in the presence of air with mixing for a specified time depending on the basic base of the lubricating oil at constant temperature and constant mixing rate, the oxidised samples are photometrically scanned, the coefficient of the light flow absorption is determined, with the determination of the graphical dependence of the change of the parameter of thermo-oxidative stability evaluation on the thermostatting temperature, which is used to determine the optimal temperature of thermostatting, providing maximal resistance to oxidation, characterised by the fact that as a criterion for the evaluation of the thermo-oxidative stability of the lubricating oil taken is a resource of the thermostatted oil work capacity. In the process of testing each new thermostatted sample for resistance to oxidation the sample of the oxidised oil is sampled after equal time intervals, the coefficient of the light flow absorption is determined by photometry, graphical dependences of the light flow absorption coefficient on the oxidation time of the thermostattted oils are built at each temperature of thermostatting, and used to determine the time of reaching the light flow absorption coefficient of the selected value for each oxidised thermostatted oil at different temperatures, the graphical dependence of the time for reaching a selected value of the coefficient of absorption of the light flow of the oxidised thermostatted oils on thermostatting temperature is built with the point of the said dependence with the maximal ordinate, characterising the resource of work capacity being used to determine the temperature of thermostatting, ensuring the maximal resistance to oxidation.

EFFECT: ensuring self-descriptiveness of the increase of the thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils and increase of their work capacity resource.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for improving the quality of lubricating oils and can be used to improve oxidative stability and quantification of improving these properties.

Known method for improving thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils by the introduction of the antioxidant additive, which is used as a phenolic or amine antioxidant (Application RU 2008102362 A, the priority date of 22.06.2006, publication date 27.07.2009, the authors ZERO Volker Claus, etc., DE).

However, this method has a hidden unknown reserve that is not used.

A method of determining oxidative stability of lubricating oils, comprising heating the lubricant in the presence of air, the mixing, the test samples of the lubricant constant volume at the optimum temperature selected depending on the basic fundamentals of the lubricant and group performance over time, characterizing the same degree of oxidation, and at equal intervals of time selected sample oxidized lubricant, determined by photometry, the absorption coefficient of the light flux oxidized lubricant, build graphical dependence of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the time of trial which determine the parameters of the evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability (Patent RF №2219530 C1, priority date 11.04.2002, publication date 20.12.2003, the authors Kowalski B. I., etc., EN).

The disadvantage of analogue is the low efficiency due to a limitation of possibilities of the method and lack of descriptiveness, in connection with obtaining only a qualitative assessment of the properties of oxidative stability and the lack of quantifiable indicator of possible increase thermo-oxidative stability.

A method of determining oxidative stability of lubricants, adopted as a prototype, including temperature control of samples of lubricating oil, testing them for resistance to the oxidation and determination of temperature the temperature at which the resistance to oxidation is maximal, when controlling the temperature of each of the samples of the lubricant is heated for a constant time at atmospheric pressure and a fixed temperature that each subsequent test new sample increase, and after each heating selected a sample of constant mass, which is then heated with stirring in the presence of air within the preset time depending on the underlying basis at constant temperature and constant stirring speed, after the oxidation is determined by photometry, the absorption coefficient of the light flux, building a graphic� dependence of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the temperature of the temperature control and thermal-oxidative stability of a lubricant is determined by the temperature of the temperature control with the lowest value of the absorption coefficient of the light flux, wherein the method allows to increase thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils from 20 to 60% (Patent RF №2485486 C1, priority date 03.11.2011, publication date 20.06.2013, the authors Kowalski B. I., etc., RU, prototype).

The disadvantage of the prototype is the lack of data in the way about the possibility of improving thermo-oxidative stability, due to the low accuracy of evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils in the absence of the primary metric for this assessment, characterizing the resource efficiency of oxidized thermostated oil.

The object of the invention is the provision of informative about improving thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils and increase their resource efficiency by defining quantitative indicators of improving the oxidation resistance due to the temperature control lubricating oils and determination of optimum temperature the temperature at which the resistance to oxidation of the maximum.

To solve this problem a method of improving thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils, which samples� lubricating oil was incubated by heating in a sealed glass without stirring for a constant time at atmospheric pressure and a fixed temperature, which each new sample thermostating stepwise increase in the temperature range, determined by the purpose of the lubricating oil, after heating, is carried out the screening and testing thermostated samples for resistance to oxidation, select a sample of constant mass, which is then heated in the presence of air with stirring for a set time depending on the basic fundamentals of lubricating oil at a constant temperature and constant stirring speed, the oxidized samples fotometriruût, determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux, build graphical dependence of the parameter estimates from thermo-oxidative stability of the temperature of the temperature control, which determine the optimal temperature of the temperature control, providing the greatest resistance to oxidation, according to the invention criterion for the evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability of the lubricating oil take the resource efficiency of a thermostated oil, and test each new thermostated samples for resistance to oxidation selected a sample of oxidized oil in equal intervals of time, the photometry determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux, build graphical dependence of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the oxide�Oia thermostated oil at each temperature for temperature control which determine the time to reach the absorption coefficient of the light flux of the selected values for each oxidized thermostated oil at different temperatures, build graphical dependence of the time required to reach the selected values of the absorption coefficient of the light flux oxidized thermostated oil temperature from temperature control, and the point of this dependence with a maximum ordinate of characterizing the resource efficiency of, determine the temperature of the temperature control, providing the greatest resistance to oxidation.

According to the invention for evaluating the effect of incubation temperatures of oils to oxidation is conducted additionally test for resistance to oxidation commodity oil without temperature control.

In the figures presented according to time characterizing the resource efficiency of oxidized thermostated oil (P, h) temperature temperature (T, °C): Fig.1 - mineral LUKOIL standard 10w-40 SF/CC; Fig.2 is a partially synthetic Mobil Super 2000 10w-40 SI/CF; Fig.3 - Mobil Super synthetic 5w 300-40 SL.

The test was subjected to motor oils of different basic fundamentals: mineral LUKOIL standard 10w-40 SF/CC; partially synthetic Mobil Super 2000 10w-40 SI/CF; Mobil Super synthetic 5w 300-40 SL.

The oil sample constant weight (e.g. 100 g) shut�irout in heat-resistant glass beaker without stirring at atmospheric pressure without access of air with condensate within a constant time (for example, 8 h) at temperatures of from 160 to 300°C (for motor oil) with a step increase, for example at 20°C, for each new sample. In the temperature control temperature is automatically maintained with an accuracy of ±0.5°C.

Thermostated at each temperature the sample oils constant weight, for example 100 g, was subjected to test for resistance to oxidation by heating in a heat resistant glass beaker with stirring at a constant frequency of rotation of the glass stirrer (for example, 300±2 rpm) to eliminate the influence of metals on the oxidation process. Test temperature was made constant (for example, 180°C) and during the test was maintained automatically. After every 8 hours of testing selected samples of the oxidized oil for electrophoretic and determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux. The test is stopped when the absorption coefficient of the light flux values are approximately equal to 0,75-0,8 units.

To evaluate the effect of incubation temperatures oils on oxidation commodity oil was subjected to oxidation without temperature control.

The oxidation of lubricants with an advance temperature control is presented in the following table.

The test oil The oxidation of commodity oil, hThe oxidation thermostated oil, h
The temperature of pre-heating °C
140160180200220240260280
LUKOIL standard 10w-40 SF/CC565664728080---
Mobil Super 2000 10w-40 SI/CF32-56644840404032
Mobil Super 300 5w-40 SL80-240256248232144-

The results of the oxidation product and thermostated oil build dependencies of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the oxidation of oils for different basic fundamentals that determine the time to reach the absorption coefficient of the light flux values, for example of 0.7% for each temperature of incubation. Then build the graphical dependence of these time values from the temperature of the temperature control subjects oils (Fig.1, 2, 3), which determine the temperature at which the isothermal oxidation of oils amounted to a maximum value when the absorption coefficient of the light flux, equal to 0.7%, i.e. at a given temperature the temperature control resistance to oil oxidation maximum.

So, thermostatting temperature at which the maximum increase thermo-oxidative stability (resistance to oxidation) is for engine oils: mineral LUKOIL standard 10w-40 SF/CC - 220°C; partially synthetic Mobil Super 2000 10w-40 SI/CF - 180°C; Mobil Super synthetic 5w 300-40SL - 180°C.

The technical result of the invention is to improve oxidative stability of lubricating oils and increasing its life by pre-incubation and op�of edeleny optimum temperature for temperature control when the resistance to oxidation of the maximum.

So compared to commercial motor oils resource oxidized oils after incubation at defined temperatures increased mineral 36.3%; partially synthetic on 84,8%; synthetic 130%.

Thus, the application of the proposed method allows to increase thermal and oxidation stability of engine oils and their resource from 36 to 130%.

1. A method of improving thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils, in which the sample of lubricating oil was incubated by heating in a sealed glass without stirring for a constant time at atmospheric pressure and a fixed temperature, each temperature control new sample stepwise increase in the temperature range, determined by the purpose of the lubricating oil, after heating, is carried out the screening and testing thermostated samples for resistance to oxidation, select a sample of constant mass, which is then heated in the presence of air with stirring for a set time depending on the basic fundamentals of lubricating oil at a constant temperature and constant stirring speed, the oxidized samples fotometriruût, determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux, build graphical dependence of the vapor�meter evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability of the temperature for temperature control which determine the optimal temperature of the temperature control, providing the greatest resistance to oxidation, characterized in that the criterion for the evaluation of thermo-oxidative stability skazocnogo oil take the resource efficiency of a thermostated oil, and test each new thermostated samples for resistance to oxidation selected a sample of oxidized oil in equal intervals of time, the photometry determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux, build graphical dependence of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the isothermal oxidation of oils at each temperature of incubation, which determine the time to reach the absorption coefficient of the light flux of the selected values for each oxidized thermostated oil at different temperatures, build graphical dependence of the time required to reach the selected values of the absorption coefficient of the light flux oxidized thermostated oil temperature from temperature control, and the point of this dependence with a maximum ordinate of characterizing the resource efficiency of, determine the temperature of the temperature control, providing the greatest resistance to oxidation.

2. A method of improving thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating oils p� claim 1, characterized in that it further carry out the test for resistance to oxidation commodity oil without temperature control.



 

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1 ex, 1 tbl

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