Method for measuring blood pentachlorophenol by gas chromatography analysis


G01N1/28 - INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (separating components of materials in general B01D, B01J, B03, B07; apparatus fully provided for in a single other subclass, see the relevant subclass, e.g. B01L; measuring or testing processes other than immunoassay, involving enzymes or micro-organisms C12M, C12Q; investigation of foundation soil in situE02D0001000000; monitoring or diagnostic devices for exhaust-gas treatment apparatus F01N0011000000; sensing humidity changes for compensating measurements of other variables or for compensating readings of instruments for variations in humidity, seeG01D; or the relevant subclass for the variable measuredtesting or determining the properties of structures G01M; measuring or investigating electric or magnetic properties of materials G01R; systems in general for determining distance, velocity or presence by use of propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, of reflected or reradiated radio waves, analogous arrangements using other waves G01S; determining sensitivity, graininess, or density of photographic materials G03C0005020000; testing component parts of nuclear reactors G21C0017000000)

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: blood is sampled, acidified to pH 2-3 with aqueous oxalic acid, extracted in toluene for 5 min; the prepared extract is centrifuged for 60 min at 7,000 rpm, added with sodium sulphate to dewater and acetylated for 3 hours by introducing trifluoroacetic anhydride while stirring continuously in the pyridine medium. The blood sample, toluene, trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine are taken in volume ratio 5:2.5:0.2:0.1 respectively.

EFFECT: simplifying the stage of sample preparation and increasing the sensitivity of pentachlorophenol test.

3 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to medical Toxicological studies, in particular to sanitary toxicology, and can be used for the quantitative determination of pentachlorophenol in blood.

The known method of determining the concentrations of chlorophenols in aqueous solutions, including sorption preconcentration and high performance liquid-chromatographic determination (Patent RF №2461821), according to which produce instantaneous sorption preconcentration on polymeric adsorbents, desorption of chlorophenols water at temperatures of 150-200°C and high performance liquid-chromatographic determination of chlorophenols in the aqueous concentrate. Due to the desorption of water at temperatures of 150-200°C and feed just concentrate on a chromatographic column of the halfwidth of the peaks of chlorophenols in the chromatograms are reduced by 2-3 times (up to 6-8), and limits of detection are reduced by 5 times in comparison with the known analogues. The technical result of the known invention is to provide a method for the determination of chlorophenols in water characterized by high sensitivity and small width of the peaks on the chromatogram.

The disadvantage of this known method is the high complexity of the allocation of pentachlorophenol from biocrude, which was used in high-performance liquid-chromatographic opredeleniya high pressure, and 10 ml of a solution of the chlorophenol was pumped through a steel column (inner diameter 3 mm, length 40 mm) filled with hypercrosslinked polystyrene-divinylbenzene (the surface area of 860 m/g, the particle size of 75-125 microns). The column was heated in a thermostat to 150-200°C and pumped through a column of water HPLC high-pressure pump. At the outlet from the column was installed in a capillary of the heat exchanger for cooling the concentrate to room temperature and the pressure relief device to prevent water boiling in the column. The flow of the concentrate was applied to HPLC column filled with octadecylsilyl, thus there is a compression zone containing chlorophenols.

For the implementation of this process is used dorogostoyashie equipment - HPLC high pressure pump, a capillary of the heat exchanger, and also requires a large investment of time for research due to the complexity of the sample preparation.

Also known a method of determining polychlorophenols, in particular 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, in aqueous media (Patent RF №2021593), which is the concentration of analytes butyl alcohol in the amount of 2.6 to 3.8 wt.% in the presence of 40.0-of 46.2 wt.% of sodium sulfate in the aqueous phase and subsequent potentiometric titration of the extract in the medium of dimethylformamide with an alkali solution in isopropyl alcohol. However, this method is not without lack�Atkov. Potentiometric titration based on the determination of the equivalence point according to the results of potentiometric measurements. When establishing the equivalence point potential error: a fuzzy set the end point titration; it is impossible to establish the exact position of the equivalence point because of the asymmetry of the reaction.

Near the equivalence point there is an abrupt change (jump) of the potential of the indicator electrode. This is, of course, only when at least one participant reactions titration is a party to the electrode process. The reaction potentiometric titration should proceed strictly stoichiometric, to have high speed and go to the end.

Potentiometric titration is used in cases when it is necessary to conduct a rapid analysis of substances, and the necessary reagents and equipment.

Also known a method of determination of pentachlorophenol in food (Methodical instructions. MOOK 4.1.2479-09; approved. The CPS 02.02.2009). According to this method, a weighed sample pulverized and mixed in a blender sample of a food product is placed in a conical flask, add distilled water, concentrated sulfuric acid and a mixture of hexane-isopropanol (4:1). The mixture was centrifuged for 15 min at 2000 rpm and the separated organic with�pernament. The extraction is repeated twice. Hexane extracts were pooled. To the extract add 0.1 M solution of sodium tetraborate (borax), the aqueous phase is separated and the extraction repeated twice more. Hexane extract is dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated to dryness in a stream of nitrogen. To the resulting dry residue was added a saturated solution of diazomethane in the air.

The reaction mixture was kept at room temperature for 15-20 min, after bleaching, the solution is evaporated to dryness in a stream of nitrogen. To dry residue add standard Aldrin solution concentration, the solvent is again evaporated to dryness in a stream of nitrogen and the residue dissolved in 0.2 CC of hexane. And then by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the concentration of pentachlorophenol in the range of 0.005-1.0 mg/kg. the Disadvantage of this method is the low sensitivity.

The closest to the proposed invention is a method of determining polychlorophenols, particularly pentachlorophenol, in the blood ("guidelines for the identification of gamma-HCH and its isomers (alpha, beta, and Delta-HCH) and metabolites (polychlorinated phenols) in biological fluids (blood, organs, tissues and subcellular fractions of the liver of warm-blooded animals by thin-layer chromatography", approved by the USSR Ministry of health on 3 January 1985 N3194-85). Known sposobnoy on thin-layer chromatographic determination of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, its alpha-, beta - and Delta-isomers and metabolites in the presence in the biological material of warm-blooded with a detection limit of 0.01 mg/L.

If you implement this method whole blood (1-5 ml) is placed in a measuring tube on the cone, pour 3-5 ml of organic extractant is n-hexane, stirred and then extracted with apparatus for shaking with the average intensity within 5-7 min. After separation of the layers of the hexane extract was separated by pipette and filtered through a layer of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Repeat the extraction, the extracts were pooled. Then carry out the chromatography in a thin layer of sorbent. An aliquot (0.1 ml) of the extract using a micropipette (microspace) is applied to the chromatographic plate "Silufol" or "Kieselgel 60" F. Near breakdown cause different amounts of standard solutions of the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorinated phenols (0.2; 1; 2; 5 μg of each component). The plate is placed in a chamber for chromatography containing a mixture of n-hexane with acetone in the ratio of 4:1 ("Silufol") or 6:1 ("Kieselgel 60" F). The feeding chamber 30 min After chromatography (path length of the solvent 15-17 cm) plate air in a horizontal position, and then treated with one of the reagents exhibiting with the spray, p�glycanova to an air compressor. The zone of localization of gamma-, alpha-, beta - and Delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, pentachlorophenol and other polychlorophenols detected on the chromatograms after irradiation with UV light in the form of brown spots. Quantitative assessment of the content of HCH isomers and polychlorinated phenols in the sample is carried out visually or densitometric on the device type "Opton".

The disadvantage of this known method are:

- the complexity of the preparation of blood samples to quantify, which is carried out by continuous extraction and agitation;

- lack of sensitivity, because the quantitative analysis in thin layer chromatography is characterized only as semi-quantitative.

The technical result achieved by the proposed method is to simplify sample preparation stages, while increasing the sensitivity.

Said technical result is achieved by the proposed method for the quantitative determination of pentachlorophenol in blood by gas chromatographic analysis, comprising a sample of blood, extraction with an organic solvent from a specified sample of pentachlorophenol and quantify by gas chromatographic analysis using the calibration curve, while what is new is that after sampling her blood acidified to pH 2-3 water dissolve�Ohm oxalic acid, as toluene extractant and the extraction was conducted for 5 min, then the resulting extract was centrifuged for 60 min at 7000 rpm, then to the resulting extract add sodium sulfate to remove water, and then trifluoroacetic anhydride and acetylate for 3 hours with continuous stirring in an environment of pyridine, with the blood sample, toluene, trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine are taken in the following volume ratio of 5:2,5:0,2:0,1 respectively.

As a solution of oxalic acid using 3% aqueous solution.

Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in blood test is carried out using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector, on capillary column DB-XLB 30 m*0.32 mm*0.5 µm at the temperature mode: capillary column -150°C-250°C; evaporator 260°C; detector, 280°C; flow rate of carrier gas - nitrogen - 20 cm3rpm, speed, gas - 30.0 cm/s, the retention time of the tri-fluoroacetate pentachlorophenol - was 6.77±0,04 min, pentachlorophenol and 9.6±0,03 min.

The technical result is achieved due to the following.

Experimentally detected that the specified technical result is ensured by it a set of proposed signs, the implementation of which results in high sensitivity of detection of pentachlorophenol in the sample of cu�V, and simplified method.

When implementing the proposed method of preparing the blood sample for gas chromatographic analysis is carried out by chemical modification of pentachlorophenol, which includes two stages.

The first stage is carried out extraction concentration of pentachlorophenol from blood samples by solvent extraction with an organic extractant in an acidic environment. This stage is designed for conversion of pentachlorophenol in a more convenient for subsequent gas chromatographic analysis of the organic phase, to increase its concentration in the extract and separation of interfering components from a biological matrix.

The second stage is carried out chemical modification by acetylation with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the environment of an organic solvent - toluene in the presence of pyridine. Acetylation in the environment of organic solvent eliminates the hydrolysis of esters and improves gas chromatographic characteristics of the generated triptoreline pentachlorophenol.

Thus, sample preparation in the proposed method is much simpler than in the prototype, both in terms of time and complexity.

Due to the fact that the resulting triptorelin pentachlorophenol analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detector, is provided m�ximala possible by the sensitivity of the gas chromatographic determination. Getting trifenatate pentachlorophenol improves its chromatographic characteristics (reduces boiling temperature, improves the shape of the peak), increases the sensitivity (introduction 3 fluorine atoms) in determining halogenoalkanes the electron capture detector and allows to reduce the detection limit to 100 times.

In laboratory conditions was carried out a series of experiments to establish the materiality of signs underlying the proposed method.

Example. According to the claimed method take analyzed the blood sample with a volume of 5 cm, put it in a test tube with a capacity of 13.0 cm3, pour 2.5 cm3bidistilled water, 1 cm33%-aqueous solution of oxalic acid to pH 2-3 and 2.5 cm of organic extractant - toluene and conduct extraction concentration for 5 min.

For separation of the organic extractant - toluene, the extract was centrifuged for 60 min at 7000 rpm and then dried with sodium sulfate by weight 0.2-0.3 g.

This is followed by derivatization of the above extract in the ethers by acetylation with trifluoroacetic anhydride (volume 0.2 cm3) in the environment of pyridine (volume OD cm) for 3 hours. The ester (triptoreline pentachlorophenol) in a volume of 1 mm3analyze gas chromatographic method using electron detector�CSO capture. All studies were performed on a gas chromatograph "Crystal 5000" with the use of series capillary columns DB-XLB 30 m*0.32 mm*0.5 µm at temperatures: column -150°C-250°C; evaporator 260°C; detector, 280°C; flow rate of carrier gas - nitrogen - 20 cm3/min, the velocity of the gas 3-30,0 cm/s, retention times: trifenatate pentachlorophenol was 6.77±0,04 min, pentachlorophenol 9,6±0,03 min (high efficiency method for the determination of pentachlorophenol in blood achieved by selection of optimum conditions of gas chromatographic analysis) and performed quantitative determination of an analyte in the prepared sample on the calibration chart, which is built through the use of standard solutions of pentachlorophenol.

To construct a calibration graph used the following method. Calibration characteristics were determined in the calibration solutions of pentachlorophenol by the method of absolute calibration. The prepared solutions were chromatographically on capillary column at least 5 times. On the resulting chromatogram was determined by the peak areas determined by components and by average measurements at 5 concentrations for calibration built calibration feature. It expresses the dependence of the peak area of the studied substances on the chromatogram (mV - automatic calculation with use�using hardware-software complex) content (µg/cm 3).

In test tubes, where it had first been introduced 5.0 cm3bidistilled water was injected by microspace different volumes of working solutions of pentachlorophenol for calibration according to table 1. Each series consists of 5 solutions for standardization.

Then, each solution was treated according to the proposed method and the obtained ether (triptoreline pentachlorophenol) is analyzed by gas chromatographic method. The procedure is repeated similarly for each calibration solution. On the resulting chromatogram determine the peak areas determined by components and by average results from 5 series build a calibration curve. To obtain reliable results of analysis of each calibration mixture is carried out not less than 2 times. The procedure is repeated similarly for each calibration solution.

When research was studied the efficiency of extraction of pentachlorophenol from the blood by the use of organic extractants hexane and toluene. The average values of the completeness of extraction of pentachlorophenol from the blood are presented in table 2.

n is the number of experimental series; p - probability

Found that the greatest extraction of pentachlorophenol from the blood is achieved by its extraction with toluene of 84.9%. The extraction time is min. To achieve the maximum extraction of pentachlorophenol from the blood is about 5 minutes. The pH of the medium is in the range 2-3 and used for extraction of the organic solvent toluene provides under these conditions, the maximum efficiency of extraction of pentachlorophenol from biocrude. When the duration of the extraction is more or less 5 minutes, the region of maximum extraction of pentachlorophenol is shifted to the downside quantitative extraction of pentachlorophenol from the blood.

Determination of pentachlorophenol in blood includes extraction concentration from the blood samples with toluene at pH=2-3 and subsequent determination by gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. The greatest degree of extraction at a selected optimum conditions of gas chromatographic analysis and the organic solvent was achieved using toluene and 3% solution of oxalic acid at pH=2-3.

In the course of the research were fulfilled the conditions of acetylation at different volumes of trifluoroacetic anhydride (V=0.1 and 0.2 cm3during derivatization, which provide a quantitative yield of the derivative (triptoreline pentachlorophenol - derivative of pentachlorophenol, which is determined in the blood) (table 3 and table 4).

It was found that when using aceti�youseo reagent trifluoroacetic anhydride in the amount of 0.1 cm 3slowing the process derivatization and maximum quantitative yield of the ether derivative of pentachlorophenol of 97.8% was observed only after 24 hours, after which there is a decrease in its concentration (table 3).

The results of the research (tab.3 and table.4) allow to recommend when performing acetylation to use 0.2 cm3trifluoroacetic anhydride in the environment of pyridine for 3 hours, because in this mode the completeness of extraction is 98,6%.

The greatest influence on the output of the ether derivative of pentachlorophenol provides acetylation in organic solvent (toluene), with the volume of trifluoroacetic anhydride 0.2 cm3in the environment of pyridine for 3 hours with a quantitative yield of 98.6%, (table 4).

Getting trifenatate pentachlorophenol optimizes its chromatographic characteristics (improves peak shape), reduces the boiling point, increases the sensitivity (introduction 3 fluorine atoms) in determining halogenoalkanes the electron capture detector and allows to reduce the detection limit to 100 times.

Thus, on the basis of the results of the research showed that the extractant in the extraction of triptoreline of pentachlorophenol from the blood can be used toluene, as acetyl�following reagent trifluoroacetic anhydride, the catalyst is pyridine, when the ratio of the blood sample:extractant:allerease reagent:pyridine as 5:2,5:0,2:0,1 and centrifuging the biosample at 7000 rpm for 60 min. the Optimum time of extraction and derivatization for the determination of pentachlorophenol in blood is 3 hours. If you change this ratio up or down the side of completeness of extraction was reduced.

The separation of toluene from the extract is performed by centrifugation at 7000 rpm for 60 min Centrifugation over a smaller range of time sufficient to eliminate the matrix effect and to optimize the quantitative determination of pentachlorphenol in the bioassay.

The lower limit of determination of pentachlorophenol in an analyzed volume of the blood sample is 0,0021 ng. The proposed method allows to increase the sensitivity of detection of pentachlorophenol in blood in comparison with the prototype (of 0.005-1.0 mg/kg) in 2.5 times.

1. Method of quantitative determination of pentachlorophenol in blood by gas chromatographic analysis, comprising a sample of blood, extraction with an organic solvent from a specified sample of pentachlorophenol and quantify by gas chromatographic analysis using the calibration curve, characterized in that after sampling her blood as large�sleuth to pH 2-3 with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid, as toluene extractant and the extraction was conducted for 5 min, then the resulting extract was centrifuged for 60 min at 7000 rpm, then to the resulting extract add sodium sulfate to remove water, and then trifluoroacetic anhydride and acetylate for 3 hours with continuous stirring in an environment of pyridine, with the blood sample, toluene, trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine are taken in the following volume ratio of 5:2,5:0,2:0,1 respectively.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a solution of oxalic acid using 3% aqueous solution.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas-chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in blood test is carried out using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector, on capillary column DB-XLB-30m*0.32 mm*0.5 µm at the temperature mode: capillary column - 150°C-250°C; evaporator 260°C; detector, 280°C; flow rate of carrier gas - nitrogen - 20 cm3rpm, speed, gas - 30.0 cm/s, the retention time of triptoreline pentachlorophenol - was 6.77±0,04 min, pentachlorophenol and 9.6±0,03 min.



 

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5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to making preparations of adhering or non-adhering cells and/or particles, contained in liquid. Compartment (10) for making said preparations contains accumulation chamber (20) for storing liquid in accumulation chamber in suspended state against force of gravity, acting on liquid, only due to forces of adhesion and/or superficial tension. Accumulation chamber is made with possibility of storing liquid, which contains cells and/or particles, and discharge of stored liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, through output opening (22) by application of specified external force, in particular centrifugal force. Compartment contains channel (30), located adjacently to output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20), with output opening (22) of accumulation chamber (20) leading to said channel. Channel (30) has section, larger than section of output opening (22), and wall in the place of transition from output opening (22) into channel (30) forms edge (32). Compartment also includes subject section (50) for reception of output liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, and absorbing means (40), located adjacently to subject section (50) between channel (30) and subject section (50). Absorbing means (40) has opening (42) , making it possible for liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, move through opening (42) onto subject section (50), and additionally removes liquid from liquid, containing said cells and/or particles, on subject section (50) in such a way as to leave said cells and/or particles on subject section (50) for analysis.

EFFECT: realisation of more efficient, reliable and high-quality making of preparations of cells and/or particles, contained in liquid.

25 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement of total gas content in non-traditional container rocks, such as gas-bearing container beds, which may be found in sedimentary rocks, volcanic or metamorphic rocks. The method includes stages of well drilling in the measurement range in a container bed to create a volume of drilling mud in annular space, which contains fragments of drilled rock and gas. At the same time the volume of annular space has the front edge and the rear edge, diversion of the front edge of the annular space volume so that entire volume of annular space is trapped in a degassing system for storage without its exposure to atmosphere, interruption of diversion of annular space volume after trapping of the front edge of annular space volume in the degassing system for storage in order to determine quantity of gas in terms of annular volume; and also in-situ calculation of the total gas volume in the container bed with account of gas and fragments of drilled rock in terms of fragments of drilled rock and gas, contained in the annular space volume.

EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of the method and the device for measurement of total gas content in non-traditional container rock.

25 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for identifying living and dead mesozooplankton in seawater samples, which involves taking samples, staining the organisms with suitable colouring material, giving a visual estimation of the colour intensity of the units under the microscope, which is combined with microphotographying the units with an adjustable camera without changing the settings keeping throughout a photographic session of at least one sample; thereafter colour and brightness specifications average for each unit are measured in the formed images with using a painting program, e.g. Adobe Photoshop package, and the units are referred to living or dead by a discriminative analysis of the varied digital values.

EFFECT: improving the method.

FIELD: veterinary medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises collection of urine after natural urination of animal into a sterile container. At that frozen urine samples are taken with the snow in winter, with the outdoor temperature is 10-50°C below zero.

EFFECT: use of the proposed method enables to extend the range of the animals tested to carrying the pathogenic leptospira, to provide the most long-term storage of the biological material selected, and to improve the accuracy of determining the source of leptospirosis.

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: pads with dimensions and shape identical to the sample which are made from the material providing for total rigidity of both pads that is less or equal to the rigidity of the sample being tested, are glued to two opposite surfaces of the sample thus a laboratory assembly is produced and then set in collet clamps of a testing machine. Each clamp is located between the edge of the end face and the beginning of fillet arc of the assembly. An extensometer is installed on the assembly surface. Load is applied to the assembly and basing on the extensometer readings the curve "deformation - stress" of the laboratory assembly is drawn up and used to restore the diagram of the sample deformation. Stress in the sample σs is expressed via the stress of the laboratory assembly σla and the pad σp, provided with deformation equality, according to the formula σs=3·σla-2·σp.

EFFECT: possibility to implement Saint-Venant principle and provision for homogeneous stress in the working part of a sample made from brittle material, provision for uniaxial tension in the working part of the sample from tested material, prevention of bending, provision for more force measurement points on the equal deformation base.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for acquisition and processing of geochemical survey data, which represents a gradient method of geochemical survey. The method involves acquisition at each sampling point of a set of samples by alternating sampling of soil samples and gas samples at the interval of 0.5-1 m downwards from ground surface. Then, analysis of soil and gas samples for their geochemical indicator or indicators is performed, and charts of geochemical indicator(s) and charts of its gradient depending on depth are built as per analysis results for each sampling point. Formation of profiles of geochemical indicator(s) and profiles of its gradient is performed for each depth; with that, the profile is built along the survey line. As per the obtained charts, isolines of geochemical indicator(s) and isolines of its gradient for the profile are built, as per which three-dimensional viewing diagram of the collected data of the area is formed. After that, determination as per characteristics of variations of geochemical indicator(s) is performed depending on depth and abnormalities of its gradients in the three-dimensional viewing diagram of the area rich in metal ores or deposits.

EFFECT: acquisition of large amount of information, namely information on longitudinal variations, other than common geochemical survey.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a method for retrieval of an antigen in a formaldehyde-fixed tissue sample, and to a kit used in said method. The method includes incubating the formaldehyde-fixed tissue sample in a first antigen retrieval solution at a temperature higher than 90°C; transferring the formaldehyde-fixed tissue sample to a second antigen retrieval solution; and incubating the formaldehyde-fixed tissue sample in the second antigen retrieval solution at a temperature higher than 90°C. The first antigen retrieval solution comprises a buffer solution having a pH range of between about 5 and about 7 and the second antigen retrieval solution comprises a buffer solution having a pH range of between about 7.5 and about 11. Alternatively, the first antigen retrieval solution comprises a buffer solution having a pH range of between about 7.5 and about 11 and the second antigen retrieval solution comprises a buffer solution having a pH range of between about 5 and about 7. The kit comprises a first antigen retrieval solution which retrieves at least a portion of unretrieved antigens in the sample, and a second antigen retrieval solution which retrieves at least some of another portion of unretrieved antigens in the sample. The first solution comprises citric acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, boric acid, diethyl barbituric acid, piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulphonic acid), dimethylarsinic acid, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, or a combination thereof, and the second solution comprises tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine (TRIS), 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid (TAPS), N,N′-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine (Bicine), N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine (Tricine), 4-2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid (HEPES), 2-{[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino}ethanesulphonic acid (TES), or a combination thereof.

EFFECT: said steps of using the first and second antigen retrieval solutions improve antigen retrieval in tissue compared to use of the first solution without the second solution and vice versa.

17 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of part samples from composite materials involves markup and cut-out of samples from part allowance. Part allowance is used to cut-out a ring which longitudinal section corresponds to transverse section of the sample workpiece. Then a flat template corresponding to longitudinal section of the sample workpiece is manufactured. In its central part there performed is an area of lower width with transverse matchmark applied on it in the middle. Location of sample workpieces is marked by the template along the perimeter of ring butt end by means of alignment of the template matchmark with material folds. Then sample workpieces are cut-out and machined to manufacture samples with thinned working area in the central part.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of manufacturing quality control of large parts from composite materials.

4 dwg

FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.

SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.

1 cl, 1 dwg

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