Substrate for growing plants in container

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, particularly to nursery and gardening. The substrate includes sawdust and additionally contains a compound mineral fertiliser, ash and a preparation having a composting property, with the following content of components, wt %: sawdust - 80-90, compound mineral fertiliser - 3-5, ash - 3-5, preparation having a composting property - 4-10, wherein the sawdust is pretreated with potassium permanganate. The compound mineral fertiliser used is, pts.wt: ammonium nitrate - 3, superphosphate - 1.5, potassium sulphate - 0.5. The preparation having a compositing property used is Vozrozhdenie.

EFFECT: use of the substrate reduces cases of plants dying during planting and improves the quality of seedlings.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular for gardening and nursery, and can be used to produce high quality planting material in industrial plantations of tree and shrub species of plants in container cultivation.

When container growing plants there are a number of difficulties in the selection of substrates. In the initial phase when propagating plants by cuttings is important transplant rooted cuttings from plants rooting in containers for growing. Transplantation complicated by the fact that the newly formed roots, as a rule, are very fragile and susceptible to breaking off. This is compounded by the density of the soil substrate in which are planted rooted cuttings. About 20% of rooted cuttings dies for the transplant. For further successful cultivation of plants, the substrate should be not only easy, but also air - and water-holding capacity and nutrient. To ensure optimal soil mixture physico-chemical properties, it added natural leavening agents. First of all, the moss, peat and leaf compost.

In the zone of the Lower Volga region moss and peat are quite expensive materials, they are not always of the required quality. Preparation of leaf compost animalopolis time minimum of 3-6 months.

Known substrate for growing plants, which contains two layers of expanded clay (patent RU No. 76775, IPC A01G 31/00). The bottom layer is made of large particles of clay size 5÷10 mm, the upper layer is made of small particles of clay size from 0,1 to 5 mm. the ratio of the layer thickness of 0.8 to 1.2:1. Achieved a reduction in the number of heterogeneous components of the substrate while increasing yields and minor adjustments to well-known technology of cultivation of plants in a small volume of inert substrate. However, it has a high density, which can lead to damage to the root system of the rooted cuttings for transplant.

Known substrate for growing seedlings in plodonosyat garden (patent RU №2050109, IPC A01G 1/00). The substrate is an enriched nutrients organic compound, which uses waste housing and utilities, with the following ratio of components, wt.: peat 20-35; sand 25-30; ash 0,2-0,3; liquid complex fertilizers (HCS brand 10 34 0) 0,1-0,2, precipitation domestic waste water - the rest.

However, it is not really suitable for container growing. First, the use of rainfall domestic wastewater as a component of the substrate is necessary in each region to conduct sestero�it the study of their chemical composition. This requires appropriate reagents and extra time. In addition, before using them, you must first perform the cleaning process of precipitation domestic wastewater, which is carried out in order to reduce the content of contaminants to concentrations that would not produce adverse effects on the environment. Secondly, in order to obtain the proposed nutrient substrate with optimal processing properties, it is necessary to observe the humidity of the substrate is in the range of 60-70% and a specific sequence of mixing the components to obtain a homogeneous mass.

The closest to the claimed is the substrate for production of seedlings (application for invention RU №2001103448, IPC A01G 1/00, A01G 9/02, C05F 11/02). The substrate for production of seedlings includes peat, sand and soil. While it additionally contains sawdust and a live plant substance in the following ratio of components, wt.h.: peat 5, sand 2, soil 1, sawdust 1,5, live vegetable substance is 0.5.

However, in this embodiment, shavings are the support component and contained in a small amount. The disadvantage of this substrate is also the need to maintain the humidity during the growing season in the range of 65-80%. Another disadvantage of the prototype JW�makes the fact, to optimize root nutrition of plants in addition to one-time enrichment of the substrate of ash elements, fractional nitrogen with irrigation water during the period of intensive growth of the aerial part. In addition, the composition of the substrate includes a living vegetable matter in the form of roots, which requires the cultivation of flower crops with high phytoncide properties, or the use of green and flowering plants, whose roots are especially saturated with phytoncides, and then briquetted substrate in the cells of the container. This significantly increases the complexity of the preparation of the substrate.

The object of the invention is to create an easy, air - and water-holding capacity, nutrient substrate for container-growing tree and shrub species of plants based on wood chips.

The technical result is to reduce the loss of grafts during transplantation and improving the quality of seedlings.

The task is achieved by the fact that the substrate for container growing plants, including sawdust according to the invention additionally contains a complete fertilizer, ash and agent with composting property, with the following content of components, mass.%:

sawdust80-90
complex mineral fertilizer3-5
ash3-5
the drug with composting property4-10,

thus pretreated sawdust potassium permanganate.

As a complex mineral fertilizer used, wt.h.: ammonium nitrate - 3, superphosphate - 1,5, potassium sulfate 0.5 in.

As a drug, with composting property, the selected drug is "Revival".

Sawdust is first treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, then mixed with a complex of mineral fertilizers and ash, then all components moisten the drug with composting property - "Revival".

To accelerate the adaptation of transplanted cuttings on experimental substrates used the following humic preparations: "Sunrise", "Humisol".

As model plants were used rooted cuttings of Privet, Japanese spirea, Potentilla, mock orange, pussyreplica, honeysuckle, Dali, snowball tree, turf, white.

Experiments were conducted for different soil substrates on the development and yield of vegetative seedlings, which confirmed the effectiveness predlagaemoj� substrate.

As the substrate, it was decided to try the following options:

Example 1 - moss;

Example 2 - sand;

Example 3 - sawdust;

Example 4 - peat and sand in the ratio 1:1;

Example 5 - the sand and sawdust in the ratio of 1:1;

Example 6 - soil (sandy loam, poorly structured) - 70% compost and 30%;

Example 7 - sawdust (30%) and soil (sandy loam, poorly structured) - 70%;

Example 8 - sawdust (proposed substrate: in its drafting each 1 m3sawdust was added ammonium nitrate - 6 kg, superphosphate - 2 kg, potassium sulfate 1 kg, ash - 10 kg).

Below are the main results of experiments.

Different versions of the substrate influenced the survival rate of transplanted rooted cuttings, growth of roots and shoots after planting. It should be noted that in embodiments 2 and 5, the substrates are strongly compacted, the root system was weak and friable, easily traumatized.

The results are shown in table 1.

Table 1
The composition of the substrateThe yield of transplanted plants (seedlings), %The average number of roots per seedling, EA.The average growth of the shoot, %
Example 1 (moss) 0,00,00,0
Example 2 (sand)40,07,319,0
Example 3 (sawdust)5,03,72,0
Example 4 (peat and sand in the ratio 1:1)45,08,520,0
Example 5 (sand and sawdust in the ratio 1:1)10,04,65,0
Example 6 (soil - 70% compost and 30%79,011,234,0
Example 7 (sawdust - 30% soil and 70%)63,010,931,0
Example 8 (sawdust - the proposed substrate)86,012,948,0

Further development was to determine the optimal range of mass ratios of components of the proposed substrate. Experiments were conducted with the following�mi values of wt.% components of the proposed substrate:

- the proposed substrate, wt.%: sawdust 75, a complete fertilizer 6, ash 6, composting drug 13;

- the proposed substrate, wt.%: sawdust 80, a complete fertilizer 5, ash 5, composting drug 10;

- the proposed substrate, wt.%: sawdust 85, a complete fertilizer 4, ash 4, composting drug 7;

- the proposed substrate, wt.%: sawdust 90, a complete fertilizer 3, ash 3, composting preparation 4;

- the proposed substrate, wt.%: sawdust 95, a complete fertilizer 2, ashes 2, composting drug 1.

Table 2 presents the results of experiments.

Table 2
The content of components, mass. %
The composition of the substratesawdust7580859095
complex mineral fertilizer65432
ash65432
composting drug1310741
the death of the transplanted grafts, %379121034
the quality of seedlings (number of seedlings with the highest growth of shoots, %)4289869047
the intensity of development of the root system (number of seedlings with well-developed root system, %)4886848951

When the ratio (75:6:6:13) sawdust well enough compositionality, but an excessive amount of the mineral composition in the substrate led to the phenomenon of "physiological dryness" - hard p�the uptake of water by roots, adversely affecting the education and development of the root system and shoots with leaves.

When the ratio of substrate(80:5:5:10), (85:4:4:7) and (90:3:3:4) were the best indicators of the growth of shoots and number of roots of one seedling.

At a ratio of (95:2:2:1) sawdust was bad compositionality because of insufficient number of composting substance, in addition to development of seedlings was influenced by a lack of mineral nutrition in the substrate, which affects the General condition of plants.

The data obtained was in the range of optimum ratio of the components of the substrate at the following content, wt.%:

sawdust80-90
complex mineral fertilizer3-5
ash3-5
the drug with composting property4-10.

Found the combination ratio of the components provides a substrate that meets the requirements for it when growing plants in containers.

In addition, it was found that for each 1 m3sawdust is advisable to add amenoicurami - 6 kg, superphosphate - 2 kg, potassium sulfate 1 kg, ash - 10 lbs.

The inventive substrate will reduce the loss of the transplanted grafts, to get better quality seedlings, increase the intensity of development of the root system, to reduce the cost of grown planting stock.

1. Substrate for container production of plants, including sawdust, characterized in that it additionally contains a complete fertilizer, ash and agent with composting property, with the following content of components, mass.%:

sawdust80-90
complex mineral fertilizer3-5
ash3-5
the drug with composting property4-10,

thus pretreated sawdust potassium permanganate.

2. The substrate according to claim 1, characterized in that as a complex mineral fertilizer used, wt.h.: ammonium nitrate - 3, superphosphate - 1,5, potassium sulfate 0.5 in.

3. The substrate according to claim 1, characterized in that as the drug with composting property, the selected remedy "�otrozhdenie".



 

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