Set of cement bricks for construction of wall structure
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of building materials and building construction elements, namely to the set of concrete bricks, consisting of multislot ordinary brick (OB) with central slots, separated by spacers and opened to the end surfaces of brick, and more than twice more narrow septal brick (SB), which have similar protrusions and recesses on the end faces corresponding to them. In the claimed set of concrete bricks, all inner surfaces of bricks, including the central slots of OB, are designed with riffles or asperities, besides the peaks and troughs of riffles are curvilineal and are displaced relative to each other on adjacent slots, in this case all slots of OB and SB, except the central slots in OB are nonthrough.
EFFECT: improving the sound-insulating characteristics of walls without increase of construction costs, as well as providing comfort and ease of masonry works.
3 cl, 10 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates
The present invention relates to the field of building materials and construction elements, namely to the design of a set of concrete building stones.
The level of technology
Known symmetrical stone wall with ordinary through annular cavities having at the ends of two longitudinal troughs to create the mortar dowels for masonry (see GOST 6133-99, Fig. B. 9). When the through-voids is overrun masonry mortar and weighting of the wall. To avoid this the above GOST possible to perform non-through cracks. While the stone itself becomes harder, which also leads to an increase in the weight of the entire wall, i.e. to the increase of the construction cost. In addition, the greatest challenge is posed by vertical seams that are a lot of masonry mortar with strict requirements for its plasticity.
In GOST 6133-99 also the above construction of partition blocks (see Fig. B. 7, B. 8) or with smooth ends, or with depressions for the formation of mortar dowels. Septal stones (PC) together with ordinary stones (RK) form a system that allows you to build not only the load-bearing or self-bearing walls of buildings, and partitions within them.
In addition to the described disadvantages of the stones (B. 9) it's hard prick, so for normal operation Kamenica� require additional finishing or corner stones. All this increases the range, complicates logistics and requires additional space for storage of products and avoidance of re-grading.
In addition, with the use of these stones are related to the problem of providing the required parameters on the sound insulation of walls, since the sound insulation depends on the quality of vertical seams, and in the case of pustoshovki this clutch can negate all the efforts of the builders and constructors.
There is a solution which avoids these drawbacks (see RF patent for useful model No. 101401). The ledge on one end wall of an ordinary stone and a corresponding groove on the other allow you to create bearstone the connection stones, and additional longitudinal aperture provides reliable sound insulation wall even when the wall chasing with two sides.
This solution has the following disadvantages.
In case of need in additional element, the stones must be split, and these stones are hard to crack. They can only be cut using special equipment that the construction is extremely difficult to ensure that every workplace. When trying to reduce weight and dimensions of the stone (its thickness) having problems with sound insulation. Besides, such stones are not in line with modern wall stones having grooves and protrusions on the ends than the size�in the grooves and protrusions above ordinary wall stones (see the website www.meliconpolar.ru section bulkhead stones").
To eliminate these disadvantages of the proposed solution of ordinary stone wall with protrusions on one end wall of stone and with the corresponding grooves on the other (see RF patent for useful model No. 100787), and the grooves and ledges of these rocks correspond to the protrusions and grooves of partition blocks, which makes possible their bearstone connection in different combinations. In addition, this stone has high insulating characteristics due to the corrugated rough texture of the internal surfaces with the correct alternation of longitudinal protrusions and / or depressions (see GOST 6133-99, p. 3), and the tops of these projections and depressions on the adjacent inner surfaces are shifted relative to each other.
It is obvious that the increase of the coefficient of sound insulation (R3we are more than comfortable accommodation; or when consistently given R3allows to reduce the width of the stone, i.e. to reduce the construction costs.
However, this stone also has flaws that do not correspond to the modern level of development of the construction industry.
The presence of cracks of complex shapes is certainly a progressive step, however, these RK cavity cracks and roughness of their internal surfaces are not along the entire length of the stone. As for the ends of the stones, at their connection the way�is solid solid jumper, through which the sound passes, bypassing complex annular space.
The present invention is to create a design of a set of concrete stones, which will be addressed the above shortcomings, as well as the task of further increasing the sound insulation coefficient (R3).
Disclosure of the invention
The above problem is solved by creating a set of concrete stones, which consists of raw stone (RK) with Central cavities separated by bridges and exposed to the end surfaces of the stone, and more than two times narrower bulkhead stone (PC) whose end faces are identical protrusions and corresponding grooves, and the claimed set of concrete stones differs in that all internal surfaces of the stones, including the Central cavity of the Republic of Kazakhstan, made with corrugations or rough edges, and protrusions and depressions of the curved corrugation and the neighbouring cracks and cavities are shifted relative to each other, and with all the cracks of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the PC except the Central cavities in the ROK are blind.
In an embodiment of the invention jumpers in the Republic of Kazakhstan between the Central slits can have a height less than the height of the stones.
In an embodiment of the invention in the laying of the gem of the Central slit of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the space between two parallel PCs, connected�bubbled with RK, can be filled with sound absorbing materials.
The technical result is to improve the sound insulation properties of the walls without increasing construction costs, as well as providing convenience and ease of masonry works.
Brief description of the drawings
These and other features of the present invention will become better understood when reading the following description and referring to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 illustrates the structure of an ordinary stone according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 illustrates a bottom view of masonry, when RK is connected to a PC according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 illustrates a bottom view of masonry according to another embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 illustrates a top view of the execution of the angle according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 illustrates the case of the niches in the wall according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 6 illustrates a fragment of masonry, when interroom partition is joined with the interior partition wall according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 7 illustrates the stone according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 8 illustrates the use of stones for many�Loen outer wall structure according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 9 illustrates the corrugations of adjacent surfaces according to the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 10 illustrates a bottom view of masonry according to another embodiment of the present invention.
The implementation of the invention
The proposed design of ordinary stone, shown in Fig. 1, in which:
1 - ordinary stone (ROK);
2 is an end surface of the RK with the projections 3 and grooves 4, and RK of length L and width consists essentially of two stones 5 width b with internal non-through slots 6 having a corrugated surface. Mentioned the stones 5 are connected to each other by crosspieces 7, which have a height less than the height H, the value of S.
Thus, an ordinary stone (RK) 1 is an essentially two bodies in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped (5 stones), each of which has one end side vertically oriented protrusion 3 in terms of form, close to the trapezium, and on the other end side vertically oriented groove 4 of a shape corresponding to the shape of the protrusion 3, and the two bodies are placed parallel to each other at a certain distance from each other (Central cavity) and connected by at least two crosspieces 7, arranged at a distance from the end faces of the 5 stones. Thus, RK 1 is open at the ends and has �ENISA least one of through the Central cavity between the ridges 7. In addition, the stones 5 are vertically oriented internal non-through slit 6, which can be opened with one of the horizontal surfaces of the stone 5, but do not reach the opposite horizontal side of the stone 5.
In addition, a set of stones also includes a separate partition stones (PC) 8 having a width more than two times smaller than the width of ordinary stones (RK) 1, and also representing the body in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped having one end side vertically oriented protrusion 3, and the other end side, a vertically oriented groove 4, which by their form correspond to the protrusion 3 and the groove 4 of the 5 stones of ordinary stone 1. It provided the possibility of joining the septal stone (PC) 8 with any of the stones 5 RK 1.
PC 8 has a length L and may have an internal cavity, analogous to the internal cracks 6 RK 1, the inner surface of which is serrated or have a roughness (see Fig. 2). Fig. 2 shows the clutch (bottom view) in which RK 1 is connected to a PC 8, in this case, since RK 1 stones 5 are only connected by crosspieces 7, between them are formed through the cavity, so that the end of massive fragments of disjointed stones. The alternation in the laying of the stones 1 and 8 allows for a much easier installation, because the 8 stones lighter, with namepros to work but RK 1 it ensures the correct orientation of the 8 stones in the wall due to the " groove and raised connections. Internal through cavity 9 RK 1, also formed of corrugated or rough walls of stone and having a width of 5 and provides additional insulation. Also between stones 8 by their coupling with RK 1 automatically creates a cavity 10. The presence of roughness on all internal surfaces of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1 provides increased reflection and scattering of the sound waves and thus throughout the entire wall, the principle of alternation of the environment with high density environment with low density. If necessary additional elements stones 8 easily shoot up (like the bricks) hand tools, without the need of special equipment.
Fig. 3 shows a variant in which the clutch is coming to the wall 11, while the distance L1<L is provided with split stones 8, which on one side are joined with RK 1, and the other through the mortar seam 12 are joined with the wall 11.
Fig. 4 shows the performance of angle (top view), when RK 1 ensure "alignment" split to the right size stones 8A, 8b and 8c. Chipped gems are joined mortar joints, the strength of the angle may be increased at the expense of a corner reinforcing bars 13, which are laid in the horizontal joints.
Proper design for�allows to reduce the number of required additional elements, but in case of need, the process of splitting stones is simple and allows you to keep the cavities 9 and 10 and also in a difficult corner elements.
Fig. 4 shows the performance of the end item (e.g., an aperture), when the edge portion of the cavity 9 of length l1is filled with a block of wood 14 width l3which is planted on the glue thickness l4or mounting adhesive foam. Obviously, instead of a piece of wood can be another element (plastic cap, foam liner, etc.).
Fig. 5 shows the case of the niches in the wall to accommodate, for example, the electrical panel or the necessary shelves or other technological elements. Fig. 5 masonry also shown as a top view, when the bed of stones 1 and 8 create a surface for the application of the solution. So the solution is not to fall into the voids, mortar is usually used "tapes of a desired width and thickness.
Fig. 6 shows a fragment of masonry, when interroom partition thickness To fit in with interior partition, made of PC 8.
To further increase the sound insulation is possible the space filling of the cavities 9 and 10 absorbing materials such as mineral wool sheets, or sheets of Styrofoam, or monolithic foam of low density. In these cases, in addition to high zvukopisi�arousih properties of RK decreases and its thermal conductivity, allowing you to use this RK in effective walling, moreover, that the proposed stone has virtually no cold bridges.
Jumper 7 do not bear the load and are only used to connect two parts of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1, while their height is equal to hp=H-c and thus in the mounting position of the stone at the bottom of the jumper 7 is formed a free space that can be used for the organization of attachment of stones over the openings.
Fig. 7 shows RK 1 in this position, between two walls of an aperture opened the metal frame 15, which ensures a stable position of the stones. To increase strength nadbramny jumper space of the cavity 9 is filled with concrete.
Fig. 8 shows how you can use stones for 1 multi-layered outside wall construction, in which the cavity space 9 RK 1 filled with concrete 16. Next, a wall of small RK insulated plate heater 18, which is attached to RK 1 stainless (e.g., plastic) dowel 17 umbrella type, pressing the heater 18 to the Republic of Kazakhstan 1. Further, the insulation on the grid 19 plastered with a thin layer of plaster 20. Dowel 17, passing through two walls of stone, provides reliable fastening of insulation to the wall. By increasing the length of the dowels 17 and he falls into a layer of insulation 16. In any case, offer�, the types of rocks 1 and 8 provide when sharing the required amplification dug and can be used for walling tall buildings.
The use of a layer of insulation 16 to reduce the thickness of external insulation 18, i.e. to reduce overall costs for installation of the wall while improving its insulating qualities.
Void stone 1 is serrated, with depressions and protrusions for better audio dispersion advisable to perform a curve.
If the distance between the peaks of the protrusions is equal to T, then on the adjacent surfaces, it is advisable either to shift the corrugations by ΔT (see Fig. 9), either to produce corrugations with another step T1≠T.
Fig. 10 shows an embodiment in which the length of PC 8 twice RK 1. Since the stone is 8 more than twice easier RK 1, by increasing the length of the PC reduces the complexity of the masonry in accordance with overall size, enabling easy execution of masonry. In any case, it is obvious that the length of the stones 1 and 8 must be multiples of each other.
Thus, the presented set of stones helps to improve acoustical characteristics of the walls without increasing construction costs, and provide the convenience and ease of masonry works.
1. A set of concrete stones for the construction of a wall construction consisting of an ordinary stone (RK) consisting of two parallel stones placed in the shape of a parallelepiped, interconnected by at least two crosspieces, RA�put some distance from the end surface of the above-mentioned stones, with the formation between the ridges and rocks with at least one Central cavity, and more than two times narrower bulkhead stone (PC), wherein RK and/or PC are not through the slit, wherein all internal surfaces of the stones, including the Central cavity of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the said non-through the cracks of the Republic of Kazakhstan and/or PC, made with corrugations or rough edges, and protrusions and depressions of the curved corrugation and the adjacent cavities are shifted relative to each other, at least one PC with one end face has a projection and the other side corresponding groove, which by their form correspond to the protrusions and grooves formed on the end surfaces of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
2. A set of stones according to claim 1, characterized in that the links connecting the stones in the Republic of Kazakhstan, have a height less than the height of the stones.
3. A set of stones according to claim 1, wherein the walls of the Central cavity of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the space between two parallel PC connected to RK, made with the possibility of filling of sound absorbing materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to construction elements in the form of finished construction blocks for erection of bearing and barrier structures of buildings and facilities. A construction block has the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped and comprises three identical and parallel panels connected to each other. Each panel comprises two flat parts and a layer of filler between them. All panels have identical through holes of round shape, where connection parts of cylindrical shape are inserted. The middle panel is displaced relative to side panels so that in the middle of the construction block on its larger side face there is a long ledge, on its opposite side face there is a long groove, on the smallest side face there is a short ledge, and on the opposite side face there is a short groove. On one of largest side faces of the middle panel there are ledges in the form of a square prism, and on its opposite face there are grooves, which fully match the ledges by shape, size and location. Between them the panels are fixed with the help of glue or with the help of fastening elements. During assembly of a construction structure, ledges of adjacent construction blocks are matched with appropriate grooves, and ledges of adjacent middle panels are coupled with appropriate grooves, also at the angle of 90 degrees in the horizontal plane. By means of the specified matching and coupling the location of each construction block is self-aligned and fixed in all orthogonal planes, accuracy of assembly and stability of the construction structure to external impact is provided. The multi-layer structure of the construction block provides for its high strength under low own weight, filler layers of all panels create heat and sound insulation.
EFFECT: low weight, convenience of manipulations and simplicity of coupling of adjacent construction blocks make assembly of construction structures from them possible manually and within quite a short period of time.
5 cl, 79 dwg
SUBSTANCE: formwork block for manufacturing of multi-layer solid structures comprises embedded boards and links, transverse reinforcement, and also formwork shields, with edges made as capable of joining with other formwork shields, in which the specified shields are placed in the space between the specified shields and are connected with them (shields) by means of specified links as capable of non-breaking separation of specified shields from the specified links after pouring of fluid material into the specified space and its (material) hardening.
EFFECT: increased strength of a structure.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction block, shaping of which is based on a rectangular parallelepiped, with stretcher, header and bed faces, comprises parallel and distant plates connected to each other by links. The link between some two plates is arranged with a shift towards one header face in respect to a link between two other adjacent plates displaced to another header face. In this block every two adjacently located plates are connected with a link to form a U-shaped part, external plates of which are stretcher faces, and internal ones are connected with an additional link, which divides the zone between U-shaped parts into two open cavities of different volume, the least of which is located at the side of the header face, to which open cavities of U-shaped parts reach. Also the method is described to erect the bond from the described blocks.
EFFECT: improved operating properties of stretcher bond.
6 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structural formwork block for openings from fine-grained or other material close in properties comprises parallel external face and rear longitudinal walls connected by three partitions. Longitudinal walls and connecting partitions are combined with a common spatial reinforcement frame, at the same time one of extreme partitions is concreted, the middle one is represented in the form of a rectangular wooden spacer shifted to the centre of the block by depth equal to its thickness, and its ends reaching external surfaces of the block are jammed and anchors in longitudinal walls and may serve for fixation of finishing materials.
EFFECT: reduced material and labour inputs for formwork works, increased solidity, earthquake stability, heat and sound insulation properties of walls in buildings and structures, improved quality of works.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: facing hollow-porous ceramic unit is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side stretching and binding faces and inner constructive insulating structure made of spaced apart ceramic baffles and bridges of series of through hollows, unit has vertical and horizontal grooves that extend beyond the stretching and bed faces to the width of one hollow and side face thickness, as well as vertical mark extending through the middle of the stretching side. Rows of through cavities are arranged alternately in parallel and perpendicularly with respect to the unit binding faces, besides the unit on the stretching side has a solid facing layer with textured surface imitating the brickwork.
EFFECT: improvement of physical and technical indicators both of the unit and laying method of the building wall, increase of laying precision during wall construction, reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, increase of laying resistance of shear due to the use of geometric parameters of the ceramic unit, its rows of through hollows made perpendicularly with respect to each other, its vertical and horizontal slots.
SUBSTANCE: leave-in-place form comprises two oppositely arranged slabs, an external one from heat insulation material and an internal one from concrete, attached to each other and forming a space between each other for filling with a fluid material, capable of hardening. The internal slab of concrete is made as reinforced and comprises reinforcing elements of two types, at the same time reinforcing elements of the first type are made as V-shaped in the cross section from bent mesh and are installed in parallel and at the identical distance from each other and provide for placement of reinforcing elements of the second type at the identical distance from each other and fixation parallel to them, and the reinforcing elements of the second type represent spatial reinforcing elements made of three longitudinal rods and two rods bent with a V-shaped zigzag. Bent rods are simultaneously connected by tops to one longitudinal rod, and by other tops - to two other rods with formation of reinforced frames of prismatic shape. Reinforcing elements of the first type are made as protruding from the concrete slab and providing for connection and fixation of the external slab to it, being made of heat insulation material and pierced by glass plastic rods with fixators providing for connection and fixation of a mesh to the rear surface of the slab from heat insulation material, and the mesh is made as capable of connection of reinforcing elements of the first type to it.
EFFECT: simplified usage of this device in performance of construction works, provided by absence of complicated operations in performance of assembly or facing works, no transfer of temperature effects inside a concrete structure, exclusion of local freezing and formation of dew point on steel reinforcement inside concrete.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building block with through cavities separated by partitions, perpendicular to a longitudinal axis, is made with ledges that frame its cavities on the upper end surface and their responsive mutually penetrating slots on the lower end surface. Also the block comprises a system of holes plugged in their central part by a partition with the possibility of its removal in order to convert them from plugged into through ones, besides, walls and partitions of the block are made with additional stiffening ribs and have a bulge in their central part, and slots are arranged at the side surfaces of the building block.
EFFECT: higher strength and reliability, stable fixation of blocks to each other.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction industry, in particular, to one of types of construction equipment - non-detachable curb with lining external surfaces from slabs, for use in monolithic housing construction. A non-detachable construction curb comprises external and internal slabs, installed at a certain distance from each other to from an inner volume for installation of reinforcement and filling with construction filler, and connecting links between the slabs. Links are made as connected pairwise metal brackets, each of which is at one side fixed on the inner surface of one slab, and end parts of brackets have 4 strips with engaged teeth, limiting stops and response windows for teeth, at the same time end parts of engaged strips are made of two types, some of them in the tail part have a stepped site, on which there is an engagement tooth and a limiting stop in the form of stamped ledges, and other engaged strips have response rectangular windows for engaged teeth, at the same time edges of engaged strips, on which there are teeth, have flanging with width of 5-7 mm, bent by 8-10° from the plane of the bracket shelf towards the opposite side from the tooth.
EFFECT: provision of reliable fixation of facing boards and preservation of parameters of a slab-to-slab gap when filled with concrete and other fillers.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.
SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacturing reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix contains, kg/m3: Portland cement 160-170, foamed granulated polystyrene 15-17, basalt fiber 0.50-0.70, saponified wood tar, plasticizing supplement 0.4-0.5, polyacrylamide 0.40-0.60, lignopan B-2 0.35-0.50, and water 50-55. Reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix consists in mixing components of mix so that foamed polystyrene, basalt fiber, and additives introduced together with part of tempering water are mixed preliminarily, after which Portland cement is added at stirring, stirring is continued for 5-15 sec and, after addition of water, mix is stirred for further 25-40 sec. Articles are manufactured from polystyrene-concrete mix using volume vibration compaction to degree of compression 8-15 kg/cm2.
EFFECT: simplified mix preparation procedure, increased strength of articles, improved heat-insulation properties and frost resistance thereof, and reduced their vapor permeability and water absorption.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings.
SUBSTANCE: construction block comprises shell of solid sand concrete and core made of porous cement-based material. Block is produced by extrusion-compensatory method with shell cavity division into three sections by means of transversal stiffening diaphragms. The sections are shaped as triangular prisms. Solid sand concrete includes sand having gradation factor of at least 1.88. To provide cement-sand concrete plasticity during block forming tall oil pitch taken in amount of 0.3-1.5% of Portland cement mass is additionally used. Raw mix for porous material preparation includes (per 1m3 of ready mix) Portland cement - 159-300 kg, tall oil pitch - 0.9 l and aqueous protein solution with 0.75-0.9% concentration - 3.2-6.0 l. Shell and stiffening diaphragms of construction block have the same thicknesses. Shell production method and method for porous material production for shell filling are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased quality and productivity.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the field of construction and may be used for the blockwork of various purpose buildings and facilities, particularly those requiring a high degree of waterproofing of vertical block connection seams. The hollow construction block contains a hollow frame with internal and external walls connected with two crossbars with a height less than the height of the layers being connected. The internal frame wall is designed as bearing, and the external wall is ornamental and waterproofing, and has elements of a rabbeting-type waterproofing interlocking connection, forming a "tile" effect; the elements are located in the places of connection with the following similar wall of another block and coincide with the external wall front surface plane.
EFFECT: provision of reliable waterproofing connection of end joints in building under construction and attractive appearance of front part of building.
4 cl, 3 dwg