Diagnostic technique for tumour involvement of spinal column
SUBSTANCE: technique involves the three-stage diagnosis of all the patients suffering tumour diseases of various localisations. The first stage involves CT-densitometry performed every 6 months; if the CT-densitometry shows sites with varying spine bone density by 30% and more, the second diagnostic stage that involves a transpedicular biopsy is initiated. If the biopsy material appears to contain no tumour material, the third diagnostic stage starts with F-18 positron-emission tomography (PET-CT).
EFFECT: improving the early diagnosis of the spinal tumours.
The invention relates to medicine, Oncology and can be used for early diagnosis of tumors of the vertebrae.
Despite the advances in diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide scintigraphy for early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the vertebrae is far from perfect.
The need for timely treatment of metastatic disease of the spine also requires early diagnosis of small metastases that can occur "under the guise of" degenerative changes of the spine against systemic osteoporosis (N. In. Klimov, A. A. Gauss. Differential diagnosis of small metastases and degenerative changes of the spine in systemic osteoporosis. Siberian journal of Oncology, 2011. Appendix No. 2, p. 38). A patient asks a neurosurgeon only with the appearance of neurological deficit due to a pathological fracture of the vertebra with compression of neural structures. In these cases, performing minimally invasive method of treatment is percutaneous puncture vertebroplasty is already impossible, and stabilization of the spine with titanium structures are allowed when one or two - level defeat.
Known "Method of x-ray diagnostics of diseases allow�of Ocnita" (patent RU 2033084 C1, A61B 6/00); one of its aims was to increase the accuracy of x-ray diagnosis of diseases and morphometry of the spine. In the present invention, the radiography of the spine is produced by using a narrow slit beam perpendicular to the film and the object of study, in the process of non-uniform motion of the emitter along the longitudinal axis of the spine or in the process of movement of the patient and fixed him tape with a stationary emitter, and then the obtained radiographs assess the results of the study or morphometry. However, to date, radiography completely replaced by rentgencontrastnoe tomography.
Known invention "method for the diagnosis of diseases of the spine" (patent SU 1741312 A1, A61B 5/00), the essence of which consists in the reception of thermal radio measurements of the spine by moving the contact of the antenna along it, converting the radiation into an electrical signal. The obtained temperature distribution compared with the normal temperature distribution in healthy individuals and in certain diagnosed with radicular syndrome, low back pain and swelling. However, when considering the temperature distribution of healthy and sick people significant differences are difficult to obtain, in addition, the method is not widely in clinical�of anenia, and equipment for its implementation is not available and not included in the list of high-tech equipment.
Known invention "method for the diagnosis of tumors of the skeletal system" (EN 2454665 C1, G01N 33/49, publ. 27.06.2012, bull. No. 18), the essence of which in spectrophotometric determination in blood serum of the patient quantitative values of protein levels of neopterin. At values above the 2.6 ng/ml to 7.0 ng/ml diagnosed with a benign neoplastic process, in excess of 7.1 ng/ml - malignant. The disadvantage is the lack of opportunities for histological verification process, and it does not give the possibility to determine the localization of the tumor.
In the invention "Method of differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma and metastatic cancer to the bones" (EN 2210773 C1, G01N 33/52, publ. 20.08.2003) from an undiagnosed primary tumor by infrared spectrophotometry serum with the definition of transmittance in nine sub-bands of the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation within 1 minute 1 second calculate the criterion of Mahanalobis and when the value is less than 20 conventional units diagnosed multiple myeloma. If the value from 25,5 to 33.3 CONV.ed. - cancer metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor. The method also has the disadvantage in the absence of verification neoplastic lesions �awn, especially for metastatic cancer with an undiagnosed primary focus.
Known invention "Method of differential diagnosis between transplant and medullary sarcoma, giant cell tumor, and inflammatory diseases of long tubular bones (RU 2215478 C2, A61B 8/00, publ. 10.11.2003), which is designed for the differential diagnosis between transplant and medullary sarcoma, giant cell tumor, and inflammatory diseases of the long bones. Its essence in the performance of a full-sized x-ray of the affected limb in two mutually perpendicular planes with subsequent targeted ultrasound scan of the affected segment. This method is not applicable for the determination of neoplastic lesions of the vertebral bodies and especially for the differential diagnosis of the lesion, so as to perform an ultrasound scan of the vertebral bodies with accurate evaluation impossible. In addition, subjective evaluation of ultrasound picture for every specialist reduces the accuracy of the technique, the method also does not allow the execution of the verification process.
In the invention "Method of differential diagnosis of nonspecific inflammatory and malignant neoplastic processes of the musculoskeletal system" (EN 2323685 C1, A61B 6/02, A61K 51/04, publ. 10.05.2008, bull. No. 13) author� proposed to improve the accuracy and informativeness of the differential diagnosis of nonspecific inflammatory and malignant neoplastic processes of the musculoskeletal system through enhanced quality and quantitative scintigraphic assessment of the picture. Carry out intravenous 199 Tl-chloride, followed in the early phase planar scintigraphy in 20 minutes, visually identifying areas of increased accumulation of the marker, its quantitative assessment in the early phase of the research (ER), conducting additional scintigraphy in the delayed phase after 180 minutes after injection 199 Tl-chloride, and re-visualization of the area of increased accumulation of 199 Tl-chloride, quantitatively determine the intensity of its accumulation (DR), calculate the retention index (RI), is equal to DR/ER, and in the presence of two of the three signs: RI<0,047 ER+0,979 in early and delayed phases of the research, the clarity of the contours of the site hyperfixation marker in the early phase of the study compared to deferred, the homogeneity of the structure of the plot hyperfixation marker in the delayed phase of the study are diagnosed with nonspecific inflammatory process. And in the presence of at least two of the three signs, such as RI>-0,047 ER+0,979 in early and delayed phase of the study, lesser-definition of the contours of the site hyperfixation marker in the early phase of the study compared with delayed or substantially unchanged, depending on the phase of the study diagnosed with a malignant neoplastic process. The method allows to differentiate between nonspecific vospitatel�th process and tumor, but it is not possible to verify the process, and especially the formula of this method there is no possibility of obtaining biopsy material for the verification process.
Existing diagnostic algorithms do not improve the early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the vertebrae until the patient's neurological deficits. So, E. G. Pedchenko et al. (E. G. Pedchenko S. V. Kudaev, I. L. Avetisyan. Needle biopsy of the vertebral bodies. Ukr. honey. chasopys, 5 (61) - IX/X, 2007, pp. 92-96) believe that CT data are most reliable in the differential diagnosis of small plastic metastases and degenerative changes of the spine, with contrast enhancement does not increase the informativeness of the study. And the MRI data is most reliable in the differential diagnosis of small lytic metastases and lesions of systemic osteoporosis in the spine, with contrast enhancement significantly increases the informativeness of the study. But the necessary basis for referral of the patient to CT or MRI is the presence of certain complaints, namely, pain in the vertebrae, reducing the sensitivity (due to the compression of the dural SAC and spinal cord).
Diagnostic algorithm in pathological vertebral fractures proposed by D. S. Ostapenko (D. S. Ostapenko. Diagnostic tactics in pathological �enelamah vertebrae. Traumatology and orthopedics of Russia. 4(54) 2009, pp. 27-30), already implies the presence of a pathological fracture of the vertebra. In all cases, the presence of neoplastic lesions of the vertebra shown puncture or biopsy performed transversely, perpedicular, and in the thoracic spine it is advisable to perform extravehicular lateral approach to the vertebral bodies (V. A. Babkin, A. I. Voronovich, L. A. Pashkevich, S. V. Makarevich, A. M. Petrenko, A. N. Mazurenko. Modern technology surgery of tumors of the spine. // Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of oncologists and radiologists of the CIS Minsk, 2004, Volume 2, p. 267).
Needle biopsy (bone marrow biopsy) under fluoroscopic guidance is used in 1941 for verification of tumor in the spine. The results of percutaneous biopsy of the spine depend on the nature of the bone-destructive process. When osteoblastic bone lesions negative results are obtained in 35% of patients with lytic metastases - 15%. This is due to the fact that sclerotic lesions are more difficult to obtain adequate material for verification (Martin H. E., Ellis E. In: // by Biopsy need lepuncture and aspiration AnnSurg- 1992: 139, - 19307).
Percutaneous biopsy is included in the standard examination of patients with neoplastic lesions of the spine, the greatest experience in the application of percutaneous biopsy and spine and vertebral�sticks available at the cancer research center of the FRAME (Aliev M. D., Teplyakov V. V., Kallistov V. E., Valiev, A. K., Karpenko V. Yu., N. Trapeznikov.N. Modern approaches to surgical treatment of metastases of malignant tumors in bones // Practical Oncology: selected lectures, St. Petersburg 2004, pp. 738-748). But despite the advances, early diagnosis and positive results vertebrae biopsy not always be possible. As described Babkina et al. open transpedicular or extramedullary biopsy is more traumatic and invasive procedure (V. A. Babkin, A. I. Voronovich, L. A. Pashkevich, S. V. Makarevich, A. M. Petrenko, A. N. Mazurenko. Modern technology surgery of tumors of the spine. // Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of oncologists and radiologists of the CIS, Minsk, 2004, Volume 2, p. 267).
The authors E. V. White, L. V. Menshikov, I. M. Mikhalevich has proposed "a Method of predicting bone fractures in women, patients with rheumatoid arthritis" (EN 2261661 C1. A61B 10/00, A61B 6/00 (publ. 10.10.2006 G., bull. No. 28). Its essence consists in the definition of mineral bone density in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, the elucidation of the life history of risk factors for fractures (duration of menopause, duration and severity index of the disease, systemic manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), loneliness, dose and duration of administration of glucocorticoid drugs (G�With). If no risk factor is a characteristic value of "0" is "1". Then determine the prognostic value formula:
F1=-38,72-7,27×X1+9,77×x2+6,30×X3+4,25×X4+7,41×X5+9.66 as per×X6+32,97×X7+3,62×X8+8,96×X9+38,04×X10-0,55×X11-0,50×X12;
F2=-5,41 4,32×X1+3,22×x2+2,91×X3+3,84×X4+3,24×X5+3,93×X6+7,43×X7+1,35×X8+1,08×X9+9,07×X10-0,11×X11-0,19×X12, where X1 is the patient's age greater than 45 years, x2 - menopause more than 5 years, X3 - duration RA for more than 10 years, X4 - severity index greater than 5 points, X5 - systemic manifestations of RA, X6 - loneliness, X7 - intake of corticosteroids for more than 2 years, X8 is the cumulative dose of corticosteroids over 5000 mg, X9 - mineral bone density in the lumbar spine by T-criterion of less - 2,5; X10 mineral bone density in the femoral neck by T-criterion of less than 2.5; X11 - mineral bone density in femoral neck on the T-criterion less 0,700 g/cm2, X12 - mineral bone density in the lumbar spine T-criterion less to 0.900 g/cm2). If F1>F2 predict a high risk of fracture, and if F1<F2 - low risk. The method allows to increase the accuracy of prediction of fractures in women with rheumatoid arthritis. However, this method of predicting fractures to determine the risk of fractures in cancer patients with lesions of the spine, both primary and metastatic tumor, and especially n� allows suspected tumor in their defeat.
"Method of determining osteoporeticheskikh fractures in the thoracic spine" (patent RU 2376935 C2, AV 6/03, publ. 27.12.2009, bull. No. 36) allows to estimate the degree of resorption of spongy bone of the vertebrae and in a timely manner to perform the necessary treatment. Mineral density determined by quantitative computed tomography. Carry out horizontal laying the patient have a bone-equivalency phantom over the lower thoracic spine, perform a direct study. Determine the mineral density of the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae, then quantitative indicators should be calculated using the correction factor of 0.93. Get the absolute value of the mineral density compared with a known threshold, and values less than 110 mg/ml of calcium determine an increased risk of fracture of a vertebra, and at values less than 50 mg/ml of calcium - high risk of fracture. This method allows to determine the risk of vertebral fracture, but does not allow to diagnose a tumor of his defeat.
"A method for the prevention of osteoporosis in preoperative chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer stage III" (patent RU 2452483 C1, A61K 31/337, A61K 31/573, A61K 31/66, OR 19/10, publ. 10.06.2012 G., bull. No. 16) is approved for prevention of osteoporosis in pre-operative chemotherapy in patients with �nemelkokletochnym lung cancer stage III. Perform densitometry before treatment and after 2-3 courses of preoperative XT under the scheme paclitaxel/carboplatin premedication with glucocorticoids and evaluate the mineral density of bone tissue by T-criterion. This method can prevent the development of osteoporosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer stage III on the background preoperative chemotherapy is used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, but it is not applicable to other groups of patients with primary or metastatic lesions of the vertebrae and cannot be used for early diagnosis of metastatic lesions of the vertebral bodies.
"A method of predicting osteoporeticheskikh of vertebral fractures in women older than 50 years" (patent RU 2465832 C1, A61B 10/00, publ. 10.11.2012, bull. No. 31) allows to increase the effectiveness and targeting of interventions in groups of patients with high risk of fractures of the definition of mineral bone density, risk factors (weight less than 50 kg, height above 160 cm, body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, hard physical labor up to 25 and after 50 years; surgical menopause before 50 years, the loneliness. But this method does not allow to diagnose and confirm a tumor lesion of the vertebral bodies.
The technical result of our proposed method is better�of early diagnosis of tumors of the vertebrae.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine is carried out in three stages: all patients with neoplastic diseases of different localization regularly 1 every 6 months is CT-densitometry (the first step of diagnosis), the detection of foci with the changed density of the bone tissue of the vertebra 30 and more percent shown transpedicular biopsy (second stage of diagnosis), in the absence of tumor in the biopsy material showed the transition to third level diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET-CT) with 18-Tordesillas.
The invention "method for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine" is new, as it is not known from the prior art in the field of neurooncology. The novelty of the invention lies in the fact that the authors propose a three-step method of diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine.
The first step for all patients receiving treatment for cancer pathology (kidney cancer, prostate, lung, thyroid, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and so on) shows regular CT-densitometry (1 every 6 months) as a method of detecting changes of density of the bone tissue of the vertebra. This technique is not invasive and fast in any center RCT-diagnose if you have a program To�-densitometry. If CT densitometry reveals the presence of foci with the change in bone density of the vertebrae at 30 percent or more, which may be the result of neoplastic lesions, showed the transition to the second stage - transpedicular biopsy of this lesion changed density for verification. Transpedicular biopsy of miniinvasive and encouraged us when there are changes in bone density of the vertebrae. If CT densitometry revealed no lesions with changes in bone density at 30 percent or more, continue to observe the patient and repeat to him the procedure of CT densitometry in 6 months. If the second step of our methodology - transpedicular biopsy of the lesion changes in the density of bone tissue of the vertebra is not identified in the biopsy the presence of tumor cells, shows a transition to the third stage of our methodology diagnosis - positron emission tomography (PET-CT) with 18-Tordesillas. PET/CT with 18F-FDG - hybrid methods of radiodiagnostics including positron emission tomography and low-dose x-ray helical computed tomography performed sequentially on a single tomographic apparatus. 18F-FDG-pet is a molecular imaging technique, carried out after intravenous administration of Tordesillas labeled the ultra shortlived isotope� 18F. This radiopharmaceutical has biological properties similar to conventional glucose that allows to quantify the metabolism of tissues and organs. Ultra shortlived isotope ensures minimal radiation load on the patient's body, comparable to low-dose x-ray studies. In most cases, PET/CT with 18F-FDG is carried out from the lower edge of the orbit until the middle of the thighs. When you search for the primary tumor of unclear localization, metastatically the spine or primary tumors of the spine that could not be verified transpedicular biopsy, the study is conducted from the bones of the skull to the toes. To be able to differentiate the nature of the identified metabolic changes are delayed scans of areas of interest, and to clarify the topography of metabolic changes in anatomically difficult locations and the need to confirm the metabolic changes of x-ray data, provided a further sighting CT scan with intravenous contrast enhancement. The total radiation load on the patient during PET/CT whole body 18F-FDG does not exceed 10 MeV.
If at the second step of our method detected in the biopsy the presence of tumor cells, we selected the optimal treatment strategy.
The invention "Method Diagne�sticks neoplastic lesions of the spine" is industrially applicable, as it can be used in health care, medical institutions of cancer profile, cancer detection centres, research institutes, and cancer centers.
Method for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine as follows.
A patient receiving treatment for cancer pathology (kidney cancer, prostate, lung, thyroid, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and so on), shows regular CT-densitometry (1 every 6 months). In identifying lesions with altered bone density by 30 percent or more of patients are shown transpedicular biopsy revealed the lesions. The resulting material was investigated histologically and if Yes is chosen, the optimal treatment strategy.
In the absence of a biopsy of a spinal tumor material of patients shows PET-CT imaging with 18-Tordesillas.
A female patient, medical history 15780/6, appealed to the clinic RNII in October 2012. Suffers from August 2012 when there were pains in the lumbar spine. Prior to that, the doctor did not address. Pain was chronic exhausting nature, it is difficult to respond to treatment. When examined at the outpatient stage, given the presence of pain in the lumbar spine performed SRCT chest, b�usnay cavity and small pelvis, consultation breast physician, gynecologist, ultrasound of the retroperitoneum, where at the time of the survey revealed only a slight change in the structure of the body of the third lumbar vertebra. CT densitometry of the lumbar spine was determined by the presence of a hearth to 1.5 cm with a density of 43% below the density of the remaining bone tissue of the vertebrae. The patient performed transpedicular biospy L3 of the third lumbar vertebra under CT control. G/u # 61705-6/12 - areas of fibrous tissue. The patient is directed to PET-CT, where he found the tumour in the left breast of 0.8×0.6 cm and a solitary lesion in the third lumbar vertebra. To avoid pathological fracture of the spine, which can lead to gross neurological deficit due to damage to the cauda equina roots, the authors of the first stage performed transpedicular stabilization from second to fourth lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) titanium metalwork. Simultaneous performed by a breast mastectomy on the left. 2 weeks later - the second stage - side access for the removal of the body of the third lumbar vertebra affected by metastasis (L3), remove the discs L2-L3 and L3-L4, anterior stabilization prosthesis made of niti to replace the remote in the body of the third lumbar vertebra. The patient was seen by her oncologist receives chemotherapy, sustainable.
Draws attention to the fact of manifestirovanne breast cancer low back pain due to a solitary metastatic lesion of the third lumbar vertebra revealed on the stage of the absence of gross neurological deficit, before the appearance of compression of the dural SAC and nerve roots of cauda equina. Initial consultation of the breast and mammography pathology is not revealed, but due to the use of the offered method for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine was identified as the primary tumor, metastatically in the vertebral body and confirmed neoplastic lesions of the spine. This clinical example shows the necessity of carrying out of examination of patients with chronic pain syndromes in the back by our proposed three-step methodology for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the spine to exclude tumor pathology.
A method of diagnosing neoplastic lesions of the spine, including CT scan, biopsy, characterized in that provided diagnosis in all patients with neoplastic diseases of different localization, and diagnosis is carried out in three stages: the first stage 1 every 6 months carry out CT-densitometry and the detection of lesions with altered bone density get�and 30% go to the second stage of diagnosis - spend transpedicular biopsy, in the absence of tumor in the biopsy material are transferred to the third stage of diagnostics is carried out positron emission tomography (PET-CT) with 18-Tordesillas.
SUBSTANCE: clinical assessment of the oral mucosa state is ensured by examining non-stimulated oral fluid or swabs. That involves determining five parameters: content of yeast-like fungi Candida in the yeast or mycelia form (1), concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) (2) and lysozyme (3), emission light sum (S) 5 minutes before chemoluminescent examination (4); the Wood-beam beam luminescent examination covers marginal portions of the gum and apexes of interdental papillas, buccal mucosa within dental occlusion, dorsal surface of the tongue within the thread-like processes, and performing morphological examination of the multilayer squamous epithelium of the buccal mucosa along the dental occlusion line (5). The derived results enable diagnosing the absence of pathogenic microflora and oral mucosa pathology, Candida carriage or chronic oral candidiasis in the mycelia or yeast form in the form of hyperkeratosis or leukokeratosis.
EFFECT: using the invention enables increasing the differential diagnostic accuracy for keratolytic processes in the form of white manifestations.
10 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes selection, and crushing of biomaterial, two-stage extraction of pesticides with n-hexane, purification of biomaterial from coextractive substances with concentrated sulphuric acid, formation of concentrate of n-hexane extract of pesticides, drying, sample formation by dissolution in 0.5-1 ml of n-hexane and carrying out gaschromatographic identification.
EFFECT: invention is characterised by higher effectiveness and accuracy of research and can be used in biology, ecology, medicine for gaschromatographic identification of organochlorine pesticides, namely α-HCCH, β-HCCH, γ-HCCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, in various biomaterials, such as lipids of internal organs and tissues, blood, milk, bird feathers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention represents a method for preclinical study of cardiotropic antiarrhythmic drugs, involving determining the bioelectric parameters in isolated multicellular perfused preparations and measuring an action potential duration, differing by the fact that the isolated multicellular perfused preparations are presented by rat's pulmonary vein myocardium; the parameters are measured in three operation modes of the multicellular preparations; a resting potential is additionally measured; varying APD 90%, related APD 50%/APD 90%, a spontaneous shear velocity of the resting potential, the most positive membrane potential in the resting preparation, a spontaneous activity train repetition rate, spontaneous action potential train repetition and variability frequency, post-depolarisation number and intensity, as well as a shear membrane potential corresponding to the beginning of train activity are used to evaluate the signs of antiarrhythmic and arrhythmogenic action.
EFFECT: more reliable prediction of the antiarrhythmic action of the potential pharmacological agents and reduction of experimental phase time.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention comprises a method of determination of nano trace contaminants, supposing the use of emulsion from liquid crystal drops, dispersed in water and capable to change a configuration of liquid crystal drops in presence in the emulsion composition of foreign admixtures, measurement of change of intensity of light scattered by the emulsion, according to which it is possible to evaluate the content and density of required admixtures differing by that for a liquid crystal the compounds capable to trans-cis-transition under the effect of actinic light are selected and before measurement of change of light intensity the emulsion is illuminated additionally by actinic light, thus ensuring change of configuration in liquid crystal drops due to trans-cis-transition in liquid crystal molecules.
EFFECT: increase of sensitivity of method of determination of nano-trace contaminants.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for identifying living and dead mesozooplankton in seawater samples, which involves taking samples, staining the organisms with suitable colouring material, giving a visual estimation of the colour intensity of the units under the microscope, which is combined with microphotographying the units with an adjustable camera without changing the settings keeping throughout a photographic session of at least one sample; thereafter colour and brightness specifications average for each unit are measured in the formed images with using a painting program, e.g. Adobe Photoshop package, and the units are referred to living or dead by a discriminative analysis of the varied digital values.
EFFECT: improving the method.
SUBSTANCE: identification method of blue pus bacillus Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves inoculation of the test material on a hard substrate, incubation of the inoculum under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 37°C during 16-18 hours. The obtained bacterial mass in the amount of one bacteriological loop is placed in 300 mcl of a physiological solution and warmed-up at the temperature of 98-99°C during 20-30 minutes and centrifuged at 12000 revolutions per minute during 30 seconds. To a supernatant there added is colouring material for electrophoretic detection in the quantity of 0.5 mcl and 20 mcl is added to a well with a size of 4×1 mm 1.2% agarose gel on TAE-buffer with 10 mcl of 1% ethidium bromide. Besides, the amount of 3 mcl of the solution of standard DNA-marker 1 kb containing DNA fragments in the range of 250-10000 bp is added to the test well. Horizontal electrophoresis is performed during 15-20 minutes, and at detection on the obtained electrophoregramme of the test bacterial mass of three strips radiating in ultraviolet light, one of which corresponds to fragments of standard DNA-marker with the size of 10000 bp, the second one corresponds to fragments of standard DNA-marker with the size of 6000-8000 bp and the third strip at the end of the track in the form of a whisk, which corresponds to fragments of standard DNA-marker with the size of less than 750 bp, there identified is Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the test bacterial mass.
EFFECT: method allows quick and complete identification of pigment-shaping and non-pigment strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a test bacterial mass.
5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: for analysis of removal with meadow grass of biochemicals the yield fluctuations are accounted depending on the structure of phytocenosis in the form of a ground cover. Conducting statistical data processing of testing the samples of grass from the test plots on the meander, central and terrace near flood plains, and also on the meadows with uneven and tiling location of grass species. And prior to establishment of sample plots the terrain reconnaissance is carried out with the grass cover selected for the measurements, an outline map of location of the components of the grass cover is made, then on each component of the grass cover in the form of a plot at least one temporary test plot is established, the wet and air-dry weight of the sample is determined by weighing on the cut grass sample. At that the tests on biochemical analysis are additionally carried out on the dried samples of grass to determine the concentration of at least three chemical nutrients in the form of mobile nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus oxides, and then by summing the concentrations of these three substances the total summarised removal of substances from the aerial part of grass on all test sites is calculated.
EFFECT: invention enables to determine the productivity of meadows.
9 cl, 12 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: for the purpose of the confirmation of a patient's death caused by ventricular fibrillation accompanying myocardial infarction in the patients died from myocardial infarction in the course of autopsy on the basis of a macroscopic pattern, the pathological process age is determined. This enables selecting examination areas in the heart at the level of necrosis. Absolute values (AV) of the following cell populations are counted in the x600-magnified visual field with using haematoxylin and eosin: necrosis-borderline lymphocytes (Lfb) in myocardial infarction of the age of 1-2 days, necrosis neutrophilic granulocytes (NGn) and fibroblasts (Fbn) in myocardial infarction of the age of 3-5 days. The derived absolute values are compared to threshold values (TV) with the threshold values of Lfb=2, NGn=38, Fbn=1. Each visual field is assigned with a diagnostic coefficient (DC), which is equal to 1.9 at the age of myocardial infarction of 1-2 days, if the absolute values Lfb<2 or -3.9, Lfb>2; if the age of myocardial infarction is 3-5 days, the diagnostic coefficient is -2.1, if AFbn<1, or the diagnostic coefficient is 7.2, if the absolute value of Fbn>1; the diagnostic value of 1.36 is shown by the absolute value of NGn<38; the diagnostic value is -11, if the absolute value is NGn>38. The total value (ΣDC) is calculated by moving between the visual fields within the examined area, and if ΣDC>12.78, the patient's death is stated to have come from ventricular fibrillation; if ΣDC<-12.78, the death is stated to be caused otherwise.
EFFECT: information value and reliability of the examination accompanying forensic medical examination.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to laboratory diagnostics and can be used for testing biological samples for pathogenic microorganisms. The device for microbiological analysis of the body fluid samples comprises a compartment for incubating sample containers, an analyser for studying the internal atmosphere of the above containers and a sorting system for classifying the above containers in accordance with the carbon dioxide content detected by the above analyser. The sorting system classifies the containers delivered from the above incubation compartment to divide the above containers into the positive containers to be analysed for identifying microorganisms found in the respective samples, and the negative containers wherein the analysis is not required for identifying the microorganisms, and also the unspecified containers to be incubated once again.
EFFECT: invention provides simplifying and accelerating the analysis of the biological samples for the pathogenic microorganisms.
10 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves a post-therapeutic cytological examination of smears sampled from septic wounds, a cell composition analysis, including neutrophilic granulocytes and tissue elements - fibroblasts and fibrocytes; the material sampled from the septic wound on the 3rd day from the beginning of therapy is used for the cytological examination to determine accessory signs of therapeutic pathomorphism, namely the morphology of neutrophilic granulocytes, fibroblasts and fibrocytes and the presence of oxyphilic ground substance; observing the nuclear fragmentation and cytoplasm vacuolation in the neutrophilic granulocytes, multinuclearity, nuclear lobulation, karyonuclei in nuclei, basophilia, cytoplasm grain and vacuolation in fibroblasts and fibrocytes, as well as the presence of the oxyphilic ground substance, the treatment is stated to be effective.
EFFECT: invention provides objective clinical findings of the wound process even on the third post-therapeutic day and can be used for the reliable determination of the clinical effectiveness in septic wounds.
1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: Rb-82 generator contains the casing protecting against ionisation radiation, in its cavity a tank with detachable protecting insert out of the tungsten or tungsten alloy, generator column, and supply and outlet pipes, located in the internal slots of the detachable insert, at that the casing cover is equipped with the safety cavity to gather the lost liquid. Method of production of Rb-82 generator means the generator column filling with the ion-exchange material containing inorganic sorptive medium out of hydrated stannic oxide (IV) in for of a suspension in water solution of ammonium hydroxide with concentration in range from 0.02 M to 0.2 M, and stannic hydroxide content in the suspension from 15 to 50 wt %. Prior to passage through the column of the solution containing Sr-82 radionuclide the generator column is heat sterilised by heating in the autoclave at temperature 110-130°C for 30-120 minutes, at that the generator column content is preliminary isolated from the environment.
EFFECT: simplified process of Rb-82 generator production, increased efficiency and reliability of its operation and sterilising, increased protection against ionising irradiation.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a microfluidic radiopharmaceutical system. The system comprises a reaction vessel adapted to receive a radioisotope specified in carbon-11 and fluorine-18, and one agent with the reaction vessel connected to a heat source which is used to supply heat from the heat source and to synthesise the radiopharmaceutical solution, when the radioisotope and agent are mixed in the reaction vessel. The system also comprises a solid phase extraction column adapted for radiopharmaceutical solution purification, a filter adapted for radiopharmaceutical solution sterilisation, and a vessel adapted for radiopharmaceutical solution reception after it passes through the column and filter. The reaction vessel, solid phase extraction column and filter are parts of a single chart to be disposed after one cycle. The above system is scaled for the one-cycle production of the radiopharmaceutical solution in an amount equal to one single dose of the radiopharmaceutical preparation and not less than one single dose of the radiopharmaceutical preparation.
EFFECT: system provides accelerating the process of the radiopharmaceutical preparation with avoiding the contamination of components of the system after the previous cycle of synthesis/purification.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: 11C-methionine 350 MBq/m2 is additionally administered intravenously into the patient with 18F-FDG-negative tumour at least 18 hours after 18F-FDG injection; 10-15 min later, positron emission tomographic scanning of the thoracic organ follows. Either before the emission tomographic scanning with 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine 350 MBq/m2 is administered intravenously into the patient, and 10-15 min later, the PET scanning is performed. The intravenous administration of 18F-FDG for the PET procedure is performed at least 3 months after the 11C-methionine injection, while the PET scanning with 18F-FDG is performed at least 120 min after administered in a dose of 110 MBq/m2.Typical lung carcinoid is diagnosed by the 11C-methionine accumulation in the tumour and the absence of the 18F-FDG accumulation therein.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of the early diagnosis of typical lung carcinoid and enabled differentiation from a benign tumour with no increase of patient's radiation exposure.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method enables studying gastric, enteric and biliary motor activity in the patients after the radical and salvage procedures for a malignant involvement of the head of pancreas, and functional activity of gastroentero- and biolodigestive anastomoses. That is combined with assessing a radiopharmaceutical agent (RPA) labelled bile passage and a RPA labelled semolina passage to be recorded in a two-detector gamma-chamber. For the purpose of a separate visualisation of the labelled bile and semolina, the triple bile concentration of the RPA is used. A biolodigestive anastomosis is inspected after the intravenous administration of the RPA containing 120 MBq containing Tc-99m isotope 120 MBq. That is followed by a hepatobiliary scintigraphy, a hepatocyte cycle visualization, measuring a bile velocity along the duct and anastomosis. The gastroenteroanastomosis motor activity and patency are assessed by administering RPA labelled 10% semolina 150 ml containing Tc-99m 40 MBq. The biliary and gastrointestinal motion of the labelled compounds is conducted for 120 minutes, wherein every 15 minutes, the patient is placed in the two-detector gamma-chamber for 1 min to visualize the motion of the labelled bile and semolina in front and back projections.
EFFECT: method provides the physiological conditions for the examination in a simultaneous, early, integral, more accurate assessment of gastric, enteric and biliary motor disorders.
3 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: there are described new isatin-5-sulphonamide derivatives of general formula or their physiologically acceptable salts, wherein R represents phenyl, 3-fluorophenyl, 2,4-difluorophenyl, 3,5-difluorophenyl, tetrahydropyranyl, diazine or triazolyl methyl optionally substituted by one C1-6alkyl, which can be additionally substituted by one halogen; R' represents phenyl optionally substituted by one or two halogens, or triazolyl optionally substituted by one C1-6alkyl which can be additionally substituted by one halogen; provided R means phenyl, R' represents optionally substituted triazolyl, pharmaceutical compositions containing the above derivatives, using them as molecular imaging agents, using them in diagnosing or treating diseases or disorders related to apoptosis dysregulation, methods for synthesis of the above derivatives, methods for molecular imaging of caspase activity and apoptosis, and methods for assessing the therapeutic exposure of the analysed compound on caspase activity.
EFFECT: new isatin-5-sulphonamide derivatives are described.
27 cl, 26 dwg, 4 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing an agent containing gold nanoparticles and an iodine-containing contrast agent into a tumour. The above agent is introduced into the tumour directly that is followed by the tumour exposure to photon ionising gamma radiation 60Co. The method enables increasing a dose of photon therapy directly into the tumour tissue by 10% in a combination with reducing a radiation exposure on normal tissues.
EFFECT: invention extends the range of the methods for internal tumour therapy, e.g. pulmonary, gastrointestinal, female and male genital and lymphoid tumours.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to functional diagnostics, and can be used in assessing the blood microcirculation status in a patient's limbs by determining a relation between the blood flows in the paired organs or paired regions of interest by radionuclide diagnostics. That is ensured by inserting a microcatheter with a two-way cock and two syringes attached, into the ulnar or other forearm vein. One syringe contains an indicator, an amount of which shall not exceed 0.3-0.5 ml, while the other syringe contains normal saline. Immediately after the indicator is introduced into the catheter, it is pushed on by normal saline from the second syringe. A camera is used to record gamma emission and a radioactivity-time curve is constructed. The radioactivity-time curves are rated by an area of the specified regions of interest y1(t)/S1, y2(t)/S2 to construct the initial radioactivity-time curves y1(t), y2(t), which are approximated by orthogonal polynominals α1(t), α2(t) in the form of a parametric curve ψ[α1(t), α2(t)], whereon a straight-line segment is specified between the points t1 and t2 for the following approximation implemented by the least square method and represented by the straight line y=kx+b. Herewith, y is an approximated radioactivity in the 1st region of interest , x is an approximated radioactivity in the 2nd region of interest, k=tgα, wherein α is an inclination of the straight line to an absciss, b is a segment of the y axis from the coordinate origin to a crossing point of the straight line and the y axis. The required relation D is defined as wherein Q1 is the blood flow (ml/min) in the 1st region of interest, Q2 is the blood flow (ml/min) in the 2nd region of interest.
EFFECT: method provides the timely and accurate diagnosis of limb pathology by determining the blood flow in the region of interest with respect to the examined limb in relation to this value in the contralateral limb.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to molecular imaging. The imaging system comprises a radiation source which crosses the investigated region, a detector for detecting radiation and generating a signal which characterises energy of the detected radiation, a data selector which performs signal discrimination according to energy based on energy spectrum-related settings which correspond to the first and second spectral characteristics of a contrast substance administered to a subject, and a unit for signal reconstruction based on the first and second spectral characteristics and generation of three-dimensional image data characterising a target. The contrast substance has a first spectral attenuation characteristic when bonded to a target and a second different spectral characteristic in a state without bonding to the target.
EFFECT: use of the invention increases the amount of the obtained information on the composition of the tissue of a subject.
10 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of a hydrochloric acid solution of tin (II) chloride dehydrate with tin concentration of 7 mg/ml, for which purpose 0.07 g of tin (II) chloride dehydrate and 0.2 ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid are slowly mixed, dissolution is carried out in an inert gas (argon) medium, when dissolution finishes, distilled water is added and the solution volume is brought to 10 ml. Then 0.015-0.025 ml of the prepared solution are taken and mixed with 5-6 mg of a ciprofloxacin hydrochloride substance, the obtained solution is frozen at a temperature of liquid nitrogen, placed into a sublimator chamber and subjected to freeze-drying at a temperature of -50°C, vacuum 0.09 Torr for 24 hours, after which it is transferred into an upper freeze-drying chamber and after-dried at a temperature of +15°C for 4.5 hours.
EFFECT: increased storage term of the reagent due to an increase of its stability.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes the following stages: interaction of eluate 68Ge/68Ga generator with a cation-exchange resin, washing the cation-exchange resin with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol, eluting 68Ga from the cation-exchange resin with the mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol, interaction of the obtained eluate with an anion-exchange resin, washing the anion-exchange resin with ethyl alcohol, drying the anion-exchange resin with air or inert gas and eluting 68Ga from the anion-exchange resin with a water solution of hydrochloric acid.
EFFECT: increased output of the process.
2 tbl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of the tomosynthesis of the lumbar part in the side projection in such patients at the preoperative stage includes obtaining images of the spine zone of interest in front and side projections. After obtaining the image in the front projection the width of the vertebra body is measured in mm and divided in two. Then 1/2 of the vertebra body width is subtracted from the standard height of the scanning zone in the side projection in an on the side position of the patient at 180 mm above the table, with obtaining the individual height of the scanning zone in the side projection. Then 1/2 of the vertebra body width in mm is added to the standard width of the scanning area of 80 mm, with obtaining the individual width of the scanning zone in the side projection. The calculated individual data of the width and height of the scanning zone are set on the tomograph working console and the image in the side projection is made.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase the accuracy of preoperative diagnostics in case of inflammatory diseases of the spine due to obtaining the images including the spinal column with the entire width of the vertebrae bodies without summation of tissues, individual selection of the width and height of scanning.
3 dwg, 1 ex