Method of transportation of electron beam for long distance power transmission and device for its implementation

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electron beam is transported along the curving evacuated channel (1) with a direct-axis (8) as smooth line and the wall (4), fabricated from the material capable to electrisation. Meanwhile the channel, used for transportation, is fitted with the conducting shell adjacent to the external surface (6) of its walls (2), or this surface has a conductive coating (7). The shell or the coating (7) is energised by the potential using the terminals (9), which induces on the internal surface (5) of the channel wall a negative charge with obtaining in the channel of the potential barrier exceeding the maximum energy of electrons of the transported beam.

EFFECT: possibility of transportation of high energy electron beams in combination with ensuring of wide freedom of selection of geometrical parameters of the channel without hitting the channel wall by electrons and elimination of necessity in use of devices of magnetic beam control.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The inventions relate to the field of power and are intended for use in the transfer of energy over a long distance in the form of a beam of accelerated electrons, namely for transportation of such a beam.

Despite the fact that the technique of traditional means of transporting energy over large distances using wired high-voltage power lines have reached a very high level of development, one cannot ignore in these lines of relatively large energy losses, which can be very long lines even in the optimal case, a few percent (see, for example: Vladimir Tkachenko. Optimal voltage loss in transmission lines. Electrical systems and control systems, 2010, No. 1, pp. 61-63 [1]). This refers only to losses caused by voltage drop on the wires of the line, but there are also losses for remagnetization steel core, which supply aluminum wire to increase strength, losses caused by corona discharge, etc. (G. Y. Alexandrov. Transmission of electric energy. St. Petersburg, Ed. Polytechnic University, 2009 [2]). In commensurate with the wavelength of the power frequency superlong (5000-10000 km or more) overhead lines will be noticeable also is the radiation loss.

This leads to endless searching for al�alternative ways of energy transfer. One such quest is the transfer of energy by means of electron beams. The idea of such transmission, as the number of publications (see, for example: Z. Alferov, E. Velikhov. Energy without borders. Russia in global Affairs, No. 1. January - March 2003 [3]; L. I. Rudakov. High-current beams of charged particles. Soros educational journal, 1996, №2 [4]), owned by G. I. Budker. It is associated with his discovery relating to e-stable bundle, registered in the State register of discoveries of the USSR No. 82 with priority from may 1952, described in the article: G. I. Budker. Relativistic stabilized electron beam. Atomic energy, 1956, Vol. 1 [5]. In the beam of Budker the Coulomb repulsion of the electrons are partially offset by the charges of the ions. It is assumed that the energy transfer can be realized, conveying the electron beam through a metal pipeline [4]. It is noted that, according to experts, energy conversion, liquid or gaseous fuels into energy electron beam followed by transportation may be economically more feasible than transporting the fuel to the place of consumption, followed by electricity (Velikhov. Bridge Russia - North-East Asia. LUKOIL-press, September 1999; http://asiapacific.narod.ru/countries/apr/mst_russia_sva.htm [6]).

Set forth below illustrates the current and future developments related to this area.

However, there is the problem of the stability of these beams due to the presence of a variety of types of instability and its causes (see, for example: U. S. Udovichenko. Nonpotential theory of low-frequency instabilities of relativistic electron beams. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of physical and mathematical Sciences. Moscow, 1984 [7]). The problem of stability previously was also noted by Lawson (J. Lawson. Physics of charged particle beams. Moscow, Mir, 1980, p. 272) [8]. Ibid felt the insurmountable difficulties of creating such a beam even in the absence of instabilities.

In addition, in real conditions, the elongated channel of transportation of the electron beam may have multiple curves with different radii of curvature, in particular, due to the fact that it needs to follow the terrain. This necessitates additional magnetic control of an electron beam in the channel for its turns, it is noted that the developers of the respective projects (see, for example: E. A. Abramyan. Electricity - on pipes. Junior technician, 1984, №1 [9]). Since the current in the channel during transmission of energy on an industrial scale to be very large,causing the channel to form a very intense magnetic field, creation of means for magnetic control would be a daunting task.

However relatively recently become the known method and device allowing to transport the electron beam by the curved channel and free from the problems mentioned beam stability and the need to use magnetic means. These method and device disclosed in the patent of Russian Federation №2462009, publ. 20.09.2012 [10].

According to the patent [10] for transporting the charged particle beam through the channel with curves, using an evacuated channel, having a wall made of a material capable of electrification, and carry out the transportation of the beam through this channel in the presence of the electrification of the inner surface of its wall with the sign of the charge equal to the charge particle beam, with observance of the following relations between the energy E and charge Q of the particle beam with the electric strength UPRfor the wall material and geometrical parameters of a channel is the smallest radius R of curvature of the longitudinal axis, the smallest thickness d of the wall and the greatest distance h between two points of the inner surface of the channel located in the cross section of the channel on the same normal to a given surface:

E/Q<RdUpp /h(*)

When a circular cross-section of the channel parameter h is not more than the diameter of the lumen of the channel. In relation to the transport of electrons, the charge on the inner surface of the duct wall should be negative. The electrons are transported beam are assumed to be pre-accelerated, which is accounted for by the presence of the parameter E in the above condition (). The concept of ”bundle” shows that speed of electrons in a desired direction corresponding to the direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel is significantly higher than in the transverse direction. This condition meets the definition of a beam of charged particles, see for example: I. N. Bags. Transport of charged particle beams. Novosibirsk, Izd. Science (Siberian branch), 1991, p. 59 [11].

However, these method and apparatus inherent limitation related to the fact that when using them, the electrification of the inner surface of the duct wall is carried by electrons transported the beam, part of which are deposited on the wall. The possibility of transportation of the beam is limited by the necessity of fulfillment of conditions (). Given the properties of the wall material and the geometry of the channel, i.e., the right side of the inequalities� (), this prevents the raise of the energy E of the electrons, and at a given energy, i.e. the left part of inequality (), prevents the decrease of the radius R of curvature of the bends of the channel and to increase the diameter h of the lumen of the channel.

Method and device according to the patent [10] is closest to the method and apparatus proposed by the invention.

The present invention related to a method for the transportation of the electron beam for the purpose of conveying energy and device for its implementation, aimed at the achievement of the technical result consists in the fact that the energy E of the electrons transported beam can be increased in comparison with that given the properties of the wall material and the geometry of the channel is determined by the right part of inequality (), and at a given energy E of the electrons, the radius R of curvature of the channel can be selected smaller, and the diameter h of the lumen of the channel is greater than that determined by the left part of inequality (), bounding from below the ratio R/h. Both of these factors is important given the purpose of the proposed invention for the transmission of energy mainly in industrial scale with the geometry of the channel, tied to a specific circuit and corresponding to her relief. Following the disclosure of inventions can be named and other types of technical results�Tata.

In the proposed method of transportation of the beam of accelerated electrons, as in closest to the known method according to the patent [10], the transportation is carried out by having curves vakuumirovannoi channel with a longitudinal axis in the form of a smooth line and the wall, made of a material capable of electrification.

To achieve the said technical result, in contrast to the closest known method, in the proposed method, during transportation of the specified electron beam using the specified channel is further provided adjacent to its outer surface wall of the conductive shell or deposited on the surface of the conductive coating. These electrically conductive sheath or coating serves potential, inducing on the inner wall surface of the specified channel of negative charge, with the channel potential barrier above the highest energy electrons of the transported beam.

The proposed device for transporting the accelerated beam of electrons as the closest to the known device according to the patent [10], made in the form of having the curves of a vacuum channel with a longitudinal axis in the form of a smooth line and the wall, made of a material capable of electrification.

Forachieve the said technical result, unlike most similar known devices, the proposed device the specified channel is further provided adjacent to its outer surface wall of the conductive shell or deposited on the surface of the conductive coating. These sheath or coating are the electrode for connection to an external voltage source.

The specified channel of the device used in the implementation with the help of this device the proposed method, laid on the track for the transmission of the energy transferred to the specified e-beam, and has curves corresponding to this route.

These electrically conductive sheath or coating of the outer wall of the channel of the device connected to an external voltage source, designed to supply to them in the implementation of the proposed method capacity, inducing on the inner wall surface of the specified channel of negative charge, providing in this channel potential barrier above the highest energy electrons of the transported beam.

When implementing the proposed method using the proposed device mentioned induced negative charge may beat the charge generated in the implementation of the closest known JV�soba on the channel wall closest known device the electrons themselves are moving in the channel beams, and practically can be done by anyone, to ensure that the establishment in the channel near the inner surface of the wall potential barrier, is not surmountable for electrons transported beam. This measure gradually varying nature of channel bends (when the longitudinal axis has the form of a smooth line) allows to achieve the above technical result due to the fact that the electrons of the beam during its transportation from the bends in bends of the channel does not impinge upon the wall of the latter, and this result is achieved without the use of tools to create magnetic fields. Thanks noted above the possibility of greater variation of the energy of the transported beams and geometrical parameters of the channel are provided with as great freedom of choice in design, depending on those or other preferences, and the ability to use for energy transfer to the same channel when changing the beam parameters.

The present invention is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

- Fig.1 - the proposed device (longitudinal section) for carrying out the method according to the invention;

- Fig.2 - channel of the device in cross section;

- Fig.3 - potential distribution in the lumen of the channel of the device.

The device comprises (Fig.1) an evacuated annular channel 1 with the wall 4 is made of a material capable of electrification, such as glass, ceramics good electrical insulation properties and high dielectric strength or dielectric with suitable indicators of these properties. Channel 1 has a longitudinal axis 8 in the form of a smooth (i.e., there are no jumps of the derivative) of the line. The portion of the channel, the dashed lines used for the legend of its great length. Channel 1 is laid on the highway for the transmission of the energy transferred by the electron beam, and has curves corresponding to this track. He may have other necessary bends, in particular compensation, to prevent damage to the channel due to thermal expansion or contraction of the material. All the curves of the channel should be performed with preservation of smoothness to the longitudinal axis 8.

Fig.2 shows in enlarged relative to Fig.1 cross section of the channel 1 in the particular case, when it is round; h - diameter of the lumen of the channel, d is the thickness of its walls. The round shape of the cross section is the most technologically advanced and preferred, but there is another form in the form of a smooth convex line, for example elliptical or oval.

Channel 1 is provided adjacent to the external�th surface 6 of the wall 2 conductive shell or deposited on the surface of the conductive coating. The shell or coating is shown by position 7. The shell or coating 7, with the use of the proposed device for the implementation of the proposed method is connected to an external voltage source (not shown), this is what the terminal 9. The shell or coating 7 must not have gaps, so that the entire length of the channel, they were subject to the same potential.

Channel 1 has an input end 2 and outlet end 3. Input end 1 is designed for injecting through it in channel 1 to be the transport of the electron beam. The injector of the accelerated electrons, which reported energy intended for transmission to the consumer, not shown. Outlet end 3 of the channel 1 is designed to output through it of the electron beam delivered to the channel and subject to transfer to the consumer. Communicates with the user tools in the composition of the proposed device not included and not shown in the drawings. The input electron beam in channel 1 and the output from it to pass to the consumer is conventionally shown in Fig.1 by arrows A and B.

After injection into channel 1 of the electrons forming the transported beam, the latter moves through channel 1, repeating the shapes and not coming into contact with the inner surface 5 of the wall 4 of the channel that is provided by having on the surface�resti 5 induced negative charges. Fig.1 the presence of such of the charges represented only a small part of the channel 1. Mentioned charges are induced due to the fact that on the shell (coating) 7 correct voltage from an external voltage source, which is connected to the terminal 9. In the lumen of the channel occurs falling to its center along the radius of the potential distribution U(r), the view of which is shown in Fig.3. The coordinate r is measured from center of the cross section of the channel. Its highest value, equal to h/2, corresponds to the level UBthe potential barrier arising in the channel near the inner surface of its wall. It is selected so that energy of electron motion in the transverse direction was insufficient to overcome the magnitude of UBthe potential barrier and penetration of electrons at the channel wall. For example, when the energy injected into the channel 100 Kev electron potential barrier UBequal to 100 kV, sufficient to prevent electron on the wall, even if the electron energy is transformed into energy of its cross motion, this barrier is not overcome. The conditions for penetration of the electron on the wall in the most favourable bends in the channel, because in these places the electrons may have a component of velocity directed toward the wall. The appearance of the electron the cross�th component of the velocity is also possible as a result of collision with residual gas molecules. Therefore, an important requirement is the maintenance of the vacuum channel is good.

In the experiments, which were carried out under vacuum of about 10-10mm Hg, the movement of electrons with energy E=100 kV, injected into a vicious channel, acquiring the shape of a ring with a diameter of 40 cm, was maintained for several hundred seconds. Even in a much shorter time - 100 seconds of the electron beam with a given energy are in such a ring channel, making many turns, the path is about 1.6·107km, This indicates a satisfactory quality of the channel and vacuum in it. In a real situation, if we assume the length of the transmission line of energy from the electron beam is equal to 10,000 km, the electrons have to go to 1600 times smaller way in a correspondingly shorter time, so the loss associated with the imperfection of the vacuum, with its specified level is negligible.

Another possible reason for the energy loss in the proposed device in the implementation of the proposed method with it may be the radiation on curved sections of the track. However, evaluation of the influence of this factor shows that these losses are small. Even if we assume the presence of length 10,000 km one million turns (i.e. one turn for every 10 meters) 90 degrees, each with a radius of 1 m, the sweat�ri on the radiation of a single electron with an initial energy of 100 Kev will be slightly more than 0.02 eV. In other words, each electron will lose several times in less than a millionth fraction of its initial energy.

The amount of transported energy depends, among other factors, on the density n of electrons in the beam, which, in turn, depends on the magnitude of the potential barrier UBand radius h/2 of the lumen of the channel. For this dependence, one can obtain the ratio of:

n=14(4UBe2h)3/2,

where e is the electron charge.

At UB=105In and h/2=10 cm, we have: n≈10191/cm3. When moving the electron beam in the channel is effectively focusing. Assuming that the electron beam is focused mainly in areas adjacent to the centerline region of the volume of the channel, the radius of which is 0.01 of the radius of the lumen of the channel, i.e. 1 mm, will receive for the volume occupied by the electrons of the channel estimate 30 m3. In this volume found in higher density n=10191/cm3=10251/m3there are 30·1025electron. Above it was already mentioned that the channel length of 10,000 km, an electron with an energy of 100 Kev =105eV takes place over a time Δt≈6,1·10-2S. t�some time on the canal was found above the number of electrons. Therefore, in 1 second over a channel, you can skip 30·1025:6,1·10-2≈5·1027of electrons, the total energy of which is equal to 5·1027·105=5·1032eV. This energy transmitted in 1 second corresponds to the power of 5·1032eV/s ≈ 8,3·1011watts, or, in round figures, 800 GW. For comparison, the design capacity of one of the world's largest Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is 6.4 GW.

Very large power can be transmitted and at significantly lower values of electron energy, the receipt of which (along with the values of 100 Kev used in the examples above) is not problematic. Given the huge amount of power obtained by the above assessment, it can be stated that the invention possess very large ”reserve” from the point of view of their possible use to transfer energy electron beams, which could realistically be created.

Thus, the present invention is acceptable for use in providing energy in the form of a beam of accelerated electrons on the long and ultra-long distances.

To convert the energy transmitted by the proposed device in accordance with the proposed method, representing the energy of the moving electrons, in a more convenient for traditional ways of use may be �ramineni after appropriate adaptation of the known technical solutions, for example, by author's certificates of the USSR №376027 [12] (publ. 05.08.1978), №686160 [13] (publ. 15.09.1979), №1565740 [14] (publ. 15.05.1990) and U.S. patent No. 7417356 [15] (publ. 26.08.2008).

Sources of information

1. Vladimir Tkachenko. Optimal voltage loss in transmission lines. Electrical systems and control systems, 2010, No. 1, pp. 61-63.

2. G. Y. Alexandrov. Transmission of electric energy. St. Petersburg, Ed. Polytechnic University, 2009.

3. Alferov, E. Velikhov. Energy without borders. Russia in global Affairs, No. 1. January - March 2003.

4. L. I. Rudakov. High-current beams of charged particles. Soros educational journal, 1996, No. 2.

5. G. I. Budker. Relativistic stabilized electron beam. Atomic energy, 1956, Vol. 1.

6. Velikhov. Bridge Russia - North-East Asia. LUKOIL-press, September 1999; http://asiapacific.narod.ru/countries/apr/most_russia_sva.htm.

7. S. Y. Udovichenko. Nonpotential theory of low-frequency instabilities of relativistic electron beams. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of physical and mathematical Sciences. Moscow, 1984.

8. J. Lawson. Physics of charged particle beams. Moscow, Mir, 1980, p. 272.

9. E. A. Abramyan. Electricity - on pipes. Junior technician, 1984, No. 1.

10. RF patent №2462009, publ. 20.09.2012.

11. I. N. Bags. Transport of charged particle beams. Novosibirsk, Izd. ”Science” (Siberian Department�s), 1991, p. 59.

12. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 376027, publ. 05.08.1978.

13. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 686160, publ. 15.09.1979.

14. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 1565740, publ. 15.05.1990.

15. U.S. patent No. 7417356, publ. 26.08.2008.

1. Method of transportation of the beam of accelerated electrons, carried out by having curves vakuumirovannoi channel with a longitudinal axis in the form of a smooth line and the wall, made of a material capable of electrification, characterized in that during transportation use the specified channel is further provided adjacent to its outer surface wall of the conductive shell or deposited on the surface of the conductive coating, which serves potential, inducing on the inner wall surface of the specified channel of negative charge with a potential barrier above the highest energy electrons of the transported beam.

2. Device for transportation of a beam of accelerated electrons, in the form of having the curves of a vacuum channel with a longitudinal axis in the form of a smooth line and the wall, made of a material capable of electrification, characterized in that it is provided adjacent the outer wall surface of the specified channel conductive shell or deposited on the surface of electraprobe�cluster Suite for coating, which is the electrode for connection to an external voltage source.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the specified channel is made round in cross section.



 

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device for rotating beam of high-energy heavy ions has a cylindrical resonator cover, end flanges with beam input and output openings, several pairs of deflecting plates mounted on supports, a high-frequency power supply and a focusing system. Each deflection plate has correcting projections lying on the edges parallel to the longitudinal axis. The total volume of the resonator is formed by structurally independent sections which are fastened together, with a pair of deflection plates at the centre of each of the sections. Distance between centres of the plates along the axis of the resonator is equal to D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of deflected ions and f is the working frequency of the resonator. Along the outer edge of each deflecting plates away from the axis there is a projection which shortens the distance between the plates on the periphery of the deflection gap; a deflector may have a different number of sections.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain resultant ion deviation which is proportional to the total number of cells passed, which can reach any necessary value when the sufficient length of the deflecting resonator is chosen.

1 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer tomography. Device for collection of data of tomographic projections in multitude of angular positions relative to an object, located in the examination area, contains radiation source, detector, source and transversal centre of detector being transversally displaced relative to the centre of transversal field of view during collection of data of projections and direction of transversal displacement being tangential with respect to transversal field of view. Methods of computer tomography contains stages, at which first irradiation is emitted from position which is transversally displaced from the centre of transversal field of view, detector of irradiation is used for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections, stages of first irradiation emission and application of irradiation detector for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections are repeated and first set of CT data is reconstructed to form first three-dimensional data. Computer-tomographic device contains roentgen source transversally displaced from rotation axis, roentgen detector, also transversally displaced from rotation axis and rotating relative to rotation axis in state of constant mechanical connection with roentgen source. Roentgen source emits irradiation, characterised by transversal angle of fan beam, and complete taking of angular readings of transversal field of view requires collection of data of projections in larger angle range than 180° plus the angle of fan-beam. Device also contains unit of reconstruction of data of projections for formation of three-dimensional data, characterising transversal field of view.

EFFECT: increase of device efficiency.

39 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to radiation therapeutic apparatuses. An apparatus comprises an X-ray source with an electronic gun, a target and a electrode potential source of an electronic gun cathode, a resonator arranged along an electron ray and connected to a microwave signal source allowing frequency tuning, a detector of passed pathological radiation material, a frequency recorder. A conductor is introduced to couple a resonator and said target. The resonator is toroidal and has a gap to pass the electron ray, while a distance of the resonator gap and the target is specified provided 1.3>UINπfd/v0|Up|>1.1 wherein UIN is a microwave signal amplitude in the resonator gap, f is a microwave signal frequency, d is a distance of the gap and the target, v0 is an electron flow, Up is a cathode potential of the electronic gun cathode with respect to the resonator.

EFFECT: use of the apparatus provides more complete elimination of pathology of the radiated biological material.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method of moving a group of opaque microobjects, a light beam with closed regions of zero intensity is formed from multiple beams. First, three coaxial, zero-order Bessel beams with different propagation constants are formed, thereby forming a stable beam in form of a circular spot. These beams are then arranged in space so as to form one or more closed regions for capturing and moving opaque microparticles.

EFFECT: high efficiency owing to automation of the process.

11 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: auger unit is replaced with a funnel with an outlet tube with a special shape, placed in the bottom end part of a moderator chamber and providing quasi-uniform release of spheres under the force of gravity. The average frequency of release of the spheres is defined by the diameter and length of the neck of the funnel and its angle of inclination to the horizontal.

EFFECT: simple design of the unit due to continuous removal of spent spheres from the moderator chamber and high reliability and long service life thereof.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to facilities for dosing of loose material in the form of solid balls, in particular, balls from frozen aromatic hydrocarbons, and is designed for supply of a working substance (balls) into a pneumatic tract with cold gas of helium for their subsequent delivery into a chamber of a cold quick neutron moderator of an intense source (a nuclear reactor or a neutron-producing target of an accelerator). The invention is aimed at improvement of temperature stability in a hopper and at provision of controlled speed of balls dosing. In the proposed device walls of the hopper and a part of a helium-feeding pipe are made of copper, and a dosing element represents one thin metal disc with holes of a certain diameter arranged in the lower end part of the hopper instead of the bottom. When the disc is fixed, balls do not drop from the hopper. In the dosing mode the disc is put into step rotation by a controlled step motor, the dropping speed is defined by the pitch size of disc rotation, frequency of steps repetition and the number of holes in the disc. High heat conductivity of copper provides for low temperature in the hopper and on the disc, which is close to helium temperature in the pneumatic tract.

EFFECT: exclusion of forced cooling of a hopper with liquid nitrogen.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes radiation with a beam of protons with energy exceeding 1.920 MeV, a neutron-generating target, at the same time the beam of monoenergetic neutrons is formed from neutrons, which spread in direction that is reverse to direction of spread of the beam of protons. By varying the energy of protons and the angle of neutrons release, they create a monoenergetic neutron beam with any required energy. To exclude neutrons with other energies, which randomly got into the beam, it is possible to place a filter on the way of the beam. The method to calibrate the dark matter detector with liquid Ar as a working substance consists in the fact, that it is radiated with a beam of monoenergentic neutrons with energy of 74-82 keV, generated during radiation of the target 7Li(p,n)7Be with a beam of protons with energy exceeding 1.920 MeV, and formed in accordance with the above method using a sulphur filter with subsequent registration of the completed ionisation of liquid argon.

EFFECT: possibility to produce a beam of monoenergetic neutrons designed for calibration of a dark matter detector, with different energies without beam scattering.

9 cl, 4 dwg

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