Method of sowing seeds of alfalfa and leban for pasture forage in arid zones

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.

2 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the creation of cultivated pastures.

Known "Method of creating cultivated pastures" (EN 2441358, publication date 10.02.2012), the method taken as a prototype. Method of creating cultivated pastures involves seeding a legume-grass mixtures forage grasses, consisting of Festulolium, white clover and alfalfa yellow. Sowing is carried out in two stages. In the first stage are sown white clover and Festulolium in the ratio 1:2 respectively. In the second stage seeded alfalfa yellow for 1.5-2.0 months to the end of the growing season of grasses. Alfalfa yellow sow in the amount of 20-30% of the seeding rate mixture of white clover and Festulolium.

The disadvantages of the prototype lies in the fact that the mixture of Festulolium, white clover and alfalfa yellow are designed for the Central black earth region with medium to light soils, where annual precipitation is over 600 mm of rainfall, while in the arid zone on chestnut and light chestnut soils in combination with saline drops 200-300 mm of rain per year. Therefore, Festulolium and red clover will take root in this region, need arid plants.

Common features of the prototype and of the invention: mixtures are legumes that enrich the soil with nitrogen.

The problem to be solved by the invention is the creation of a productive and long-grasslands in arid zones with environments�them and heavy saline and solonetzic soils.

Effect: invention allows to increase the yield of grassland crops and improve the nutritional composition of the soil due to the accumulation of rhizobia nitrogen in the soil.

This technical result is achieved in that carry out the sowing of mixtures of legumes are processing the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing with row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme chaste tree - Lucerne - Lucerne - the chaste tree. In the first year of alfalfa in may, in the phase of budding and beginning of flowering is removed together with brushwood hay, for the second year in the spring of Vitex used for hay and in the winter the vent sheep or cattle. In other years chaste tree pit at the root alternately in summer and winter, while the rates of seeding brushwood 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds, a two-component mixture of brushwood and alfalfa sown in winter. For samoobzhimnaya brushwood once every two years alternating etching brushwood in the summer and next year in the winter.

A two-component mixture of brushwood and alfalfa sown in winter. Winter crops brushwood with Lucerne succeed better and efficient use of winter and spring precipitation, thawing of soil, creating favorable conditions for seed germination and post germination of plants.

Alfalfa until the 20th of may gives one cutting and grows in �the time only for the next year. In the spring the first three years the bulk of feed makes alfalfa, and in summer, autumn - chaste tree. After cutting alfalfa with chaste tree, vegetation burn out. In adverse weather conditions, the major share of pasture forage is chaste tree.

The productivity of mixtures at medium, heavy salinized and alkaline soils of the arid zone are presented in the table.

Alternation of pastures of chaste tree in the summer and next year in the winter allows the brushwood once in two years smoovement, there are kids who give new plants and fill the aisles. Chaste tree Matures and develops seeds in the month of November. Eastern and Western winds seeds are scattered throughout the array. At loss of alfalfa on the 4th year pasture productivity and protein content in the feed is not reduced.

Eatability brushwood sheep and cattle 90-95%, it grows well in the autumn and gives green weight during the warm period.

Pasture herbage from chaste tree and alfalfa contributes to the maintenance of soil fertility and the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil to the rapid regrowth of plants drained of brushwood.

1. Method of seeding alfalfa and brushwood pasture forage in arid zones, including planting mixtures of legumes, characterized in that�odat treatment of the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing with row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme chaste tree - alfalfa - alfalfa - Vitex alfalfa in the first year of life in may, in the phase of budding and beginning of flowering is removed together with brushwood hay, for the second year in the spring of Vitex used for hay and in the winter the vent sheep or cattle, in other years chaste tree pit at the root alternately in summer and winter, while the rates of seeding brushwood 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds, a two-component mixture of brushwood and alfalfa sown in winter.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that for samoobzhimnaya brushwood once every two years alternating etching brushwood in the summer and next year in the winter.



 

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24 cl, 8 dwg, 9 tbl, 10 ex

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6 tbl, 6 ex

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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1 ex

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2 tbl

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2 cl, 3 tbl

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3 tbl

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4 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 tbl

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2 dwg

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2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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7 cl, 1 ex

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2 cl, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises autumn pre-sowing soil treatment, planting seed tubers in the ridges, inter-row treatments, mowing the stalks for fodder and harvesting the tubers. At that artichoke is places by predecessors, which are used as green manure - winter legume-grass mixtures. In the first year in spring on shoots of green manure artichoke tubers are planted in two to four rows with the width between the rows of 20-40 cm to form after the emergence of the ridge with the width of 120 cm, alternating with the technological gap with the width of 60-120 cm for the passage of harvesting and transport machines. After harvesting of artichoke on the harvested rows the formation of two to four rows on each ridge is carried out by the cultivator. On the second year in spring period prior to the emergence of plants of artichoke the cultivation and the formation of ridges is carried out, harrowing weeds and rows with small tubers. After sprouting of artichoke the thinning or bunching of rows is carried out with bringing the distance between the remaining slots of plants up to 60-80 cm.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: group of inventions enables to increase the efficiency of control of processes of crop growing in real time without damaging the soil and crops.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely to control means to assess the physical and mechanical properties of berries. The device consists of a portable housing with control buttons located in it, alphanumeric LCD display, force measuring sensor connected to the electrical measuring device provided with a peak detector and compensator of packaging, as well as a grip for berries mechanically connected to the force measuring sensor through the rod force distributor and made in the form of a hinged fixed and spring-loaded movable gripping cup-shaped jaws, and a control device of gripping berries fixed to the housing, and kinematically connected to the shank of the movable gripping cup-shaped jaw for providing opening and closing the gripping jaws. In addition, the device comprises a movable spring-loaded pressure rod arranged so that its pressure surface is located between the gripping cup-shaped jaws and in its motion without berries there is no mechanical contact with the elements of gripping berries, and in the presence of fruit between the gripping jaws, it presses it with its pressure surface to its the inner surface of the gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator of the pressure rod mounted on the portable housing, and the device of determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.

EFFECT: device provides improved performance in carrying out control operations by combining the operations.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises the procedures to obtain information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and weather conditions on the agricultural field, as well as information about the actual yield of the previous year on each part of the agricultural field, compared to the signals of the system of determining the spatial coordinates at the time of harvesting, the use of mathematical models of the influence of soil and climatic factors on the final yield, production of calculations on the parameters of main technologies before sowing plants and carrying out of technological impacts in real time in accordance with these calculations for each part of the agricultural field. Before the start of the vegetation period the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators average in the field and the parameters of the soil environment is determined by finding the maximum of the parameters of technological operations of the optimality criterion, taking into account the difference between the cost of the crop and the cost of its preparation. In real time at the working pass of the agricultural machine with tools its spatial coordinates are measured, the signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation, the precipitation intensity is periodically recorded. According to the measured information the parameters of models of plants and the soil environment are precised, the measured values of the parameters of the plant development and the parameters of soil environment are compared for each part of the field to their optimal average values, according to the results of comparing the corrections to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts are formed. For each fragment of the field the size of the overall technological impact is determined, which is created from the optimal average and local correction, which is transmitted by the modem connection in the form of the task to the on-board controller of the machine tool, which carries out the technological impact. The information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and plants is received by periodic sampling on test sites located next to the main field, on which the same culture is cultivated as on the main field, and which differ from each other by different fixed levels of irrigation and doses of mineral fertilizer applications and regulators of growth and development of plants. Simultaneously with the sampling on the test sites by means of aircraft remote sensing the multispectral images of the test sites and the main field are formed, according to the resulting spectral information and the selected samples the mathematical model of the optical measurements is precised, which reflect the connection of condition of the crops and the soil environment on the test sites with the parameters of reflection in all the used spectra, on the spectral information obtained over the entire area of the main field, the condition of the crops and the soil environment on the main field is assessed using the mathematical model of the optical measurements for each time of measurement, according to the obtained estimates and signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation and the precipitation intensity the parameters of mathematical models of conditions of crop and soil environment are precised, on which the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field are then precised in real time. When working passes of the technological machines simultaneously with the measurement of the spatial coordinates the multispectral pattern of the entire area of the main field is repeatedly formed, on which with the predetermined pitch the condition of the crops and the soil environment is assessed, the resulting estimates on individual parts of the field are compared to their optimal average values obtained during the formation of an optimal program of change of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field. By comparing the results the corrections are formed to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts, and for each part of the field the amount of the overall technological impact is determined, created from the optimal average and local corrections in a given spatial coordinate.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the amount and reliability of the process of yield formation while substantial reducing the amount of manual labour.

2 dwg

Disc sowing section // 2542125

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural engineering, in particular to devices for planting grain crops with simultaneous local application of mineral fertilisers, and can be used on seed-fertiliser seeders. The disc sowing section comprises the L-shaped rack (1) and the central circular blade (4) consequently fixed to its lower rear part, the A-hoe (5) with a fertiliser tube (6), the disc sowing blades (14) with fertiliser-seed tubes (16), the drawbar (18), the roller (17). The rear lower part of the L-shaped rack (1) on its both sides the sleeves with through holes of square cross section are rigidly secured offset relative to each other. Inside the sleeves the brackets are mounted. The brackets are provided with screws (9) with annular grooves near the heads. The stops (10) are mounted in the annular grooves. The stops (10) are rigidly fixed to the L-shaped rack (1). The opposite ends of the brackets in the vertical direction the spline bushings are rigidly fixed. In the spline bushings the pins with splined ends are inserted. The pins with splined ends are secured in the perpendicular direction by axes with the disc sowing blades mounted on them.

EFFECT: constructive solution is aimed at ensuring adjustment of the inter-row spacing width and angles of attack of the sowing disc blades.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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