Methods and systems for separation of styrene from styrene-containing raw material

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of a method for the extraction of styrene and support of an extraction solvent efficiency in a system for styrene extraction from a styrene-enriched raw material. One of the versions includes the following stages: (a) supply of the styrene-enriched raw material into an extraction distillation column, (b) discharge of the styrene-enriched flow from the extraction distillation column, with the styrene-enriched flow containing styrene and an extraction solvent; (c) supply of the styrene-enriched raw material into the column for the solvent separation, d) discharge of the styrene-depleted flow from the column for the solvent separation, with the quantity of styrene in the styrene-depleted flow being lower than in the styrene-enriched flow; e) separation of a part of the styrene-depleted flow, f) bringing a part of the styrene-depleted flow in contact with an organic solvent in an equilibrium liquid-liquid system, which has several equilibrium stages, with the formation of a washed extraction solvent, containing the light organic phase and the heavy organic phase, with the light organic phase passing to the following equilibrium stage and the heavy organic phase returning to the first equilibrium stage; and g) recycling the washed extraction solvent back to the extraction distillation column.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to use solvents in a rational way.

17 cl, 4 dwg

 

The technical field TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES

During the refining of oil to produce products, such as fuel, lubricants and petrochemical products form different flows of intermediates and byproducts. Some of these flows are significantly enriched with hydrocarbons (C8in particular contain styrene and/or ethylbenzene. Ethylbenzene can be obtained by hydrogenation of styrene, and accordingly, in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene get styrene. Because of the tendency to dimerization and polymerization of the styrene is considered to be an undesirable component of the flow of raw materials intended for use as fuel in the form of gasoline. However, styrene is an economically important by-product of commodity chemicals and is used in many industrial applications, for example, as a raw material for the production of polystyrene. Because the need for products such as polystyrene is increasing, so is the need for sources of styrene.

It is therefore very useful could be the new methods and systems for separation of styrene from styracaceae raw materials. In particular, special interest could provide efficient methods and systems to maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent at an extraction distillation of styrene from a mixture with others�gimi substances present in the flow pyrolysis gasoline.

Summary of the INVENTION

The present invention discloses various embodiments of methods of isolation of styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvents in the system for the allocation of styrene-rich styrene feedstock. These methods include (a) the supply of enriched styrene feedstock in the extraction column distillation, (b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream containing styrene and extraction solvent from the extraction column distillation, (C) the supply of enriched styrene raw materials in the column selection of the solvent, (d) the withdrawal of depleted styrene stream from the column selection of the solvent, (e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream, f) processing the portion of the depleted styrene stream processed with the formation of the extraction solvent and (g) returning the treated solvent extraction. The amount of styrene in depleted styrene stream is less than in enriched styrene stream.

In other embodiments, the disclosed methods of isolation of styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent in the system of separation of styrene from a feedstock containing styrene and ethylbenzene. These methods include (a) the supply of raw materials in the extraction column distillation, (b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream containing styrene and solvent extraction, �W extraction column distillation (C) the supply of enriched styrene raw materials in the column selection of the solvent, (d) the withdrawal of depleted styrene stream from the column selection of the solvent, (e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream, f) processing the portion of the depleted styrene stream by distillation with water vapor with the formation of distilled with steam extraction of the solvent and nepereshagnuli solvent extraction with subsequent processing nepereshagnuli solvent extraction with an organic solvent and water to form a treated solvent extraction and (g) return distilled solvent extraction. Processed extraction solvent return depleted in a styrene stream for further distillation with steam. In depleted styrene flow amount of styrene is less than in enriched styrene stream.

In yet other embodiments of the described system for the allocation of styrene. The system for the allocation of styrene include the extraction column distillation, the column selection of the solvent, the apparatus of processing solvent, in which there is at least one stage of establishment of equilibrium, and the continuous circulation loop connecting the extraction column distillation, the column selection of the solvent and apparatus of processing solvent.

The features of the present invention have been described above in about�eat for better understanding the following detailed description. Below are additional features and advantages of the invention that are the subject of the formulas presented.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the present invention and its advantages is given the following description in conjunction with drawings showing specific embodiments of the invention, including:

Figure 1 is an illustrative diagram of the system for the allocation of styrene in which the styrene is isolated and separated from the depleted styrene extraction solvent for further processing;

Figure 2 is an illustrative diagram of a multistage apparatus for processing depleted styrene stream;

Figure 3 is an illustrative diagram of the system for the allocation of styrene in which the styrene is separated, and depleted styrene stream is treated in organoclay the column with water vapor, and

Figure 4 is an illustrative diagram of the system for the allocation of styrene in which to improve the method of separating styrene for solvent extraction add additional solvent.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

The following description provides some details, such as specific quantities, sizes, etc., necessary for complete understanding of the disclosed here variants. However, specialists in this field will be obvious that the present invent�s can be realized without such detail. In many cases, these and similar details of such description, are not listed as they are not necessary for a complete understanding of the present invention and known qualified specialists in the corresponding field.

It is generally understood that these drawings only illustrate the description of specific variants of the invention and not limit it. The scale of the drawings in this case are not significant.

While most of the terms used are understandable to experts in this field, however, it should be borne in mind that unless otherwise specified, the terms should be interpreted to mean, which is taken from the experts in this field. In cases where the expression could be understood as basically meaningless or meaningless, the definition should be taken from Webster's Dictionary Webster's Dictionary, 3rd Edition, 2009. You should not type definitions and/or interpretations from other related or unrelated patent applications, patents, or publications, unless specifically specified herein or their use is necessary to maintain the meaning.

Used here, the term "aromatic" refers to aromaticity, i.e., the chemical property that provides improved stabilization of the coupled-loop containing unsaturated bonds, nepodelny� electron pairs or vacant orbitals, than would be expected in the case of only one mate. Aromaticity can also be seen as a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and of resonance stabilization. It is generally believed that this effect is due to free electrons in a circularly-spaced atoms that are linked together alternating ordinary and double bonds

Used here, the term "aliphatic" refers to compounds with carbon atoms capable of connecting with each other in a straight chain, branched chain or ring (in this case they are called alicyclic). They can be connected by single bonds (alkanes), double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes).

Used here, the term "polymer" refers to polymers of styrene, including dimers, trimers, higher oligomers and polymers of styrene.

In addition to the working examples or where otherwise indicated, all numbers determining the number of components used in all the examples you need to add the word "approximately".

Various embodiments of the present invention relate to methods and systems for maintaining the efficiency of the extraction solvent in the acquisition and/or allocation of styrene from a variety of hydrocarbons, particularly crude oil. Used here, the term "raw� includes various intermediate streams, resulting from the processing of crude oil or liquefied natural times (LNG) or other mixed hydrocarbons to produce treated oil products. These intermediate streams may include streams containing significant amounts of styrene, for example, pyrolysis gasoline, and streams, usually styrene containing little or no containing but containing related compound ethylbenzene, which can easily be converted into styrene. A typical example of such an intermediate stream containing relatively small quantities of styrene is the fraction of C8products of the reforming unit. According to embodiments described herein, methods of isolation of styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent include extractive distillation for the separation of styrene-rich styrene raw materials.

In various embodiments, there are disclosed methods for isolating styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent in the system for the allocation of styrene-rich styrene feedstock. These methods include (a) the supply of enriched styrene feedstock in the extraction column distillation, (b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream containing styrene and solvent extraction, column extraction distillation, (C) the supply of enriched styrene raw materials in the column selection of the solvent, (d) challenging obedien�the styrene stream from the column selection of the solvent, (e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream, f) processing the portion of the depleted styrene flow of organic solvent to form a treated solvent extraction and (g) returning the treated solvent extraction.

In depleted styrene flow amount of styrene is less than in enriched styrene stream.

In various embodiments, the extraction solvent is a single solvent or mixture of solvents. In some embodiments, a typical extraction solvents include, for example, propylenecarbonate, sulfolane (tetramethylsilane), etilcarbitol, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, water and mixtures thereof. As will be shown below, the extraction solvent may also include an additional solvent.

In various embodiments described herein, an organic solvent may be, for example, one hydrocarbon solvent.

As noted above, the polymerization of styrene creates problems, especially in the streams of gasoline. Also problematic is such a polymerization in the allocation of styrene and its industrial applications. In various embodiments of the present invention, the depleted portion of the styrene stream comprising residual styrene and extraction solvent, is treated for removal of polymers of styrene. This treatment �AET advantage in regulation and/or to set the speed of polymer formation in the circulation loop solvent extraction distillation as described here, to relate the rate of formation of the polymer with the speed of its removal during the processing of the extraction solvent. Removing unwanted polymers of styrene, it is possible to maintain the efficiency of the extraction solvent during the whole time of the extraction distillation.

In various embodiments, the processing step of depleted styrene stream also includes flushing depleted styrene flow of water. In some embodiments, the ratio of water and an extraction solvent is from about 4 to about 0.2. In other embodiments, the ratio of water and an extraction solvent is from about 2 to about 0.2. In the following embodiments the ratio of water and an extraction solvent is from about 1 to about 0.001. In yet other embodiments, the ratio of water and an extraction solvent is from about 0.5 to about 0.01. In other embodiments, the ratio of water and an extraction solvent is from about 0.1 to about 0.01.

In some embodiments depleted styrene stream contains about 0-40% of the extraction solvent. In some other embodiments, depleted styrene stream contains approximately 0-10% of the extraction solvent. The preferred percentages relate to the total volume of the extraction solvent.

In some VA�Ianto depleted styrene stream is washed with water and a organic solvent. However, in other embodiments, depleted styrene stream being processed is mixed with an organic solvent and then mixed with water. Sometimes the mixing with the organic solvent and water can be swapped. Such stage of leaching is best applied when the extraction solvent depleted in a styrene stream is predominantly soluble in an organic solvent and in water. The washing stage depleted styrene stream at least partially minimizes the accumulation of polymer in the extraction solvent, which is recycled to the contour of the continuous circulation of the solvent. In various embodiments, the removal of the polymer leads to increased interoperability, efficiency and reproducibility of the extraction processes of distillation in the here described method of separating styrene.

In some embodiments described herein the step of processing depleted styrene flow is performed in the system of balancing liquid-liquid, which has at least one stage of equilibrium. The degree of balance may include a mixer, a separator or similar device to separate the phases. In some embodiments in the system of balancing liquid-liquid has a degree of equilibrium has been established. However, in other embodiments of the present invention, which relate to Nemuro the spirit and scope, you can use the trim system fluid-a fluid in which there are two, three, four, five, six, seven or more stages of establishment of equilibrium. In some embodiments, comes to the seven stages of establishment of equilibrium. Typical trim system liquid-liquid with five steps of establishing the equilibrium shown below in Figure 2.

In some embodiments, the solvent extraction after treatment depleted styrene stream is isolated by distillation. In other embodiments, the extraction solvent is recycled to the extraction column distillation used in the equipment of the extraction distillation for extracting styrene from styracaceae raw materials. In some embodiments, a return is performed through the continuous circulation loop. In other embodiments, before you return the extraction solvent to the extraction column distillation in the extraction system of distillation, solvent extraction after treatment to separate at least a portion of the water.

In the following embodiments of the present invention described ways to minimize accumulation in the extraction solvent chemical additives (polymer) and/or the like. Such additives include, for example, inhibitors, retarders and/or similar substances that are used to eliminate�absorption polymerization and/or the formation of styrene. Impurities that can be removed using different methods and systems of the present invention include, for example, substances necessary to prevent corrosion, emulsification and/or etc.

In other embodiments, the present invention discloses methods for isolating styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent in the system of separation of styrene from a feedstock containing styrene and ethylbenzene. These methods include (a) the supply of raw materials in the extraction column distillation, (b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream containing styrene and extraction solvent from the extraction column distillation, (C) the supply of enriched styrene flow in the column selection of the solvent, (d) the withdrawal of depleted styrene stream from the column selection of the solvent, (e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream, f) processing the portion of the depleted styrene stream by steam with the formation of distilled with water steam extraction of the solvent and nepereshagnuli solvent extraction with subsequent processing nepereshagnuli solvent extraction with an organic solvent and water to form a treated solvent extraction and (g) return distilled solvent extraction. Processed extraction solvent in return depleted styrene stream for gave�further distillation with steam. In depleted styrene flow amount of styrene is less than in enriched styrene stream.

In some embodiments, the Stripping to separate the extraction solvent from depleted styrene stream includes the use of organoclay columns. For example, the depleted portion of the styrene stream is sent/transported through organoclay column and isolated by distillation at least a portion of the extraction solvent. The portion of the extraction solvent, which is not distilled (i.e. nepregnancy extraction solvent) can then be processed with an organic solvent and washed with water system trim liquid-liquid, which has at least one stage of equilibrium. Below describes such a system for the allocation of styrene with organoclay column and balance system liquid-liquid. In various embodiments, the extraction solvent after distillation is recycled to the system.

In yet another embodiments of the present invention, the efficiency of the extraction solvent is maintained or increase, adding at least one additional solvent. In one case, additional solvent increases the solubility of the polymer in the extraction solvent. Correspondingly, the volume of extraction solvent required for UD�ing a given amount of polymer. In various embodiments, additional solvent can be, for example, bliskiej aromatic compounds and esters of glycols (for example, ethers of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol).

The techniques described here extractive distillation successfully support the efficacy of the extraction solvent used for the separation of styrene. In addition, these techniques provide the advantage that they provide the release not only of styrene, and ethylbenzene, which can then be converted into an additional quantity of styrene. Pre-and post-processing used in the here described methods of isolation include, for example, without limitation: hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, the separation of the extraction solvent before or after extraction stages of distillation and separation of the extraction solvent during the extraction distillation.

Methods of extraction distillation with the use of subsequent processing stages can be used for separation of styrene from a feedstock containing at least styrene, ethylbenzene, and optionally one or more aromatic or non-aromatic hydrocarbons. These methods include the separation of the flow of raw material to the first stream relatively more concentrated in styrene than the flow of raw material (for example, enriched with styrene by�OK), and a second stream relatively more concentrated in ethylbenzene than the flow of raw materials (e.g., depleted styrene flow), separation of styrene from the first stream of the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in the second flow to form an additional quantity of styrene and an additional quantity of styrene.

Further embodiments of the present invention will be described in more detail by means of drawings. Figures 1 represents the typical scheme of the system for the allocation of styrene 1, which emit styrene and separate depleted styrene extraction solvent for further processing. As shown in figure 1, styrelseledamot the feed fed through line 101 to the pre-processing section 100 with the formation of enriched styrene flow of raw materials, which exits via line 102.

For example, in this embodiment, the pyrolysis gasoline is served by lines 101 and one or more consecutive columns fractionation in the pre-processing section 100 there is a complete separation of enriched styrene fractions (C8with the formation of enriched styrene flow of raw materials, which exits via line 102. In some embodiments, the pre-processing section 100 may also include a hydrogenation apparatus for selective hydrogenation of any acetylenic compounds, for example, phenylacetylene, but without build�of moving significant quantities of styrene in ethylbenzene.

Figure 1 is enriched with styrene flow of raw materials out of the extraction column distillation 110. Enriched with styrene extraction solvent supplied to the extraction column distillation 110 via line 106. In one embodiment, the extraction column distillation 110 may be the second solvent entering the column, as described in U.S. patent 5877385, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Stream depleted purified styrene product out of the extraction column distillation 110 through the upper line 103. Enriched with styrene flow out of the extraction column distillation 110 through the lower line 104 and goes to the column selection of the solvent 120, where the styrene is separated from the extraction solvent. Crude styrene is withdrawn from the column selection of the solvent 120 through the upper line 105 and then fed to the final processing section 130 for the purification of styrene to the required technical parameters. The final processing section 130 may include, but are not limited to: drain system, bleaching system and desulfurization and the final column distillation. Purified styrene out of the final processing section 130 via line 107.

Depleted styrene stream exits the column selection of the solvent 120 on the lower line 106. In one embodiment, the lower line 106 can dramatically�'it through a series of heat exchangers for energy conservation flow before serving depleted styrene flow back to the extraction column distillation 110. At one point of the flow apparatus shown in figure 1, the depleted portion of the styrene stream is continuously removed for treatment of the extraction solvent. Point selection part depleted styrene stream may be output from the column selection of the solvent 130 or between the above heat exchangers and after them. As shown here, the continuous processing of depleted styrene stream is able to maintain the efficiency of the extraction solvent used for extraction distillation of styrene.

Figure 1 depleted styrene stream passes through line 108 for processing and returned after processing on line 109. In some embodiments, removing part of the depleted styrene stream is about 0-40% of the total circulating extraction solvent. In other embodiments, the removed portion of the depleted styrene stream is approximately 0-20% of the extraction solvent. In yet other embodiments, the removed portion of the depleted styrene stream is approximately 0-10% of the extraction solvent.

Figure 2 shows a typical diagram of a multi-stage apparatus 200 for processing depleted styrene stream. Depleted styrene stream enters the multi-stage apparatus 200 via line 108 (see figure 1) and enters the 1st stage of the system uranova�experiences 220. Multi-stage apparatus 200 may include horizontal and vertical tanks, as well as the multi-stage extraction liquid-liquid. Depleted styrene stream is in contact with the organic solvent and water, either before or at the time of filing in the 1st degree balancer 220 and then there is a mixture. In one embodiment, the depleted styrene phase is first mixed with an organic solvent before mixing with water. After adding water to the 1st step in the system 220 is formed of a two-phase system, and the light organic phase contains most of the organic solvent and polymer, and the heavy organic phase contains water and extraction solvent. The light organic phase out of the 1st stage of the trim system 220 via line 203, and the heavy organic phase exits through line 204. Easy organic phase may be washed with water supplied via line 201, in subsequent systems trim 230 (+2 stage) and 240 (+stage 3) to reduce the content of the extraction solvent in the organic phase. For example, after the next trim system 230, the light organic phase exits through line 205 and is included in the following balance system 240, and the heavy organic phase exits through line 206 and is returned to the 1st stage balancer 220. Similarly, after follow�her step 240, the light organic phase out of the multi-stage apparatus 200 via line 209 and a heavy organic phase exits through line 210 and returns to the following balance system 230. The aqueous phase with +3-th stage (i.e., 240) is fed to the 2nd stage (i.e., 230) and then at 1-th step (i.e., 220). In using these stages/systems there are no restrictions, and the specialist may use a greater number of stages than illustrated in figure 2, which will operate in accordance with the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Similarly heavy organic phase, containing water, which is removed via line 204 can be sent the subsequent balancer 250 and 260, so as to reduce the polymer content in the heavy organic phase (i.e., in an extraction solvent and water). As shown in figure 2, a fresh batch of organic solvent enters the multi-stage apparatus 200 via line 202. Heavy organic phase is fed into the next trim system 250, and a light organic phase is removed via line 207 and return to the trim system 220. Heavy organic phase out of the following trim system 250 via line 208 and comes in the following trim system 260. Easy organic phase is removed via line 211 and returned to the following system 250. Heavy organic phase out of the next system 260 via line 211 and is ready to return to the system of allocation of styrene 1, as shown in figure 1. Heavy organic phase coming on line 212 (i.e., the flow of solvent extraction plus water), monopolization process for reducing the water content or be directed to the system of allocating styrene 1.

In some embodiments, post-processing stages of solvent extraction stage can be from-2 to +5, in other embodiments from-1st stage +2nd stage and in yet other embodiments, from-1 to +2 stage.

In the following embodiments the organic solvent is removed via line 209 may contain other substances that are added to the technological scheme. These substances may include, without limitation, inhibitors and retarders used to prevent the formation of polymers and reagents to prevent corrosion, emulsification, etc.

Figure 3 shows a typical diagram of a system for the allocation of styrene in which the styrene is separated and depleted styrene stream is treated in organoclay the column 300. In the embodiment shown in figure 3, depleted styrene flow from line 108 (see figure 1) is sent to organoclay column 300, where for Stripping solvent extraction using steam from line 301. The upper stream exiting via line 304 and containing extraction solvent, may be sent directly to the extraction column distillation used in the method of separating styrene. The lower the flow coming from the line 305 can optionally once washed in the washing stage liquid/liquid 310 organic solvent supplied via line 302, and water coming through the line 303. The extraction liquid/LM�bone was carried out analogously to as described in the embodiment of figure 2. The organic phase from the washing stage liquid/liquid 310 is withdrawn via line 306 and sent to the next recycle of the solvent. The aqueous phase leaving via line 307, mixed with depleted styrene stream in line 108 and then sent to organoclay column 300. In organoclay column 300 major portion of the extraction solvent is separated from the polymers, heavy organics and inorganic substances. Since the majority of the extraction solvent is removed from organoclay column 300 via line 304, is usually to highlight the remaining extraction solvent in the aqueous phase that is offset from the bottom organoclay column 300, a single stage of leaching liquid/liquid. However, the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that if necessary, you can carry out another washing liquid/liquid.

Figure 4 shows a typical diagram of a system for the allocation of styrene, in which the extraction solvent, adding a solvent, promotes the release of styrene. As shown in figure 4, an additional solvent in an embodiment of the system for the allocation of styrene with figures 1 add on line 401. Additional solvent can be added either continuously or intermittently in a continuous loop circulation of the extraction solvent in the system for the allocation of styrene 1. In od�Ohm additional embodiment the solvent has a boiling point, equal or nearly equal to the boiling point of the extraction solvent. In other embodiments, additional solvent has the same boiling point as extraction solvent. In this embodiment, the additional boiling point of the solvent close to the boiling point of the extraction solvent than the boiling point of styrene. Therefore, in the case of additional solvent in the extraction columns of the distillation and extraction of the solvent, the bulk of the solvent will remain with the extraction solvent. In this embodiment, adding additional solvent contributes to one of the functions of the extraction solvent, for example, the manifestation of the affinity of the solvent extraction to styrene and the polymer and the selective dissolution. In some embodiments, additional solvent may be, for example, bliskiej aromatic compounds, ethers of glycols, and combinations thereof.

According to different variants described above, the present invention also describes the system for the allocation of styrene with the column extractive distillation column selection of the solvent, the processing apparatus of the solvent, in which there is at least one stage of establishment of equilibrium, and a continuous circulation loop connecting �the'olonne extraction distillation the column selection of the solvent and apparatus of processing solvent. In some embodiments, the system for the allocation of styrene include organoclay the convoy, which is also part of the continuous circulation loop. In some other embodiments, the system for the allocation of styrene include line feeding additional solvent that is connected to the continuous circulation loop.

For specialists in this field it is obvious that disclosed here are methods and options are only illustrative examples of the invention. Professionals should understand that in light of the present invention in the specific disclosed variants you can make many changes and get the same or similar result without deviating from the essence and scope of the invention.

Based on the above description a person skilled in the art can easily identify the essential features of this invention and without deviating from its essence and scope, can make various changes and modifications to adapt to various scenarios and application conditions. The above options are only illustrative and not intended to limit the scope of the invention, which is defined formula.

1. A method of separating styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent in the system for the allocation of styrene from ibogamine�of styrene raw materials, comprising the following stages:
(a) the supply of enriched styrene feedstock in the extraction column distillation;
(b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream from the extraction column distillation, and enriched with styrene stream contains styrene and solvent extraction;
(c) the supply of enriched styrene raw materials in the column compartment solvent;
(d) the withdrawal of depleted styrene stream from the column separation of the solvent, wherein the amount of styrene in depleted styrene stream is less than in enriched styrene stream;
(e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream;
f) bringing into contact a portion of the depleted styrene stream with an organic solvent in the equilibrium liquid-a liquid having a few equilibrium stages, with the formation of the washed extraction solvent containing the organic light phase and a heavy organic phase, and the light organic phase goes to the next equilibrium stage, and the heavy organic phase is returned to the first equilibrium stage; and
(g) recycling the washed solvent extraction back to the extraction column distillation.

2. A method according to claim 1, in which stage of bringing into contact further includes flushing depleted styrene flow of water.

3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the ratio of water and extraction R�of storytale approximately 4 to approximately 0.2.

4. A method according to claim 1, wherein the extraction solvent is about 0-40% depleted styrene stream.

5. A method according to claim 1, wherein the extraction solvent is about 0-10% depleted styrene stream.

6. A method according to claim 1, wherein the step of bringing into contact is carried out in the equilibrium liquid-liquid comprising at least one stage of establishment of equilibrium.

7. A method according to claim 6, in which there are up to seven stages of establishment of equilibrium.

8. A method according to claim 1, wherein the organic solvent includes at least one hydrocarbon.

9. A method according to claim 1, in which stage of bringing into contact comprises mixing depleted styrene stream with an organic solvent and then mixing with water.

10. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the addition of an extraction solvent at least one additional solvent.

11. A method according to claim 10, wherein at least one additional solvent selected from the group consisting of bizcochada aromatic compounds, ethers of glycol.

12. A method of separating styrene and maintain the effectiveness of the extraction solvent in the system of separation of styrene from a feedstock containing styrene and ethylbenzene, wherein said method includes the following stages:
(a) the supply of raw materials in the column extrac�ionic distillation;
(b) the withdrawal of enriched styrene stream from the extraction column distillation, and enriched with styrene stream contains styrene and solvent extraction;
(C) the supply of enriched styrene flow in the column selection of the solvent;
(d) the withdrawal of depleted styrene stream from the column selection of the solvent, wherein the amount of styrene in depleted styrene stream is less than in enriched styrene stream;
(e) the separation of a part of depleted styrene stream;
f) bringing into contact a portion of the depleted styrene stream by steam with the formation of distilled with water steam extraction of the solvent and nepereshagnuli of the extraction solvent, the equilibrium liquid-a liquid having a few equilibrium stages, and nepregnancy extraction solvent is then washed with an organic solvent and water to form a washed with the extraction solvent containing the organic light phase and a heavy organic phase, and the light organic phase goes to the next equilibrium stage, and the heavy organic phase is returned to the first equilibrium stage; and washed with extraction solvent in return depleted styrene stream for the next operation of the distillation with steam and
(g) recycling the distilled extraction rastvoritelyami to the extraction column distillation.

13. A method according to claim 12, in which the extraction solvent is about 0-40% depleted styrene stream.

14. A method according to claim 12, in which the distillation with steam includes the use organoclay columns for the separation of solvent extraction from depleted styrene stream.

15. A method according to claim 12 in which the step of bringing into contact nepereshagnuli solvent extraction with an organic solvent and water is carried out in the equilibrium liquid-liquid comprising at least one stage of establishment of equilibrium.

16. A method according to claim 12, further comprising the addition of an extraction solvent at least one additional solvent.

17. A method according to claim 16, wherein at least one additional solvent selected from the group consisting of bizcochada aromatic compounds, ethers of glycols.



 

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SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for extraction distillation. Device for extraction distillation of the extract from the flow of raw material comprises the extraction distillation column, raw material flow supply line, solvent supply line, reboiler with internal steam distributor, connected with the extraction distillation column, water steam supply line, connected with the steam distributor, and water steam supply line from the extraction distillation column, connected with the internal steam distributor. The extract is an aromatic hydrocarbon. Reboiler is selected from the group consisting of the kettle boiler, thermosyphon reboiler and reboiler with forced circulation.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of extraction distillation.

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of separating and purification of 1,3-butadiene from the mixture consisting mainly of C4-carbohydrates and containing 1,3-butadiene and C4-carbohydrates that differ from the former by the number of unsaturated bonds and/or α-acetylene protons including at least (an) area(s) of extractive rectification with the polar extractant, denudation and ordinary rectification that is characterized by the fact that at least a polar spirit with the boiling point over 120°C is used as the mentioned extractant; stripping of C4-carbohydrates from the areas of extractive rectification and denudation of the mentioned extractant is performed under the high pressure from 3.5 to 6.5 at, at least into the lower part and/or into the boiler(s) of the extractive rectification area(s) the carbohydrate intermediate desorbent with the boiling point from 27 to 85°C is introduced in the amount that provides its content in the cube(s) of the high pressure denudation area(s) from 3 to 30 % weight; then the intermediate desorbent is stripped from the greater part of the extractant in the low pressure denudation area with 1.0-2.0 at; the extractant is fed back to the upper part of the extractive rectification area(s) and the intermediate desorbent to at least the mentioned point(s) of extractive rectification, and 1,3-butadiene undergoes additional purification from chemical impurities by means of rectification, supposedly with the small amount of extractant.

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing pure 1-butene from C4 hydrocarbon fractions primarily containing 1-butene, 2-butene, and butane(s) with a 1,3-butadiene and isobutene impurity, involving preparation of a mixture primarily containing 2-butenes via rectification, catalytic isomerisation of 2-butenes into 1-butene and extraction of 1-butene via rectification, characterised by that at least catalysed isomerisation of 1-butene into 2-butene in said fraction is carried out at temperature lower than 120°C, as well as rectification with continuous removal of isobutane, isobutene and 1,3-butadiene in the distillate and obtaining a residual stream primarily containing 2-butene and n-butane, in which rectification conditions are maintained such that concentration of 1,3-butadiene and isobutene with respect to the sum of 2-butene is not higher than standard limits in the desired 1-butene. A large portion of n-butane is separated from the residual stream via extractive rectification with a polar agent and catalysed isomerisation of 2-butenes to 1-butene is carried out at temperature higher than 120°C, while continuously extracting the formed 1-butene via rectification.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.

14 cl, 5 ex, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of separating isopentane-isoamylene-isoprene-containing hydrocarbon fractions or butane-butylene-divinyl hydrocarbon fractions obtained at the first step of two-step dehydrogenation of corresponding paraffin hydrocarbons, involving separation of paraffin-olefin-diene fraction obtained at the first dehydrogenation step through extraction rectification, and is characterised by that a vapour stream is extracted from a desorber via lateral collection, where the said vapour stream contains large amount of diene, and after condensation, said stream is taken for extraction of the diene end product at the second extraction rectification step, and an olefin fraction which does not contain diene is collected from the top of the desorber and taken to the second dehydrogenation step.

EFFECT: use of said method increases output of the end product.

1 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to peptides which originate from an antigen recognised by autoantibodies used for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. The peptides are filaggrin molecule fragments which contain modified residues of arginine and having amino acid sequences given in the formula of invention. The invention discloses a method of diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis by detecting autoimmune antibodies using the said peptide(s) through reaction of the latter with the blood serum of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Presence of autoimmune antibodies in the analysed sample is indicated by presence of peptide complexes formed with the antibody.

EFFECT: disclosed peptide has high specificity and sensitivity.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of extracting benzene from mixtures with non-aromatic hydrocarbons, simultaneously obtaining distillate through extractive rectification, characterised by that the selective solvent used is in form of mixtures containing 14.7-48.5 wt % sulfolane or N-formylmorpholine and 48.5-83.3 wt % methylpyrrolidone, containing 2-3 wt % water.

EFFECT: use of given method allows for obtaining benzene, toluene and distillate containing not more than 1-1,5 vol. % benzene, which can be used as a component of motor car fuel or as raw material for pyrolysis process.

1 cl, 1 ex, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of separating alkane and alkene fractions, possibly containing alkadiene impurities, using extraction rectification in the presence of polar extraction agent(s), wherein the basic amount of alkanes comes out in a distillate stream, and the basic amount of alkenes comes out in a strippant stream distilled from the extraction agent. The method is characterised by that before extraction rectification, the larger part of 1-alkene(s) in the alkane and alkene fractions is isomerised and/or hydroisomerised to 2-alkene(s) at temperature not above 100°C in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst(s) with activity during positional isomerisation of alkene, and possibly a small amount of polar substance which does not deactivate the catalyst(s).

EFFECT: more efficient separation of alkane and alkene mixtures through extraction rectification.

11 cl, 13 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes supply of initial mixture and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as separating agent, taken in ratio 7-7.5:1 to initial mixture, into extraction rectification column (1) efficiency 50 t.t., initial mixture being supplied on 30 t.t., separating agent on 10 t.t. of column (plate numeration from top of column), phlegm number in column constitutes 1.5-2, taking of benzol in distillate and mixture benzol-perfluorobenzol (PFB) - tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA)-DMSO from column (1) cube , supply of mixture PFB-TA-DMSO on 25 t.t. of column of separating agent regeneration (2) with efficiency 50 t.t., phlegm number in column being 1-3, removal separating agent from column cube and its supply to column (1), supply of column (2) distillate, representing aseotropic mixture PFB-TAA, for separation into complex of two columns (3) and (4) with efficiency 35 t.t., with removal from column cubes of TAA and PFB, respectively, aesotropic mixture being supplied on 18 t.t. of column (3), phlegm numbers of columns (3) and (4) being equal 0.5-1.5 and 1-2 respectively, re-cycle of aseotrope PFB-TAA, which is separated in distillate of column (4) into column(3) feeding, ratio of re-cycle of column (4) and feeding of column (3) being (1-1.1):0.66, pressure in columns (1)-(3) is 300 mm of mercury, pressure in column (4) - 760 mm of mercury.

EFFECT: simplification of technology, increase of ecological compatibility of process and quality of obtained products.

1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: described is the method of obtaining unrefined 1, 3-butadiene with the help of extractive distillation from C4-fractions, which contain C4-acetylenes as the secondary components, with the use of a selective solvent. The method is achieved in a column with dividing partitions, which contains in the bottom part an evaporator, in which lengthwise there is a dividing partition, which forms the first zone, the second zone and the underlying combined zone of the column, connected along the upper flow with the extractive washing column. Supply of energy to the column with the dividing partition through the lower evaporator is regulated such that from the column with the dividing partition draw off the lower stream, which contains the solvent, saturated with C4-acetylenes, in which the portion of 1, 3-butadiene is limited with the estimation that the 1, 3-butadiene lost is economically acceptable. In this case the lower stream is submitted into the decontaminator for acetylenes, from which C4-acetylenes are removed and the purified solvent is removed from it from the lower stream.

EFFECT: increase in the periods of the operation of the device between the cleaning cycles.

11 cl, 1 tbl, 1dwg, 1ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of separation of starting mixture (A) consisting of two or more constituents, by extractive distillation with the selective solvent (S) within dividing wall column (TKW), is proposed. The separation is performed in the dividing wall column (TKW) having a dividing wall aligned in a longitudinal direction (TW) and extending to an upper end of the column and dividing an interior of the column into first region (1), second region (2), and lower combined column region (3). The starting mixture is fed into first region (1), first top stream (B) is taken off from first region (1), and second top stream (C) is taken off from second region (2), with each of the streams having a prescribed specification. The selective solvent (S) is introduced in an upper part of first region (1) and/or in an upper part of second region (2), and flow of solvent (S1) into the first region (1) and/or flow of solvent (S2) into second region (2) are set so that each of the prescribed specifications for top streams (B, C) are met.

EFFECT: invented method of dividing mixtures is more efficient in terms of energy and solvent consumption.

6 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of alkylaromatic hydrocarbon dehydration, which includes: contact of vapour reagent flow, containing alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and water vapour and having first weight ratio of vapour to alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, with dehydration catalyst with formation of vapour-phase output flow, which contains hydrocarbon product, water vapour and alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, which did not react; supply of, at least, part of output flow into separator for separation of hydrocarbon product from alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, which did not react, removed from separator in form of bottom and main fractions respectively; utilisation of heat of first part f said main fraction by indirect heat-exchange with mixture, containing alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and water, for at least, partial condensation of said part and formation of azeotropic evaporation product, which contains vapour of alkylaromatic comound and water vapour, having second ratio of vapour to alkylaromatic hydrocarbon; and combination of azeotropic evaporation product with additional alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and additional vapour, together or separately, with formation of vapour reagent flow.

EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to use heat of upper separator distillate more effectively.

12 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: one of the method versions includes: bringing a hydrocarbon flow in contact with, at least, one sorbent, which adsorbs, at least, a part of admixtures from the hydrocarbon flow with obtaining a purified hydrocarbon flow; after that, separation of the purified hydrocarbon flow from, at least, one sorbent; then, preliminary processing of, at least, one sorbent before the stage of contact, where the stage of preliminary processing represents manufacturing a sorbent, capable of adsorbing admixtures; where the stage of preliminary preparation includes: a) washing the sorbent with a solvent, b) regulation of pH of the sorbent, present in the solvent to pH higher than 10, c) deaeration of the sorbent, present in the solvent, d) removal of the solvent from the sorbent and e) the sorbent drying. The sorbent represents clay.

EFFECT: application of the claimed invention makes it possible to obtain monomers with an increased stability, prevent the contamination of processing systems and provide more complete reproducibility of polymerisation reactions.

17 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of selective phenylacetylene hydration in presence of sterol, which includes contact of hydrocarbon raw material fraction, which contains phenelecetylene and sterol, with carbon-containing catalyst under conditions of hydration reaction. Content of carbon in carbon-containing catalyst constitutes 0.02-8 wt % with respect to catalyst weight.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to remove phenylacetylene with high degree and low loss of sterol.

10 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene in the presence of styrene which is carried out in a composite layer. The method involves, in hydrogenation reaction conditions, passing a starting hydrocarbon fraction stream containing phenylacetylene and styrene through a composite layer in a reactor containing a catalyst A and a catalyst B to successively bring into contact the starting stream with catalyst A and catalyst B. Catalyst A is a nickel-based catalyst and catalyst B is at least one catalyst selected from a group consisting of a palladium-based catalyst a copper-based catalyst, and the weight ratio of the catalyst A used to the catalyst B used ranges from 0.5:1 to 5:1.

EFFECT: use of the present method provides high degree of removal of phenylacetylene with low loss of styrene.

9 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing styrene by catalytic conversion of the corresponding acetophenone in a flow reactor. The method is characterised by that the process is carried out in a supercritical two-component solvent using a heterogeneous granular catalyst - aluminium oxide Al2O3.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to obtain styrene with high output continuously over a contact time of several minutes.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing styrene and/or substituted styrene from material containing 1-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethanol and/or substituted 1-phenylethanol and substituted 2-phenylethanol. The method involves dehydration of material in gaseous phase at high temperature in the presence of a catalyst containing aluminium oxide particles, having multimodal pore size distribution.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to obtain styrene with sufficient activity for a long period of time.

25 cl, 2 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply for chemical conversion, particularly, to production of olefin, especially, styrene by dehydration of ethyl benzene. Proposed method comprises: overheating of heat transfer fluid, heat transfer from said overheated fluid to initial reaction mix, and separating said heat transfer fluid into first and second parts. It includes also increasing the first part pressure, circulating said first fluid part at pressure to overheating stage and feeding second heat transfer fluid part into initial reaction mix.

EFFECT: operation at low steam-to-oil ratio and temperature.

23 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for liquid-phase oxidation of ethylbenzene to ethylbenzene hydroperoxide, where concentration of ethylbenzene hydroperoxide is kept below 20 wt % with respect to total weight of the reaction mixture and where styrene and/or a styrene derivative is added to ethylbenzene. Concentration of said styrene and/or styrene derivative can range from 0.01 to 5.0 wt %. The styrene derivative is a styrene derivative in which one or more unsubstituted carbon atoms of the styrene have an alkyl group and/or a halogen atom as a substitute. The invention also relates to a method of producing an alkylene oxide, preferably styrene and propyelene oxide.

EFFECT: improved method.

10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of a method of dehydrogenating ethylbenzene to styrene using recycled carbon dioxide. One of the versions includes the following steps: (a) feeding a recycle carbon dioxide stream and a stream containing ethylbenzene into a first oxydedrogenation reactor containing at least one catalyst for converting ethylbenzene to styrene; (b) separating the stream coming out of the oxydehydrogenation reactor into a recycle gas stream containing at least carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, a liquid dehydrogenation product mixture stream and a water-rich stream; (c) feeding the recycle gas stream containing at least carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen and an oxygen-containing stream into at least one oxidation reactor to oxidise carbon monoxide and H2 in the recycle gas stream to obtain the recycle carbon dioxide stream and to heat the recycle carbon dioxide stream; (d) separating the dehydrogenation product mixture stream to extract styrene from the mixture of dehydrogenation products.

EFFECT: method enables to save on power and is environmentally friendly.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of the method to produce styrene monomer from ethylbenzene, one of which includes the following stages: supplying liquid ethylbenzene, as the initial material, into an evaporation apparatus, which may convert liquid ethylbenzene into gaseous ethylbenzene, at the same time the evaporation apparatus produces the overhead product containing gaseous ethylbenzene; supplying the gaseous mixture into the specified evaporation apparatus, at the same time the gaseous mixture includes a certain amount of gas containing carbon dioxide sufficient to reduce ethylbenzene boiling temperature at least by 5°C, where at least some gas is recirculated from processes of catalytic dehydrogenisation or catalytic oxidehydrogenisation; heating of the evaporator, to thus convert liquid ethylbenzene into gaseous ethylbenzene, at the same time gaseous ethylbenzene is extracted in overhead products of the evaporator; and catalytic dehydrogenisation or oxydehydrogenisation of ethylbenzene in evaporated overhead products, to therefore catalytically produce styrene monomer.

EFFECT: invention is a cost-effective and energetic method to produce styrene from ethylbenzene.

9 cl, 4 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for extraction distillation. Device for extraction distillation of the extract from the flow of raw material comprises the extraction distillation column, raw material flow supply line, solvent supply line, reboiler with internal steam distributor, connected with the extraction distillation column, water steam supply line, connected with the steam distributor, and water steam supply line from the extraction distillation column, connected with the internal steam distributor. The extract is an aromatic hydrocarbon. Reboiler is selected from the group consisting of the kettle boiler, thermosyphon reboiler and reboiler with forced circulation.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of extraction distillation.

10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

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