Use of hydrophobic colouring agents for monitoring of presence of pollutants during paper manufacture

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to measurement and control of presence of hydrophobic pollutants. The invention presents a version of a monitoring method of presence of one or more types of hydrophobic pollutants during paper manufacture, which involves the following: a. obtaining a fluid medium sample from the specified paper manufacturing process; b. measurement of turbidity of the specified fluid medium sample; c. selection of a hydrophobic colouring agent capable of interaction with the specified pollutants in the specified fluid medium and fluorescence in the specified fluid medium; d. addition of the specified colouring agent to the specified fluid medium and exposure during the time required for interaction of the specified colouring agent with the specified pollutants in the specified fluid medium; e. measurement of colouring agent fluorescence in the specified fluid medium; and f. setting of correlation between fluorescence of the colouring agent and concentration of the specified pollutants; with that, if turbidity measured at stage (b) is more than 2000 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), then the specified sample is diluted or separated additionally prior to addition of the specified colouring agent at stage (d) and measurement of fluorescence.

EFFECT: invention presents a measurement method of efficiency of one or more chemical reagents reducing the number of one or more hydrophobic pollutants during paper manufacture Quick, accurate and reliable monitoring is achieved.

20 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

 

Field of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to the measurement and control of the presence of hydrophobic contaminants.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Hydrophobic/organic contaminants, such as natural resin, adhesive, sticky substance, and a white resin, are the main interference in the production of paper, since these substances in the allocation during the paper manufacturing process can become undesirable components of the paper mass, and to present a challenge to grinding equipment, interfering with the proper functioning of mechanical parts, in the case of deposition of these substances.

The increased use of recycled fiber, coated paper marriage and mechanical the pulp in the paper manufacturing process contributes to the accumulation of organic pollutants. Such contaminants can form deposits that affect the efficiency of the equipment and the quality of the final product. Monitoring the concentrations of pollutants are typically carried out by chemical binding and, therefore, its effectiveness depends on the ability to determine the appropriate program and its scope. Historically, that common method used to assess the performance of such programs�, there was a decrease in the turbidity of the filtrate. However, this method does not meet fully all the requirements, because it often gives an incomplete picture of the flow of pulp from the hydrophobic particles. Recently in industry for monitoring the presence of hydrophobic contaminants applied flow cytometry. The disadvantages of this method are that it is both demanding and capital-intensive.

Accordingly, a rapid and precise method of measuring the concentration of organic pollutants. For passivation or removal of contaminants, forming sediments that are often used in the chemical control program. For this reason also need a way to monitor the effectiveness of chemical treatments, which lower the total content of hydrophobic contaminants in the manufacturing process of paper.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

Fig.1 shows samples of the pulp, taken from various places in the wet end of the paper machine, as shown. The results show that the turbidity and the hydrophobicity, or the presence of contaminants does not necessarily correlate with each other.

Fig.2 shows the hydrophobicity of the filtrate rough coated and treated paper marriage, filtered through materials with different pore sizes equal to .8, 3, 5, 10 and 76 microns.

Fig.3 shows that various fixer react differently on coated paper marriage. Although the use of various fixer can lead to achieve the same values of turbidity, the samples can vary greatly in the magnitude of hydrophobicity.

BRIEF description of the INVENTION

In the present invention a method of monitoring the presence of one or more types of hydrophobic contaminants in the process of making paper, comprising: (a) obtaining a sample of fluid medium from the paper manufacturing process; (b) selecting a hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid; (C) adding a specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid; (a) measuring the fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; (e) correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants; and (f) may regulate the amount of one or more chemical reagents added to the specified paper manufacturing process, which lowers the content of these pollutants ve�the EU ETS or inactivate them.

The present invention also proposes a method of measuring the effectiveness of one or more chemical reagents, reducing the amount of one or more hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process: (a) monitoring one or more kinds of pollutants in the process of making paper comprising: obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of making paper; selecting a hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid medium; add the specified dye to said fluid and soak over time sufficient for interaction of the specified dye with said contaminants in said fluid; measuring the fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; and establishing a correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants; (b) introduction in addition to the above process of making paper of one or more chemical reagents that reduce the number of such hydrophobic contaminants in the process of making paper; (C) re-measurement of the amount of pollutants in the process of making paper by performing with�adiya's (a) at least once; and (a) may regulate the number of said chemical reagents are added to the specified paper manufacturing process.

The present invention also proposes a method of monitoring one or more hydrophobic contaminants and determine the size of these hydrophobic contaminants in the process of making paper, comprising: (a) obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of manufacture of paper; (b) selecting a hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid; (C) adding a specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid; (d) measurement of fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; (e) correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants; (f) ensuring the passage of a sample, which was measured at the stage (d), through a medium that is able to divide the sample of one or more water fractions at least once; (g) measuring the fluorescence of the aqueous fractions obtained in stage (f), the specified pattern at least once; (h) Oprah�for the same size of hydrophobic pollutants contained in the aqueous fractions; (i) possible correlation between the fluorescence of the dye in aqueous fractions and the concentration of these hydrophobic contaminants in aqueous fractions; and perhaps the regulation of the number of one or more chemical reagents are added to the specified paper manufacturing process, which lowers the content of these contaminants or inactivating them.

The present invention also proposes a method of monitoring one or more hydrophobic contaminants and determine the size of these hydrophobic contaminants in the process of making paper, comprising: (a) obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of manufacture of paper; (b) selecting a hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid; (C) adding a specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid; (d) measurement of fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; (e) correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants; (f) f�nitrovanie sample, which was measured at the stage (d) at least once through at least one filter, wherein the filter has one or more pores of known size; (g) measuring the fluorescence of the filtrate obtained in stage (f), the specified pattern at least once; (h) determining the amount of hydrophobic contaminants contained in the filtrate, and possibly in the concentrate obtained at that stage filtration; (i) may the correlation between the fluorescence of the dye in the filtrate and/or rejected product and the concentration of these hydrophobic contaminants in the filtrate; and (j) may regulate the amount of one or more chemical reagents introduced in addition to the above process of making paper, which lowers the content of these contaminants or inactivate them.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

“The paper manufacturing process” means a method of producing any kind of paper products (e.g., paper, thin wrapping paper, cardboard, etc.) from the pulp, including the production of aqueous cellulose pulp, dewatering paper pulp with the formation of a paper web and drying the paper web. The stage of obtaining paper pulp, dewatering and drying can be performed by any method, in General, known from�ecialist in the art. The paper manufacturing process may include the step of producing a fibrous mass, such as the pulping of wood raw material and bleaching stage, for example chemical treatment of the fibrous mass to improve whiteness. Paper pulp can contain fillers and/or other contaminants.

“Gross sample” means a sample whose components are not specifically separated, except that the gross sample may be subjected to separation on the basis of size. For example, the gross sample is subjected to separation, for example, of resin particles from the suspension.

“Solvatochromic dye” is a dye that has a varying optical density and/or wavelength of the fluorescent radiation, depending on the polarity of its environment.

“Fluid” includes aqueous paper slurry from the paper manufacturing process, for example the fluid containing fibers, at the stage of producing a fibrous mass, liquid paper, thick paper, an aqueous suspension extracted in the process of obtaining paper, for example, from different parts of the paper machine or in the process of producing a fibrous mass of aqueous fluid into sunomono type OLE, section dewatering by compaction and/or in any part of the process of making paper, in which�Oh, according to the ordinary person skilled in the art, should monitor hydrophobic contaminants.

As indicated above, the present invention proposes a method of monitoring one or more types of hydrophobic contaminants in the process of making paper by applying fluorescence.

Hydrophobic dyes which are added to the sample, should be able to dye hydrophobic contaminants, such as particles of resin, or interact with them.

According to one embodiment of the invention, the method of monitoring of hydrophobic dyes essentially consists of the items described above.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the fluid is an aqueous filtrate of the pulp suspension.

According to another implementation variant of the invention also measure the turbidity of the fluid. According to an additional embodiment of the invention, the specified turbidity of the fluid is measured before adding the chemical reagents and thereafter.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the fluid is filtered or diluted or doing both before the specified addition of the specified dye or the fluorescent measurement of the specified dye, wherein the said filtration or R�zyavlenie specified fluid medium allows the monitoring of the specified fluid fluorimetric method.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the sample is taken from the diluted sample of the fluid taken during the paper manufacturing process, for example from the paper machine. According to an additional embodiment of the invention, the sample fluid is a white water from the paper manufacturing process. The reasoning explaining the selection and/or such a point of selection, is the lack of long fibers/essentially any fiber, therefore, filtering may not be necessary.

According to another embodiment of the invention, one or more samples subjected to the stage of sieving/separation to separate the long fibers from suspended contaminants in the studied solution. For example, the degree of dilution, which is exposed to the filtrate/water fraction obtained in the separation process depends on two factors, both relate to turbidity. If the filtrate/water fraction is too muddy for measurements in the nephelometer, required dilution to bring the turbidity of the measuring range suitable for this measuring device. This is the case, if the user does not wish to use a less accurate and “fast and rough” test, which represents one embodiment of the claimed invention.

�according to another embodiment of the invention, if the turbidity is greater than 2000 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units), more preferable embodiment, when the sample obtained in the process of making paper, dilute/further separated before adding the dye and measuring the fluorescence. The value of 2000 NTU may depend on instrumentation or methods of measurement.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the dye is selected from the group consisting of 9-diethylamino-5H-benzo[alpha]phenoxazine-5-on, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfamoylanthranilic, pyrene, 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, Reichardt dye, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phthalimide, bromonaphthalene, 2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene and combinations thereof.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the dye is solvatochromic dye.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the dye does not include N-(n-butyl)-4-(n-butylamino)-naphthalimide.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the fluid produced from the wet part of the paper manufacturing process.

As indicated above, the dye added to the sample before measuring its fluorescence must have sufficient time to interact with said contaminants in said fluid medium. One of ordinary skill in this area� equipment may determine the time, sufficient for the specified interaction, without undue experimentation.

According to one embodiment of the invention, the dye is mixed with a solvent before adding to said fluid medium. One of ordinary skill in the art can determine the appropriate time for mixing without excessive experimentation.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the pollutant selected from the group consisting of resins, fibers, filler, fine fibres, coated paper marriage, the factory paper marriage, recycle product, wood fibers, the pulp thermomechanical, chemi-thermomechanical fiber, chemical fiber, deinked pulp, printing inks, adhesives, adhesives, sticky substances, waxes, binders and dissolved and/or colloidal substances, and combinations thereof.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the proposed method is a method in on-line and/or method of sampling from the party.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the fluorometric measurement is performed at a predetermined mode, in an intermittent and/or continuous mode. For example, a flow cell can be used as a tool for the measurement of fluorescence �specified hydrophobic contaminants. More specifically, according to one embodiment of the invention, the measuring method includes adding one or more fluorescent indicator to the sample from the paper manufacturing process before measuring its fluorescence at a specified flow cell. One of ordinary skill in the art is able to carry out this process without undue experimentation. For example, the specialist may use the methods of flow-injection analysis and/or sequential injection analysis for performing the above measurement Protocol.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the fluorometric measurement is performed with a portable fluorimeter. The fluorescence measurement can be performed using other types of fluorimeters.

The present invention also proposes a method of measuring the effectiveness of one or more chemical reagents, reducing the amount of one or more hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process. Information on the number of hydrophobic contaminants in a fluid environment can be used to create a control loop for adding one or more chemical reagents that can be used to regulate the amount of hydrophobic contaminants.

According to one implementation variant invent�ia a methodology for monitoring hydrophobic contaminants can be estimated using the above methodology for measuring fluorescence and various options for its implementation.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the determination of the fluorescence is carried out using the above-mentioned Protocol, then after this stage, the introduction in addition to the paper manufacturing process one or more chemical reagents for processing a hydrophobic contaminants, for example, increase/decrease of the same chemical composition for the suppression of hydrophobic contaminants or the change of the chemical treatment composition for suppression of hydrophobic contaminants, and then after the processing stage of the re-measurement of the amount of pollutants in the process of making paper with the use of the above-mentioned Protocol.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the chemical reactants are at least one of the following substances: a retainer; an agent for reducing viscosity; dispersing agent; a surfactant; and a substance for increasing the retention.

The present invention also proposes a method of monitoring hydrophobic contaminants and determine the size of these hydrophobic contaminants in the manufacturing process of paper.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a methodology for monitoring hydrophobic contaminants can be assessed using�th above methodology fluorescence and various options for its implementation.

According to another embodiment of the invention, the aqueous fraction containing one or more suspended solids or one or more particles.

According to another implementation variant of the invention, the medium, is able to separate, is a centrifuge, a filter or a combination of both.

You can use various types of equipment/methods, filters, for example filters with different pore sizes can be used to separate components based on size.

EXAMPLES

A. Standard test method for

MEASUREMENT of FLUORESCENCE of the FILTRATE COATED PAPER MARRIAGE

I. Equipment: used fluorimetric installation Turner Designs Aquafluor® green optical channel (A).

II. Calibration: fluorimetric installation Aquafluor calibrated by measuring the fluorescence of a solution containing 30 ppm Nile red dye in alcohol (3 microliter of 0.01% of the mass. solution of Nile red dye in 3 ml of ethanol). The instrument was installed fluorescent radiation is equal to 600 units, and fluorescent radiation of deionized water was measured and used as a "blank sample".

III. Processing of coated paper marriage: After the procedure of processing of coated paper marriage, as described in the table (the propeller in the vessel Britta was used for mixing lumanog� marriage), the filtrate was diluted to obtain turbidity readings on the scale.

The parameters of the procedure of processing of coated paper marriage
The timing sequence
t=0Start
t=10The addition of coagulant
t=30Termination & Filter
The leachate collection within 60 seconds and check weight
Installation options
150 g sample @ ~3.5% of the mass.
500 rpm.min
The sieve of 100 mesh (diameter 3”)
Perform appropriate dilution of the filtrate to read turbidity

IV. Measurement of fluorescence:

1. After measuring the turbidity of the diluted solution was placed 3 ml of the diluted filtrate coated paper marriage in a disposable cuvette and included the installation of Aquafluor.

2. Rubbing the outer side of the cell does not leave scratches wipe the cuvette was placed in the mouth�free Aquafluor, closed the lid, pressed the read button and record background fluorescence.

3. Added to 6 microliters of 0.01% solution of Nile red dye in alcohol into the cell. Well-mixed. Rubbing the outer side of the cell does not leave scratches cloth.

4. The cuvette was placed in the installation Aquafluor, closed the lid, pressed the read button and record the raw result of measurement of fluorescence.

5. After the sample was discarded. The cuvette was thrown, if it is impossible to clean.

6. Repeated the test for all samples.

7. Subtracted the background fluorescence from the fluorescence of the sample to obtain the corrected values of fluorescence.

V. data Analysis: Data can be charted on a graph in various ways, including:

1. % reduction of hydrophobicity (decrease in fluorescence) relative to the polymer dose;

2. The curve of turbidity relative fluorescence for each dose

V. Examples

In the following examples applied the above “Standard test procedure for measurement of fluorescence.

Example 1

Samples of pulp were taken from various locations in the wet end of the paper machine, as shown in Fig.1. Long fibers were removed from the sample by passing the sample through a 150-micron sieve. Measured the turbidity of the filtrate followed�m by measuring the fluorescence of the filtrate after adding 6 microliters of 0.01% of the mass. Nile red dye in alcohol to 3 ml of the filtrate. The results shown in Fig.1, indicate that the turbidity and the hydrophobicity, or the presence of contaminants does not necessarily correlate with each other.

Example 2

Preparation of coated paper marriage: Coated paper marriage prepared from the dry coated paper, cut into pieces of size 1.5×1.5 square inches. 140 g of dry coated paper marriage were soaked for 20 minutes in 3,860 ml of artificial tap water to achieve a concentration of 3.5 wt%. Then the sample was transferred to pulper Adirondack with a capacity of four litres and by setting pulper in position "5", once again received the fibrous mass within 90 minutes.

Fig.2 shows the hydrophobicity of the filtrate rough coated and treated paper marriage, filtered through materials with different pore sizes equal to 0.8, 3, 5, 10, and 76 microns. The measured fluorescence of each of the filtrates indicates what range of particle sizes provides the highest level of hydrophobic particles. The graph also indicates the absence of agglomeration white resin when adding locations. The locking mechanism lowers the overall hydrophobicity while maintaining the profile of distribution of particles by size.

Example 3

This method of hydrophobicity test was used with a�Yu evaluation of potential treatment programs for sample coated paper marriage.

Testing method:

1. Prepare the fixative solution with a concentration of 0.3-0.5 wt%. in the form of the product.

2. Set the mixing speed in the vessel Britta at 500 rpm.min.

3. Add 200 ml of coated paper marriage in a beaker with a capacity of 400 ml.

4. Insert the screw of the vessel Britta in paper marriage, include vessel-mixer Britta and simultaneously include the stopwatch.

5. Add the coagulant, using the following sequence of mixing:

t=0, the faucet

t=10 seconds, add the coagulant

t=30 seconds, stop the mixer, stop and re-enable the timer.

6. Put all treated paper pulp in the sieve of 100-mesh, placed in a beaker with a capacity of 400 ml, and includes a stopwatch. After filtration, remove the sieve from the glass and control the time filtering.

7. Measure the turbidity of the filtrate, using a nephelometer. If the turbidity of the filtrate is outside the range, the filtrate is diluted. The same dilution should be used for each of the filtrates from paper mass containing polymer, to assess the relative performance of polymers.

8. Take 3 ml of the diluted filtrate and add 3 microliter of 0.01% of the mass. Nile red dye in alcohol and measure the fluorescence.

9. Repeat stage 3-8 without treatment floors�Merom (blank solution).

Fig.3 shows that different fixatives react on coated paper marriage differently. Although the same turbidity can be achieved using a variety of clamps, hydrophobicity varies considerably among the samples.

1. Method of monitoring the presence of one or more types of hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process, including:
a. obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of making paper;
b. the turbidity measurement of the specified sample of the fluid;
c. the choice of hydrophobic dye capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid;
d. adds the specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid;
e. measurement of fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; and
f. the correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these contaminants, in this case, if the turbidity measured at the stage (b), is more than 2000 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), the sample is diluted or further separated before adding the specified dye at the stage (d) and measure f�uorescence..

2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising a throttling of one or more chemical agents that are added during said process of making paper, which lowers the content of these contaminants or inactivate them.

3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that the specified turbidity of the fluid is measured before adding or after adding the chemical reagents.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that said dye is selected from the group consisting of 9-diethylamino-5H-benzo[alpha]phenoxazine-5-on, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfamoylanthranilic, pyrene, 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, Reichardt dye, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phthalimide, bromonaphthalene, 2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene and combinations thereof.

5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that said dye does not include N-(n-butyl)-4-(n-butylamino)-naphthalimide.

6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that said dye is solvatochromic dye.

7. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified fluid medium is prepared from a wet part of the paper manufacturing process.

8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the fluorometric measurement is performed at a predetermined mode, periodic mode and/or continuous mode.

9. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the code�connected fluid is an aqueous filtrate of the pulp suspension.

10. Method of measuring the effectiveness of one or more chemical reagents, reducing the amount of one or more hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process, including:
a. monitoring the presence of one or more kinds of pollutants in the process of making paper comprising: obtaining a sample of the fluid used in the process of making paper; selecting a hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid medium; add the specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid; measuring the fluorescence of the dye in said fluid; and establishing a correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these contaminants;
b. add at the end of the paper manufacturing process one or more chemical reagents that reduce the number of such hydrophobic contaminants in the course of the said process of making paper; and
c. repeated measurement of the amount of pollutants in the process of making paper by vypolneniyasvoey (a) at least once.

11. A method according to claim 10, further comprising regulating the amount of these chemicals that are added during said process of making paper.

12. A method according to claim 10, characterized in that said reagents are at least one of the following substances: a retainer; an agent for reducing viscosity; dispersing agent; a surfactant; and a substance for increasing the retention.

13. Method of monitoring the presence of one or more hydrophobic contaminants and determine the size of these hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process, including:
a. obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of making paper;
b. the choice of the hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid;
c. adds the specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid;
d. measurement of fluorescence of the dye in said fluid;
e. the correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants;
f. prop�the Scania sample, which was measured at the stage (d), using a tool that is able to divide the sample of one or more water fractions at least once;
g. measurement of fluorescence of the aqueous fractions of the specified sample, obtained at stage (f) at least once; and
h. determination of the amount of hydrophobic contaminants contained in the aqueous fractions.

14. A method according to claim 13, further comprising establishing a correlation between the fluorescence of the dye in aqueous fractions and the concentration of these hydrophobic contaminants in aqueous fractions.

15. A method according to any one of claims. 13 or 14, further comprising a throttling of one or more chemical agents that are added during said process of making paper, which lowers the content of these contaminants or inactivate them.

16. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that said water fraction contain one or more suspended solids or one or more particles.

17. A method according to claim 14, characterized in that the tool is able to separate, is a centrifuge, a filter or a combination of both.

18. Method of monitoring the presence of one or more hydrophobic contaminants and determine the size of these hydrophobic contaminants in the paper manufacturing process, including: a. obtaining a sample of fluid from the specified process of making paper;
b. the choice of the hydrophobic dye that is capable of interacting with said contaminants in said fluid and to fluorescamine in said fluid;
c. adds the specified dye to said fluid and soak for a sufficient time for the specified interaction of the dye with said contaminants in said fluid;
d. measurement of fluorescence of the dye in said fluid;
e. the correlation between the fluorescence of the dye and the concentration of these pollutants;
f. filtration of the sample, which was measured at the stage (d) at least once through at least one filter, wherein the filter has one or more pores of known size;
g. measurement of fluorescence of the filtrate indicated the sample of step (f) at least once; and
h. determination of the amount of hydrophobic contaminants contained in the filtrate, and possibly in the concentrate obtained at specified stages of filtration.

19. A method according to claim 18, further comprising establishing a correlation between the fluorescence of the dye in the filtrate and/or rejected product and the concentration of these hydrophobic pollutant�known substances in the filtrate.

20. A method according to any one of claims. 18 or 19, further comprising regulating the amount of one or more chemical agents that are added during said process of making paper, which lowers the content of these contaminants or inactivate them.



 

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15 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry of organometallic compounds, particularly to alkynyl phosphine gold-copper complexes which dissociate in a solution to form ions. The gold-copper alkynyl phosphine complexes are capable of forming covalent conjugates with proteins, thereby turning into a water-soluble form, exhibit luminescent properties and can be used as labels for fluorescence microscopy and in luminescent analysis.

EFFECT: improved properties of the compounds.

5 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises a fluorescent-reflective spectrometer, which includes an illumination system and spectrometric system connected to a Y-shaped fibre-optic probe. The apparatus is further provided with two channels, one of which intended for supplying liquid to the investigated organ to wash off blood and is connected to a pump, and the other channel is intended for sucking the liquid and blood from the investigated organ and is connected to a pump. Both channels and the distal end of the fibre-optic probe are placed in a ferrule to form a fibre-optic probe. The ferrule is in the form of a metal cylinder with a socket at the end which is adjacent to the investigated organ.

EFFECT: high accuracy and consistency of measurement results, enabling investigation of the heart within the body.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology and represents method of spectral analysis of fluorescent properties of DNA nucleotide successions. Claimed invention can be applied for genetic diagnostics, research of mitogenetic irradiation of cells, study of coding hereditary and proliferative information. Method includes preparation of water solutions of dyes of basic fluorescence colours. Background fluorescence of dye is measured in respective detection channels by means of fluorescent detector FDG-001. DNA sample is added to dye solution in quantity 150-200 ng. Fluorescence of dye solutions is measured. Results of analysis are registered in form of presentation of values in conventional units of positive or negative increase of fluorescence of dyes relative to their initial background before addition of DNA sample in form of building columnar diagrams or curves of signal growth dynamics in time. Results of dye fluorescence growth are interpreted.

EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to determine nucleotide rebuildings of telomeric DNA ends, point mutations, polymorphisms of gens, chromosome rebuildings, and change of karyotype or cell genome.

15 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of molecular biology and biochemistry. A device consists of a light source, the radiation of which is directed on a transparent substrate with oligonucleotides immobilised on its surface and a system of detecting the intensity of light, which passed through the substrate, located under it. The substrate contains at least two zones, with a layer of oligonucleotides, non-specific to the nucleotide sequence under study, being immobilised on the surface of one of them, and a layer of nucleotides, specific to the nucleotide sequence under study, being immobilised on the surface of the other zone. The detection system contains at least two photosensitive independent sections, each of which is illuminated by the radiation, which passed through only one zone.

EFFECT: device makes it possible to carry out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nucleotide sequences, increases the accuracy of the identification of the nucleotide sequences.

3 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring method of variations of fluorescence intensity of voltage-sensitive fluorochrome depending on a potential gradient or ionic strength, which involves addition to the voltage-sensitive fluorochrome of an ionising compound to induce variation of potential or ionic strength, as well as addition of vitamin E and/or cholesterol to increase variation of potential or ionic strength as to voltage-sensitive fluorochrome. Besides, the invention relates to a potential measuring method of actions of cultivated cardiomyocytes.

EFFECT: invention provides measurement of fluorescence intensity of voltage-sensitive fluorochromes or voltage-dependent quantitative variations of their fluorescence intensity without using any such materials (membrane carriers), as cells or two-layer lipidic liposomes.

10 cl, 3 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when determining content of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) vapour in urban air, air in residential facilities, chemical laboratories, filling stations and oil processing enterprises, in gas emissions of industrial plants. The method of determining concentration of benzene, toluene and xylene vapour in a gaseous mixture comprises placing material containing boron difluoride dibenzoylmethane (BF2DBM) fluorophore or a methyl- or methoxy derivative thereof into the gas mixture, illuminating the material with light in the wavelength range of 355-400 nm and measuring fluorescence intensity of the material in the wavelength range of 400-550 nm. Unlike the existing method, measurement is carried out on not less than two spectral channels, wherein the number of channels is selected not less than the number of determined components in the mixture plus one. The measured values are then used to calculate relative intensity of spectra of the fluorophore and exciplexes thereof with benzene, toluene and xylene. Concentration of benzene, toluene and xylene is then determined from the ratio of intensities of the corresponding exciplex to the intensity of BF2DBM.

EFFECT: simultaneous continuous selective measurement of benzene, toluene and xylene in gaseous mixtures in a wide range of concentrations with short reaction time.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biochemistry. Claimed is a method of evaluating cell viability in a microbioreactor by means of an optical light guide. The method includes the placement of cells into a membrane compartment of a replaceable cell unit of the microbioreactor, application of a working solution of a vital dye, introduction of the dye into the microbioreactor compartment. After the introduction incubation of the cells in the vital dye solution and removal of the vital dye solution, which has not bound with the cells, are performed. Removal is performed by the replacement of the incubation solution with a growth medium, which does not contain dye. The optical light guide, connected to a spectrometer, is brought into contact with an optically transparent material with the replaceable cell unit under the membrane compartment of the microbioreactor. After that, the support spectrum of a fluorescent signal is measured as an integral of the intensity of fluorescence on the membrane compartment of the microbioreactor, in which the cells to be analysed are absent. Also measured is the spectrum of the fluorescent signal as the integral of the intensity of fluorescence on the membrane compartment of the microbioreactor with the analysed cells. After that, the support spectrum of the fluorescent signal for the membrane compartment of the microbioreactor without the cells to be analysed is subtracted from the obtained spectrum of the fluorescent signal for the membrane compartment with the analysed cells. The quantity of the viable cells in the membrane compartment of the microbioreactor is calculated on the basis of the obtained value of the fluorescence signal intensity.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to quickly determine viability of the cells under an impact of influencing factors in a real time mode in the microbioreactor.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of bis(2,4,7,8,9-pentamethyldipyrrolylmethen-3-yl)methane dihydrobromide as fluorescent zinc (ii) cation sensor.

EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase fluorescent activity of heterocyclic organic compound with respect to zinc (II) ion in presence of other ions of metals.

1 tbl, 40 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of DNA sequencing, in particular, to the DNA sequencing with the use of time-controlled fluorescence determination for identification of DNA bases The device comprises a field of embedding for containment of the sequencing reaction components, light sources featuring a capability of emitting the light pulse of a definite wave length, detector pixel, detector, output featuring a capability of transmitting an electric signal from the detector pixel, gating means for detector gating, at that, the detector pixel comprises additionally the first and the second storage batteries The first storage battery is provided with a capability of accumulating electric signal from the detector in response to the first light pulse, while the second storage battery is provided with a capability of accumulating electric signal from the detector in response to the second light pulse.

EFFECT: increased rate of receiving sequencing results.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves taking bone tissue fragment sample in area under examination, measuring relative laser luminescence level. The obtained values are compared to normal bone tissue characteristics. Quantitative reduction of mineral composition being found relative to reference value in normal state is diagnosed by interpreting spectral characteristics in diagnostic bandwidth of 350-550 nm.

EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.

2 dwg

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